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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (4)

Articles by Katey S. S. Enfield in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

DNA Extraction from Paraffin Embedded Material for Genetic and Epigenetic Analyses

1Department of Integrative Oncology, BC Cancer Research Centre, 2Interdisciplinary Oncology Program, University of British Columbia - UBC, 3Photography/Video Production, Multi-Media Services, BC Cancer Agency, 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia - UBC


JoVE 2763

This video demonstrates the protocol for DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded material. This is a multi-day procedure in which tissue sections are deparaffinized with xylene, rehydrated with ethanol and treated with proteinase K to purify and isolate DNA for subsequent gene-specific or genome-wide analysis.

Other articles by Katey S. S. Enfield on PubMed

Deciphering Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Multidimensional Genomic Approaches

Squamous cell carcinomas (SqCCs) arise in a wide range of tissues including skin, lung, and oral mucosa. Although all SqCCs are epithelial in origin and share common nomenclature, these cancers differ greatly with respect to incidence, prognosis, and treatment. Current knowledge of genetic similarities and differences between SqCCs is insufficient to describe the biology of these cancers, which arise from diverse tissue origins. In this paper we provide a general overview of whole genome approaches for gene and pathway discovery and highlight the advancement of integrative genomics as a state-of-the-art technology in the study of SqCC genetics.

MicroRNA Gene Dosage Alterations and Drug Response in Lung Cancer

Chemotherapy resistance is a key contributor to the dismal prognoses for lung cancer patients. While the majority of studies have focused on sequence mutations and expression changes in protein-coding genes, recent reports have suggested that microRNA (miRNA) expression changes also play an influential role in chemotherapy response. However, the role of genetic alterations at miRNA loci in the context of chemotherapy response has yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the application of an integrative, multidimensional approach in order to identify miRNAs that are associated with chemotherapeutic resistance and sensitivity utilizing publicly available drug response, miRNA loci copy number, miRNA expression, and mRNA expression data from independent resources. By instigating a logical stepwise strategy, we have identified specific miRNAs that are associated with resistance to several chemotherapeutic agents and provide a proof of principle demonstration of how these various databases may be exploited to derive relevant pharmacogenomic results.

Long Non-coding RNAs Are Expressed in Oral Mucosa and Altered in Oral Premalignant Lesions

Oral epithelial dysplasias are believed to progress through a series of histopathological stages; from mild to severe dysplasia, to carcinoma in situ, and finally to invasive OSCC. Underlying this change in histopathological grade are gross chromosome alterations and changes in gene expression of both protein-coding genes and non-coding RNAs. Recent papers have described associations of aberrant expression of microRNAs, one class of non-coding RNAs, with oral cancer. However, expression profiling of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) has not been reported. Long non-coding RNAs are a novel class of mRNA-like transcripts with no protein coding capacity, but with a variety of functions including roles in epigenetics and gene regulation. In recent reports, the aberrant expression of lncRNAs has been associated with human cancers, suggesting a critical role in tumorigenesis. Here, we present the first long non-coding RNA expression map for the human oral mucosa. We describe the expression of 325 long non-coding RNAs, suggesting lncRNA expression contributes significantly to the oral transcriptome. Intriguingly, ∼60% of the detected lncRNAs show aberrant expression in oral premalignant lesions. A number of these lncRNAs have been previously associated with other human cancers.

Human Cancer Long Non-coding RNA Transcriptomes

Once thought to be a part of the 'dark matter' of the genome, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as an integral functional component of the mammalian transcriptome. LncRNAs are a novel class of mRNA-like transcripts which, despite no known protein-coding potential, demonstrate a wide range of structural and functional roles in cellular biology. However, the magnitude of the contribution of lncRNA expression to normal human tissues and cancers has not been investigated in a comprehensive manner. In this study, we compiled 272 human serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries to delineate lncRNA transcription patterns across a broad spectrum of normal human tissues and cancers. Using a novel lncRNA discovery pipeline we parsed over 24 million SAGE tags and report lncRNA expression profiles across a panel of 26 different normal human tissues and 19 human cancers. Our findings show extensive, tissue-specific lncRNA expression in normal tissues and highly aberrant lncRNA expression in human cancers. Here, we present a first generation atlas for lncRNA profiling in cancer.

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