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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Kathleen K. S. Hui in JoVE
Мониторинг Акупунктура Влияние на Мозга человека на МРТ
Kathleen K. S. Hui1, Vitaly Napadow1, Jing Liu1, Ming Li1, Ovidiu Marina1,2, Erika E. Nixon1, Joshua D. Claunch1, Lauren LaCount1, Tara Sporko1, Kenneth K. Kwong1
1Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2William Beaumont Hospital
FMRI и физиологические мониторинга используется для изучения влияния акупунктуры на центральную и периферическую нервную системы. Акупунктура мобилизует лимбико-paralimbic-неокортекса сети, с большим перекрытием с сетевой режим по умолчанию, для модуляции неврологических деятельности, возможно, связано с его вегетативной эффект в периферической нервной системе.
Other articles by Kathleen K. S. Hui on PubMed
Human Brain Mapping. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15499576
The goal of this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was to compare the central effects of electroacupuncture at different frequencies with traditional Chinese manual acupuncture. Although not as time-tested as manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture does have the advantage of setting stimulation frequency and intensity objectively and quantifiably. Manual acupuncture, electroacupuncture at 2 Hz and 100 Hz, and tactile control stimulation were carried out at acupoint ST-36. Overall, electroacupuncture (particularly at low frequency) produced more widespread fMRI signal increase than manual acupuncture did, and all acupuncture stimulations produced more widespread responses than did our placebo-like tactile control stimulation. Acupuncture produced hemodynamic signal increase in the anterior insula, and decrease in limbic and paralimbic structures including the amygdala, anterior hippocampus, and the cortices of the subgenual and retrosplenial cingulate, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, frontal, and temporal poles, results not seen for tactile control stimulation. Only electroacupuncture produced significant signal increase in the anterior middle cingulate cortex, whereas 2-Hz electroacupuncture produced signal increase in the pontine raphe area. All forms of stimulation (acupuncture and control) produced signal increase in SII. These findings support a hypothesis that the limbic system is central to acupuncture effect regardless of specific acupuncture modality, although some differences do exist in the underlying neurobiologic mechanisms for these modalities, and may aid in optimizing their future usage in clinical applications.
The Integrated Response of the Human Cerebro-cerebellar and Limbic Systems to Acupuncture Stimulation at ST 36 As Evidenced by FMRI
NeuroImage. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16046146
Clinical and experimental data indicate that most acupuncture clinical results are mediated by the central nervous system, but the specific effects of acupuncture on the human brain remain unclear. Even less is known about its effects on the cerebellum. This fMRI study demonstrated that manual acupuncture at ST 36 (Stomach 36, Zusanli), a main acupoint on the leg, modulated neural activity at multiple levels of the cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems. The pattern of hemodynamic response depended on the psychophysical response to needle manipulation. Acupuncture stimulation typically elicited a composite of sensations termed deqi that is related to clinical efficacy according to traditional Chinese medicine. The limbic and paralimbic structures of cortical and subcortical regions in the telencephalon, diencephalon, brainstem and cerebellum demonstrated a concerted attenuation of signal intensity when the subjects experienced deqi. When deqi was mixed with sharp pain, the hemodynamic response was mixed, showing a predominance of signal increases instead. Tactile stimulation as control also elicited a predominance of signal increase in a subset of these regions. The study provides preliminary evidence for an integrated response of the human cerebro-cerebellar and limbic systems to acupuncture stimulation at ST 36 that correlates with the psychophysical response.
NeuroImage. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16460960
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve characterized by paresthesias and pain in the first, second, and third digits. We hypothesize that aberrant afferent input in CTS will lead to cortical plasticity. Functional MRI (fMRI) and neurophysiological testing were performed on CTS patients and healthy adults. Median nerve innervated digit 2 (D2), and digit 3 (D3) and ulnar nerve innervated digit 5 (D5) were stimulated during fMRI. Surface-based and ROI-based analyses consistently demonstrated more extensive and stronger contralateral sensorimotor cortical representations of D2 and D3 for CTS patients as compared to healthy adults (P < 0.05). Differences were less profound for D5. Moreover, D3 fMRI activation in both the contralateral SI and motor cortex correlated positively with the D3 sensory conduction latency. Analysis of somatotopy suggested that contralateral SI representations for D2 and D3 were less separated for CTS patients (3.8 +/- 1.0 mm) than for healthy adults (7.5 +/- 1.2 mm). Furthermore, the D3/D2 separation distance correlated negatively with D2 sensory conduction latency-the greater the latency, the closer the D2/D3 cortical representations (r = -0.79, P < 0.05). Coupled with a greater extent of SI representation for these CTS affected digits, the closer cortical representations can be interpreted as a blurred somatotopic arrangement for CTS affected digits. These findings provide further evidence that CTS is not manifest in the periphery alone. Our results are consistent with Hebbian plasticity mechanisms, as our cohort of CTS patients had predominant paresthesias, which produce more temporally coherent afferent signaling from affected digits.
