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In JoVE (1)
- Объединение периферического нерва Пересадка и Матрица модуляции Ремонт Травмированные Крыса спинного мозга
Other Publications (5)
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Articles by Kassi Miller in JoVE
Объединение периферического нерва Пересадка и Матрица модуляции Ремонт Травмированные Крыса спинного мозга
John D. Houle, Arthi Amin, Marie-Pascale Cote, Michel Lemay, Kassi Miller, Harra Sandrow, Lauren Santi, Jed Shumsky, Veronica Tom
Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Drexel University College of Medicine
Травматические повреждения спинного мозга нарушается связь с мозгом. Чтобы восстановить утраченные связи мы используем периферических нервов трансплантата обеспечить субстрат для волокон регенерирующим в сочетании с нейротрофических факторов и матрица модуляции-ферменты, чтобы удалить тормозящий молекул способствовать росту долго расстояния.
Other articles by Kassi Miller on PubMed
Combining Peripheral Nerve Grafts and Chondroitinase Promotes Functional Axonal Regeneration in the Chronically Injured Spinal Cord
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19940184
Because there currently is no treatment for spinal cord injury, most patients are living with long-standing injuries. Therefore, strategies aimed at promoting restoration of function to the chronically injured spinal cord have high therapeutic value. For successful regeneration, long-injured axons must overcome their poor intrinsic growth potential as well as the inhibitory environment of the glial scar established around the lesion site. Acutely injured axons that regenerate into growth-permissive peripheral nerve grafts (PNGs) reenter host tissue to mediate functional recovery if the distal graft-host interface is treated with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) to cleave inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in the scar matrix. To determine whether a similar strategy is effective for a chronic injury, we combined grafting of a peripheral nerve into a highly relevant, chronic, cervical contusion site with ChABC treatment of the glial scar and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) stimulation of long-injured axons. We tested this combination in two grafting paradigms: (1) a peripheral nerve that was grafted to span a chronic injury site or (2) a PNG that bridged a chronic contusion site with a second, more distal injury site. Unlike GDNF-PBS treatment, GDNF-ChABC treatment facilitated axons to exit the PNG into host tissue and promoted some functional recovery. Electrical stimulation of axons in the peripheral nerve bridge induced c-Fos expression in host neurons, indicative of synaptic contact by regenerating fibers. Thus, our data demonstrate, for the first time, that administering ChABC to a distal graft interface allows for functional axonal regeneration by chronically injured neurons.
PEGylated Interferon-beta Modulates the Acute Inflammatory Response and Recovery when Combined with Forced Exercise Following Cervical Spinal Contusion Injury
Experimental Neurology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20109445
Secondary degeneration leads to an expansion of the initial tissue damage sustained during a spinal cord injury (SCI). Dampening the cellular inflammatory response that contributes to this progressive tissue damage is one possible strategy for neuroprotection after acute SCI. We initially examined whether treatment with a PEGylated form of rat interferon-beta (IFN-beta) would modulate the expression of several markers of inflammation and neuroprotection at the site of a unilateral cervical level 5 contusion injury. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injured using the Infinite Horizon Impactor at a force of 200 kdyn (equivalent to a severe injury) and a mean displacement of 1600-1800 mum. A single dose (5x10(6) units) of PEGylated IFN-beta or vehicle was administered 30 min following SCI. Here we demonstrate temporal changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and the expression of heat shock proteins and iNOS (involved in neuroprotection) at the lesion epicenter and one segment caudally after SCI and PEG IFN-beta treatment. The results suggested a potential therapeutic treatment strategy for modulation of secondary damage after acute SCI. Therefore, we examined whether acute treatment with PEG IFN-beta would improve forelimb function alone or when combined with forced exercise (Ex). Animals began the Ex paradigm 5 days post SCI and continued for 5 days/week over 8 weeks. Locomotion (forelimb locomotor scale [FLS], hindlimb BBB, and TreadScan) and sensorimotor function (grid walking) was tested weekly. Additional outcome measures included lesion size and glial cell reactivity. Significant FLS improvements occurred at 1 week post SCI in the PEGylated IFN-beta-treated group but not at any other time point or with any other treatment approaches. These results suggest that this acute neuroprotective treatment strategy does not translate into long term behavioral recovery even when combined with forced exercise.
