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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Karthik Mallilankaraman in JoVE
Visualisering af Vascular Ca 2 + Signaling Triggered ved Paracrine Afledte ROS
Karthik Mallilankaraman1, Rajesh Kumar Gandhirajan1, Brian J. Hawkins2, Muniswamy Madesh1
1Department of Biochemistry, Temple University, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, University of Washington
En effektiv metode til at få indblik i at visualisere paracrine-afledte ROS induktion af endothel Ca2 + signalering er beskrevet. Denne metode benytter sig af at måle paracrine afledt ROS udløst Ca2 + mobilisering i vaskulære endotelceller i en co-kultur model.
Other articles by Karthik Mallilankaraman on PubMed
The Journal of Cell Biology. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20679432
Oxidant stress influences many cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and cell death. A well-recognized link between these processes and oxidant stress is via alterations in Ca(2+) signaling. However, precisely how oxidants influence Ca(2+) signaling remains unclear. Oxidant stress led to a phenotypic shift in Ca(2+) mobilization from an oscillatory to a sustained elevated pattern via calcium release-activated calcium (CRAC)-mediated capacitive Ca(2+) entry, and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1)- and Orai1-deficient cells are resistant to oxidant stress. Functionally, oxidant-induced Ca(2+) entry alters mitochondrial Ca(2+) handling and bioenergetics and triggers cell death. STIM1 is S-glutathionylated at cysteine 56 in response to oxidant stress and evokes constitutive Ca(2+) entry independent of intracellular Ca(2+) stores. These experiments reveal that cysteine 56 is a sensor for oxidant-dependent activation of STIM1 and demonstrate a molecular link between oxidant stress and Ca(2+) signaling via the CRAC channel.
A Highly Optimized DNA Vaccine Confers Complete Protective Immunity Against High-dose Lethal Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Challenge
Vaccine. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21238574
Protection against infection is the hallmark of immunity and the basis of effective vaccination. For a variety of reasons there is a great demand to develop new, safer and more effective vaccine platforms. In this regard, while 'first-generation' DNA vaccines were poorly immunogenic, new genetic 'optimization' strategies and the application of in vivo electroporation (EP) have dramatically boosted their potency. We developed a highly optimized plasmid DNA vaccine that expresses the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) nucleocapsid protein (NP) and evaluated it using the LCMV challenge model, a gold standard for studying infection and immunity. When administered intramuscularly with EP, robust NP-specific cellular and humoral immune responses were elicited, the magnitudes of which approached those following acute LCMV infection. Furthermore, these responses were capable of providing 100% protection against a high-dose, normally lethal virus challenge. This is the first non-infectious vaccine conferring complete protective immunity up to 8 weeks after vaccination and demonstrates the potential of 'next-generation' DNA vaccines.
A DNA Vaccine Against Chikungunya Virus is Protective in Mice and Induces Neutralizing Antibodies in Mice and Nonhuman Primates
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21264351
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne alphavirus indigenous to tropical Africa and Asia. Acute illness is characterized by fever, arthralgias, conjunctivitis, rash, and sometimes arthritis. Relatively little is known about the antigenic targets for immunity, and no licensed vaccines or therapeutics are currently available for the pathogen. While the Aedes aegypti mosquito is its primary vector, recent evidence suggests that other carriers can transmit CHIKV thus raising concerns about its spread outside of natural endemic areas to new countries including the U.S. and Europe. Considering the potential for pandemic spread, understanding the development of immunity is paramount to the development of effective counter measures against CHIKV. In this study, we isolated a new CHIKV virus from an acutely infected human patient and developed a defined viral challenge stock in mice that allowed us to study viral pathogenesis and develop a viral neutralization assay. We then constructed a synthetic DNA vaccine delivered by in vivo electroporation (EP) that expresses a component of the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein and used this model to evaluate its efficacy. Vaccination induced robust antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses, which individually were capable of providing protection against CHIKV challenge in mice. Furthermore, vaccine studies in rhesus macaques demonstrated induction of nAb responses, which mimicked those induced in convalescent human patient sera. These data suggest a protective role for nAb against CHIKV disease and support further study of envelope-based CHIKV DNA vaccines.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21576359
Interferons (IFNs) are cytokines with well-described immunomodulatory and antiviral properties, but less is known about the mechanisms by which they promote cell survival or cell death. Here, we show that IFN-γ induces RIP1 kinase-dependent necroptosis in mammalian cells deficient in NF-κB signaling. Induction of necroptosis by IFN-γ was found to depend on Jak1 and partially on STAT1. We also demonstrate that IFN-γ activates IκB kinase β (IKKβ)-dependent NF-κB to regulate a transcriptional program that protects cells from necroptosis. IFN-γ induced progressive accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eventual loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in cells lacking the NF-κB subunit RelA. Whole-genome microarray analyses identified sod2, encoding the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), as a RelA target and potential antinecroptotic gene. Overexpression of MnSOD inhibited IFN-γ-mediated ROS accumulation and partially rescued RelA-deficient cells from necroptosis, while RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of sod2 expression increased susceptibility to IFN-γ-induced cell death. Together, these studies demonstrate that NF-κB protects cells from IFN-γ-mediated necroptosis by transcriptionally activating a survival response that quenches ROS to preserve mitochondrial integrity.