NeuroImage. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16839781
Group data analysis in brainstem neuroimaging is predicated on accurate co-registration of anatomy. As the brainstem is comprised of many functionally heterogeneous nuclei densely situated adjacent to one another, relatively small errors in co-registration can manifest in increased variance or decreased sensitivity (or significance) in detecting activations. We have devised a 2-stage automated, reference mask guided registration technique (Automated Brainstem Co-registration, or ABC) for improved brainstem co-registration. Our approach utilized a brainstem mask dataset to weight an automated co-registration cost function. Our method was validated through measurement of RMS error at 12 manually defined landmarks. These landmarks were also used as guides for a secondary manual co-registration option, intended for outlier individuals that may not adequately co-register with our automated method. Our methodology was tested on 10 healthy human subjects and compared to traditional co-registration techniques (Talairach transform and automated affine transform to the MNI-152 template). We found that ABC had a significantly lower mean RMS error (1.22 +/- 0.39 mm) than Talairach transform (2.88 +/- 1.22 mm, mu +/- sigma) and the global affine (3.26 +/- 0.81 mm) method. Improved accuracy was also found for our manual-landmark-guided option (1.51 +/- 0.43 mm). Visualizing individual brainstem borders demonstrated more consistent and uniform overlap for ABC compared to traditional global co-registration techniques. Improved robustness (lower susceptibility to outliers) was demonstrated with ABC through lower inter-subject RMS error variance compared with traditional co-registration methods. The use of easily available and validated tools (AFNI and FSL) for this method should ease adoption by other investigators interested in brainstem data group analysis.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17973984
Acupuncture stimulation elicits deqi, a composite of unique sensations that is essential for clinical efficacy according to traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). There is lack of adequate experimental data to indicate what sensations comprise deqi, their prevalence and intensity, their relationship to acupoints, how they compare with conventional somatosensory or noxious response. The objective of this study is to provide scientific evidence on these issues and to characterize the nature of the deqi phenomenon in terms of the prevalence of sensations as well as the uniqueness of the sensations underlying the deqi experience.
Human Brain Mapping. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16761270
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy of the median nerve characterized by paresthesias and pain in the first through fourth digits. We hypothesize that aberrant afferent input from CTS will lead to maladaptive cortical plasticity, which may be corrected by appropriate therapy. Functional MRI (fMRI) scanning and clinical testing was performed on CTS patients at baseline and after 5 weeks of acupuncture treatment. As a control, healthy adults were also tested 5 weeks apart. During fMRI, sensory stimulation was performed for median nerve innervated digit 2 (D2) and digit 3 (D3), and ulnar nerve innervated digit 5 (D5). Surface-based and region of interest (ROI)-based analyses demonstrated that while the extent of fMRI activity in contralateral Brodmann Area 1 (BA 1) and BA 4 was increased in CTS compared to healthy adults, after acupuncture there was a significant decrease in contralateral BA 1 (P < 0.005) and BA 4 (P < 0.05) activity during D3 sensory stimulation. Healthy adults demonstrated no significant test-retest differences for any digit tested. While D3/D2 separation was contracted or blurred in CTS patients compared to healthy adults, the D2 SI representation shifted laterally after acupuncture treatment, leading to increased D3/D2 separation. Increasing D3/D2 separation correlated with decreasing paresthesias in CTS patients (P < 0.05). As CTS-induced paresthesias constitute diffuse, synchronized, multidigit symptomatology, our results for maladaptive change and correction are consistent with Hebbian plasticity mechanisms. Acupuncture, a somatosensory conditioning stimulus, shows promise in inducing beneficial cortical plasticity manifested by more focused digital representations.
Inhibition of Stimulated Dopamine Release and Hemodynamic Response in the Brain Through Electrical Stimulation of Rat Forepaw
Neuroscience Letters. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18178315
The subcortical response to peripheral somatosensory stimulation is not well studied. Prior literature suggests that somatosensory stimulation can affect dopaminergic tone. We studied the effects of electrical stimulation near the median nerve on the response to an amphetamine-induced increase in synaptic dopamine. We applied the electrical stimulation close to the median nerve 20 min after administration of 3mg/kg amphetamine. We used fMRI and microdialysis to measure markers of dopamine (DA) release, together with the release of associated neurotransmitters of striatal glutamate (Glu) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Changes in cerebral blood volume (CBV), a marker used in fMRI, indicate that electrical stimulation significantly attenuated increased DA release (due to AMPH) in the striatum, thalamus, medial prefrontal and cingulate cortices. Microdialysis showed that electrical stimulation increased Glu and GABA release and attenuated the AMPH-enhanced DA release. The striatal DA dynamics correlated with the CBV response. These results demonstrate that electrical stimulation near the median nerve activates Glu/GABA release, which subsequently attenuate excess striatal DA release. These data provide evidence for physiologic modulation caused by electroacupuncture at points near the median nerve.
