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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
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Articles by Karen M. Helm in JoVE
בידוד & אפיון Hoechst נמוך CD45 שלילי עכבר mesenchymal ריאות בתאי גזע
Kelsey S. Chow1,2, DuHyun Jun1,2, Karen M. Helm3, David H. Wagner1,2,4, Susan M. Majka1,2,3
1Charles C. Gates Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Biology Program, University of Colorado Denver, 2Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, 3Cancer Center, University of Colorado Denver, 4Webb Waring Institute, University of Colorado Denver
במאמר זה אנו מדגימים את הבידוד של Murine ריאות תושב בתאי גזע mesenchymal (ריאות MSC), הרחבה שלהם, אפיון וניתוח של מאפייני המערכת החיסונית.
Other articles by Karen M. Helm on PubMed
Identification of Novel Resident Pulmonary Stem Cells: Form and Function of the Lung Side Population
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15987674
Resident lung stem cells function to replace all lineages of pulmonary tissue, including mesenchyme, epithelium, and vasculature. The phenotype of the lung side population (SP) cells is currently under investigation; their function is currently unknown. Recent data suggest lung SP cells are an enriched tissue-specific source of organ-specific pulmonary precursors and, therefore, a source of adult stem cells. The adult lung SP cell population has been isolated and characterized for expression of markers indicative of stem cell, epithelial, and mesenchymal lineages. These studies determined that the adult mouse lung SP has epithelial and mesenchymal potential that resides within a CD45- mesenchymal subpopulation, as well as limited hematopoietic ability, which resides in the bone marrow-derived CD45+ subpopulation. The ability to identify these adult lung precursor cells allows us to further study the potential of these cells and their role in the regulation of tissue homeostasis and response to injury. The identification of this target population will potentially allow earlier treatment and, long term, a functional restoration of injured pulmonary tissue and lung health.
Canine Hemangiosarcoma Originates from Hematopoietic Precursors with Potential for Endothelial Differentiation
Experimental Hematology. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16797414
Two competing hypotheses can be formulated regarding the origin of canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA). One states HSA originates from differentiated vascular endothelial cells that undergo mutations which endow them with malignant potential. The other states HSA originates from transformed hemangioblastic stem cells. This study was designed to begin to distinguish between these possibilities, as well as to test if flow cytometry was sufficiently sensitive to detect malignant cells in blood samples from dogs with HSA.
Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy : CII. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18523772
The survival of naive T cells is compromised in the absence of molecules encoded by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) while antigen-experienced T cells survive. We hypothesized that survival pressures in an in vivo, MHC-deficient environment would permit enrichment of less frequent antigen-experienced autoreactive cells at the expense of the majority of antigen naive T cells. To test this hypothesis, we generated MHC class I- and class II-deficient mice in NOD and C57Bl/6 (B6) backgrounds, and examined the capacity of adoptively transferred autoimmune-prone NOD T cells, or non-autoimmune prone naive B6 T cells, respectively, to reject transplanted wild-type pancreatic islets or transplantable tumors in the MHC-deficient mice. In the MHC-deficient environment, CD4 T cells acquired self-hostile properties (islet rejection and tumor invasion) that were independent from their genetic propensity for autoreactivity, while CD8 T cells required appropriate prior exposure to antigen in order to survive and function (reject tumor) in this environment; however, disengagement of Tob1, a negative regulator of proliferation, led to a reverse phenotype with regard to persistence of CD4 and CD8 T cells in the MHC-deficient environment. Our data suggest that self-peptide/MHC interactions have dual roles to facilitate survival and restrain autoreactivity, thus acting as integral components of an intrinsic network of negative regulation that maintains tolerance.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19896492
The capacity of nicotine to affect the behavior of non-neuronal cells through neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) has been the subject of considerable recent attention. Previously, we showed that exposure to nicotine activates the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) transcription factor in lymphocytes and endothelial cells, leading to alterations in cellular growth and vascular endothelial growth factor production. Here, we extend these studies to document effects of nicotine on lymphocyte survival. The data show that nicotine induces paradoxical effects that might alternatively enforce survival or trigger apoptosis, suggesting that depending on timing and context, nicotine might act both as a survival factor or as an inducer of apoptosis in normal or transformed lymphocytes, and possibly other non-neuronal cells. In addition, our results show that, while having overlapping functions, low and high affinity nAChRs also transmit signals that promote distinct outcomes in lymphocytes. The sum of our data suggests that selective modulation of nAChRs might be useful to regulate lymphocyte activation and survival in health and disease.
De Novo Generation of White Adipocytes from the Myeloid Lineage Via Mesenchymal Intermediates is Age, Adipose Depot, and Gender Specific
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20679227
It is generally assumed that white adipocytes arise from resident adipose tissue mesenchymal progenitor cells. We challenge this paradigm by defining a hematopoietic origin for both the de novo development of a subset of white adipocytes in adults and a previously uncharacterized adipose tissue resident mesenchymal progenitor population. Lineage and cytogenetic analysis revealed that bone marrow progenitor (BMP)-derived adipocytes and adipocyte progenitors arise from hematopoietic cells via the myeloid lineage in the absence of cell fusion. Global gene expression analysis indicated that the BMP-derived fat cells are bona fide adipocytes but differ from conventional white or brown adipocytes in decreased expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and lipid oxidation, and increased inflammatory gene expression. The BMP-derived adipocytes accumulate with age, occur in higher numbers in visceral than in subcutaneous fat, and in female versus male mice. BMP-derived adipocytes may, therefore, account in part for adipose depot heterogeneity and detrimental changes in adipose metabolism and inflammation with aging and adiposity.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21131442
Tissue-specific stem cell (TSC) behavior is determined by the stem cell niche. However, delineation of the TSC-niche interaction requires purification of both entities. We reasoned that the niche could be defined by the location of the TSC. We demonstrate that a single CD49f(bright)/Sca1(+)/ALDH(+) basal cell generates rare label-retaining cells and abundant label-diluting cells. Label-retaining and label-diluting cells were located in the rimmed domain of a unique clone type, the rimmed clone. The TSC property of self-renewal was tested by serial passage at clonal density and analysis of clone-forming cell frequency. A single clone could be passaged up to five times and formed only rimmed clones. Thus, rimmed clone formation was a cell-intrinsic property. Differentiation potential was evaluated in air-liquid interface cultures. Homogenous cultures of rimmed clones were highly mitotic but were refractory to standard differentiation signals. However, rimmed clones that were cocultured with unfractionated tracheal cells generated each of the cell types found in the tracheal epithelium. Thus, the default niche is promitotic: Multipotential differentiation requires adaptation of the niche. Because lung TSCs are typically evaluated after injury, the behavior of CD49f(bright)/Sca1(+)/ALDH(+) cells was tested in normal and naphthalene-treated mice. These cells were mitotically active in the normal and repaired epithelium, their proliferation rate increased in response to injury, and they retained label for 34 days. We conclude that the CD49f(bright)/Sca1(+)/ALDH(+) tracheal basal cell is a TSC, that it generates its own niche in vitro, and that it participates in tracheal epithelial homeostasis and repair.