Hyperhomocysteinemia Impairs Endothelium-derived Hyperpolarizing Factor-mediated Vasorelaxation in Transgenic Cystathionine Beta Synthase-deficient Mice
Blood. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21653942
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED), but the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role and mechanism of HHcy-induced ED in microvasculature in our newly established mouse model of severe HHcy (plasma total homocysteine, 169.5 μM). We found that severe HHcy impaired nitric oxide (NO)- and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF)-mediated, endothelium-dependent relaxations of small mesenteric arteries (SMAs). Endothelium-independent and prostacyclin-mediated endothelium-dependent relaxations were not changed. A nonselective Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel (K(Ca)) inhibitor completely blocked EDHF-mediated relaxation. Selective blockers for small-conductance K(Ca) (SK) or intermediate-conductance K(Ca) (IK) failed to inhibit EDHF-mediated relaxation in HHcy mice. HHcy increased the levels of SK3 and IK1 protein, superoxide (O(2)(-)), and 3-nitrotyrosine in the endothelium of SMAs. Preincubation with antioxidants and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) inhibitors improved endothelium-dependent and EDHF-mediated relaxations and decreased O(2)(-) production in SMAs from HHcy mice. Further, EDHF-mediated relaxation was inhibited by ONOO(-) and prevented by catalase in the control mice. Finally, L-homocysteine stimulated O(2)(-) production, which was reversed by antioxidants, and increased SK/IK protein levels and tyrosine nitration in cultured human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that HHcy impairs EDHF relaxation in SMAs by inhibiting SK/IK activities via oxidation- and tyrosine nitration-related mechanisms.
Requirement of FADD, NEMO, and BAX/BAK for Aberrant Mitochondrial Function in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-induced Necrosis
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21746883
Necroptosis represents a form of alternative programmed cell death that is dependent on the kinase RIP1. RIP1-dependent necroptotic death manifests as increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in mitochondria and is accompanied by loss of ATP biogenesis and eventual dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Here, we show that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-induced necroptosis requires the adaptor proteins FADD and NEMO. FADD was found to mediate formation of the TNF-α-induced pronecrotic RIP1-RIP3 kinase complex, whereas the IκB Kinase (IKK) subunit NEMO appears to function downstream of RIP1-RIP3. Interestingly, loss of RelA potentiated TNF-α-dependent necroptosis, indicating that NEMO regulates necroptosis independently of NF-κB. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we demonstrate that the overexpression of antioxidants alleviates ROS elevation and necroptosis. Finally, elimination of BAX and BAK or overexpression of Bcl-x(L) protects cells from necroptosis at a later step. These findings provide evidence that mitochondria play an amplifying role in inflammation-induced necroptosis.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22084246
The endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-sensing STIM proteins mediate Ca(2+) entry signals by coupling to activate plasma membrane Orai channels. We reveal that STIM-Orai coupling is rapidly blocked by hypoxia and the ensuing decrease in cytosolic pH. In smooth muscle cells or HEK293 cells coexpressing STIM1 and Orai1, acute hypoxic conditions rapidly blocked store-operated Ca(2+) entry and the Orai1-mediated Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) current (I(CRAC)). Hypoxia-induced blockade of Ca(2+) entry and I(CRAC) was reversed by NH(4)(+)-induced cytosolic alkalinization. Hypoxia and acidification both blocked I(CRAC) induced by the short STIM1 Orai-activating region. Although hypoxia induced STIM1 translocation into junctions, it did not dissociate the STIM1-Orai1 complex. However, both hypoxia and cytosolic acidosis rapidly decreased Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between STIM1-YFP and Orai1-CFP. Thus, although hypoxia promotes STIM1 junctional accumulation, the ensuing acidification functionally uncouples the STIM1-Orai1 complex providing an important mechanism protecting cells from Ca(2+) overload under hypoxic stress conditions.