Experimental Neurology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20599980
Peripheral nerve grafts (PNG) into the rat spinal cord support axon regeneration after acute or chronic injury, with synaptic reconnection across the lesion site and some level of behavioral recovery. Here, we grafted a peripheral nerve into the injured spinal cord of cats as a preclinical treatment approach to promote regeneration for eventual translational use. Adult female cats received a partial hemisection lesion at the cervical level (C7) and immediate apposition of an autologous tibial nerve segment to the lesion site. Five weeks later, a dorsal quadrant lesion was performed caudally (T1), the lesion site treated with chondroitinase ABC 2 days later to digest growth inhibiting extracellular matrix molecules, and the distal end of the PNG apposed to the injury site. After 4-20 weeks, the grafts survived in 10/12 animals with several thousand myelinated axons present in each graft. The distal end of 9/10 grafts was well apposed to the spinal cord and numerous axons extended beyond the lesion site. Intraspinal stimulation evoked compound action potentials in the graft with an appropriate latency illustrating normal axonal conduction of the regenerated axons. Although stimulation of the PNG failed to elicit responses in the spinal cord distal to the lesion site, the presence of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons close to the distal apposition site indicates that regenerated axons formed functional synapses with host neurons. This study demonstrates the successful application of a nerve grafting approach to promote regeneration after spinal cord injury in a non-rodent, large animal model.
Electrical Stimulation of the Sural Cutaneous Afferent Nerve Controls the Amplitude and Onset of the Swing Phase of Locomotion in the Spinal Cat
Journal of Neurophysiology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21389308
Sensory feedback plays a crucial role in the control of locomotion and in the recovery of function after spinal cord injury. Investigations in reduced preparations have shown that the locomotor cycle can be modified through the activation of afferent feedback at various phases of the gait cycle. We investigated the effect of phase-dependent electrical stimulation of a cutaneous afferent nerve on the locomotor pattern of trained spinal cord-injured cats. Animals were first implanted with chronic nerve cuffs on the sural and sciatic nerves and electromyographic electrodes in different hindlimb muscles. Cats were then transected at T12 and trained daily to locomote on a treadmill. We found that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve can enhance the ongoing flexion phase, producing higher (+129%) and longer (+17.4%) swing phases of gait even at very low threshold of stimulation. Sural nerve stimulation can also terminate an ongoing extension and initiate a flexion phase. A higher prevalence of early switching to the flexion phase was observed at higher stimulation levels and if stimulation was applied in the late stance phase. All flexor muscles were activated by the stimulation. These results suggest that electrical stimulation of the sural nerve may be used to increase the magnitude of the swing phase and control the timing of its onset after spinal cord injury and locomotor training.
Experimental Neurology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22123082
We investigated microRNAs (miRs) associated with PTEN/mTOR signaling after spinal cord injury (SCI) and after hind limb exercise (Ex), a therapy implicated in promoting spinal cord plasticity. After spinalization, rats received cycling Ex 5 days/week. The expression of miRs, their target genes and downstream effectors were probed in spinal cord tissue at 10 and 31 days post injury. Ex elevated expression of miR21 and decreased expression of miR 199a-3p correlating with significant change in the expression of their respective target genes: PTEN mRNA decreased and mTOR mRNA increased. Western blotting confirmed comparable changes in protein levels. An increase in phosphorylated-S6 (a downstream effector of mTOR) within intermediate grey neurons in Ex rats was blocked by Rapamycin treatment. It thus appears possible that activity-dependent plasticity in the injured spinal cord is modulated in part through miRs that regulate PTEN and mTOR signaling and may indicate an increase in the regenerative potential of neurons affected by a SCI.