NeuroImage. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19345268
Acupuncture modulation of activity in the human brainstem is not well known. This structure is plagued by physiological artifact in neuroimaging experiments. In addition, most studies have used short (<15 min) block designs, which miss delayed responses following longer duration stimulation. We used brainstem-focused cardiac-gated fMRI and evaluated time-variant brain response to longer duration (>30 min) stimulation with verum (VA, electro-stimulation at acupoint ST-36) or sham point (SPA, non-acupoint electro-stimulation) acupuncture. Our results provide evidence that acupuncture modulates brainstem nuclei important to endogenous monoaminergic and opioidergic systems. Specifically, VA modulated activity in the substantia nigra (SN), nucleus raphe magnus, locus ceruleus, nucleus cuneiformis, and periaqueductal gray (PAG). Activation in the ventrolateral PAG was greater for VA compared to SPA. Linearly decreasing time-variant activation, suggesting classical habituation, was found in response to both VA and SPA in sensorimotor (SII, posterior insula, premotor cortex) brain regions. However, VA also produced linearly time-variant activity in limbic regions (amygdala, hippocampus, and SN), which was bimodal and not likely habituation--consisting of activation in early blocks, and deactivation by the end of the run. Thus, acupuncture induces different brain response early, compared to 20-30 min after stimulation. We attribute the fMRI differences between VA and SPA to more varied and stronger psychophysical response induced by VA. Our study demonstrates that acupuncture modulation of brainstem structures can be studied non-invasively in humans, allowing for comparison to animal studies. Our protocol also demonstrates a fMRI approach to study habituation and other time-variant phenomena over longer time durations.
Brain Research. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19559684
Previous work has shown that acupuncture stimulation evokes deactivation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network (LPNN) as well as activation of somatosensory brain regions. This study explores the activity and functional connectivity of these regions during acupuncture vs. tactile stimulation and vs. acupuncture associated with inadvertent sharp pain. Acupuncture during 201 scans and tactile stimulation during 74 scans for comparison at acupoints LI4, ST36 and LV3 was monitored with fMRI and psychophysical response in 48 healthy subjects. Clusters of deactivated regions in the medial prefrontal, medial parietal and medial temporal lobes as well as activated regions in the sensorimotor and a few paralimbic structures can be identified during acupuncture by general linear model analysis and seed-based cross correlation analysis. Importantly, these clusters showed virtual identity with the default mode network and the anti-correlated task-positive network in response to stimulation. In addition, the amygdala and hypothalamus, structures not routinely reported in the default mode literature, were frequently involved in acupuncture. When acupuncture induced sharp pain, the deactivation was attenuated or became activated instead. Tactile stimulation induced greater activation of the somatosensory regions but less extensive deactivation of the LPNN. These results indicate that the deactivation of the LPNN during acupuncture cannot be completely explained by the demand of attention that is commonly proposed in the default mode literature. Our results suggest that acupuncture mobilizes the anti-correlated functional networks of the brain to mediate its actions, and that the effect is dependent on the psychophysical response.
Autonomic Neuroscience : Basic & Clinical. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20494627
The study of the mechanism of acupuncture action was revolutionized by the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Over the past decade, our fMRI studies of healthy subjects have contributed substantially to elucidating the central effect of acupuncture on the human brain. These studies have shown that acupuncture stimulation, when associated with sensations comprising deqi, evokes deactivation of a limbic-paralimbic-neocortical network, which encompasses the limbic system, as well as activation of somatosensory brain regions. These networks closely match the default mode network and the anti-correlated task-positive network described in the literature. We have also shown that the effect of acupuncture on the brain is integrated at multiple levels, down to the brainstem and cerebellum. Our studies support the hypothesis that the effect of acupuncture on the brain goes beyond the effect of attention on the default mode network or the somatosensory stimulation of acupuncture needling. The amygdala and hypothalamus, in particular, show decreased activation during acupuncture stimulation that is not commonly associated with default mode network activity. At the same time, our research shows that acupuncture stimulation needs to be done carefully, limiting stimulation when the resulting sensations are very strong or when sharp pain is elicited. When acupuncture induced sharp pain, our studies show that the deactivation was attenuated or reversed in direction. Our results suggest that acupuncture mobilizes the functionally anti-correlated networks of the brain to mediate its actions, and that the effect is dependent on the psychophysical response. In this work we also discuss multiple avenues of future research, including the role of neurotransmitters, the effect of different acupuncture techniques, and the potential clinical application of our research findings to disease states including chronic pain, major depression, schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer's disease.