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Articles by Kathryn L. McCarthy in JoVE
Количественная Смешивание использованием магнитно-резонансная томография
Emilio J. Tozzi1, Kathryn L. McCarthy1, Lori A. Bacca2, William H. Hartt2, Michael J. McCarthy1
1Dept. Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, 2Corporate Engineering and Technology Laboratory, Procter & Gamble Company
Магнитно-резонансная томография (МРТ) предоставляет мощный инструмент для оценки эффективности технологического оборудования в процессе эксплуатации. Мы обсуждаем использование МРТ для визуализации перемешивания в смеситель. Приложения, имеющие отношение к личной гигиены, но могут быть применены к широкому спектру пищевой, химической, биомассы и биологических жидкостях.
Other articles by Kathryn L. McCarthy on PubMed
Journal of Food Science. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19723191
The Bostwick consistometer remains an integral part of assessing the consistency of tomato products in the factory. This work addresses the blending of tomato pastes, packed at different Bostwick readings, for use in tomato ketchup production. The objective of this study was to correlate in-line viscosity measurements of 12 degrees Bx tomato concentrates to final product quality. Five blends of tomato concentrate were prepared by blending 2 pastes and diluting the mixture to a soluble solids level of 12 degrees Bx. In-line viscometry measurements at process temperature were made using magnetic resonance viscometry. The resulting Herschel-Bulkley parameters were used to evaluate an apparent viscosity at a characteristic shear rate. The apparent viscosity and Bostwick measurement for the blends were correlated based on a gravity current flow analysis, yielding a coefficient of determination of over 0.99. Ketchup was made from the tomato concentrate blends at 3 levels of natural tomato soluble solids (NTSS). The ketchup Bostwick measurement was then correlated to the ratio of (eta/rho)(-1/5) of the 12 degrees Bx tomato concentrate yielding coefficients of determination of 0.97, 0.97, and 0.91 for NTSS levels of 6%, 7%, and 7.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates that final product quality can be predicted from in-line viscosity measurements of an intermediate product.
Journal of Food Science. Jan-Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20492168
Mathematical models, combined with experimental evaluation, provide an approach to understand, design, and optimize food process operations. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as an experimental technique, is used extensively in both medical and engineering applications to measure and quantify transport processes. Magnetic resonance (MR) was used in this study to assess a mathematical model based on Fourier's second law. The objective was to compare analytical solutions for the prediction of internal temperature distributions in foods during oven-based convective heating to experimental temperature measurements and determine at what point during the heating process a coupled heat and mass transport process should be considered. Cylindrical samples of a model food gel, Russet potato and rehydrated mashed potato were heated in a convection oven for specified times. Experimentally measured internal temperatures were compared to the internal temperatures predicted by the analytical model. Temperatures distributions in the axial direction compared favorably for the gel and acceptably for the Russet and mashed potato samples. The MR-acquired temperatures in the radial direction for the gel resulted in a shallower gradient than predicted but followed the expected trend. For the potato samples, the MR-acquired temperatures in the radial direction were not qualitatively similar to the analytical predictions due to moisture loss during heating. If temperature resolution is required in the radial direction, moisture losses merit the use of transport models that couple heat and mass transfer.
Journal of Food Science. Jan-Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20492171
Oil migration from high oil content centers into chocolate coatings results in product quality changes. The objective of this study was to monitor and model peanut oil migration in 2-layer systems of increasing phase complexity. Three 2-layer systems were prepared: peanut oil/cocoa butter; peanut butter paste/cocoa butter; and peanut butter paste/chocolate. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure liquid oil signal as a function of position over a storage time of 193 days at 25 degrees C. The 3 types of samples exhibited appreciably different patterns of oil migration. The peanut oil/cocoa butter samples had mass transfer typical of oil being absorbed into a liquid/solid region. The peanut butter paste/cocoa butter magnetic resonance profiles were characterized by mass transfer with a partition coefficient greater than unity. The peanut butter paste/chocolate samples exhibited a time-dependent peanut oil concentration at the interface between the chocolate and peanut butter paste. The spatial and temporal experimental data of the peanut butter paste/chocolate samples were modeled using a Fickian diffusion model, fitting for the effective diffusivity. Values of the diffusivity for the 6 chocolate formulations ranged from 1.10 to 2.01 x 10(-13) m(2)/s, with no statistically significant differences.
Journal of Food Protection. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20615336
The heat resistance of Salmonella inoculated onto almonds was determined after immersion in hot oil. Whole almonds were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 or Salmonella Senftenberg 775W and heated in oil. After heating, almonds were drained, transferred to cold tryptic soy broth, and mixed with a stomacher, and samples were plated onto tryptic soy and bismuth sulfite agars. Salmonella survivor inactivation curves were upwardly concave. Rapid reductions of 2.9, 3.0, or 3.6 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis were observed after 30 s of exposure to oil at 116, 121, or 127 degrees C, respectively. Thereafter, reduction occurred at a much slower rate. Similar reductions were observed at 127 degrees C for Salmonella Senftenberg. The Weibull model was used to predict 4- and 5-log reductions of Salmonella Enteritidis after 0.74 and 1.3 min at 127 degrees C, respectively. Neither Salmonella serovar could be recovered by enrichment of 1-g samples after almonds inoculated at 5 log CFU/g were exposed to oil at 127 degrees C for 1.5 min. Standard oil roasting times and temperatures that achieve acceptable kernel color and texture should result in much greater than 5-log reductions of Salmonella in almonds.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Relaxation Spectrum Analysis As Methods to Investigate Swelling in Whey Protein Gels
Journal of Food Science. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21535489
Effective means for controlled delivery of nutrients and nutraceuticals are needed. Whey protein-based gels, as a model system and as a potential delivery system, exhibit pH-dependent swelling when placed in aqueous solutions. Understanding the physics that govern gel swelling is thus important when designing gel-based delivery platforms. The extent of swelling over time was monitored gravimetrically. In addition to gravimetric measurements, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a real-time noninvasive imaging technique that quantified changes in geometry and water content of these gels was utilized. Heat-set whey protein gels were prepared at pH 7 and swelling was monitored in aqueous solutions with pH values of 2.5, 7, and 10. Changes in dimension over time, as characterized by the number of voxels in an image, were correlated to gravimetric measurements. Excellent correlations between mass uptake and volume change (R(2)= 0.99) were obtained for the gels in aqueous solutions at pH 7 and 10, but not for gels in the aqueous solution at pH 2.5. To provide insight into the mechanisms for water uptake, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation times were measured in independent experiments. The relaxation spectrum for the spin-spin relaxation time (T(2)) showed the presence of 3 proton pools for pH 7 and 10 trials and 4 proton pools for pH 2.5 trials. Results demonstrate that MRI and NMR relaxation measurements provided information about swelling in whey protein gels that can constitute a new means for investigating and developing effective delivery systems for foods.
Journal of Food Science. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21535761
Release of oil from nuts due to damaged cellular structures can degrade the quality of products incorporating nuts. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different processing conditions on microstructure of almond tissue and to quantify these changes using image processing. Spinning disk confocal fluorescence microscopy was used for imaging changes in microstructure of almonds as a function of different thermal processing of almonds. Multiple staining of Nile Red and Calcofluor White was applied to differentiate cell wall structures and oil bodies within individual almond cells without chemical fixation. An algorithm for image processing, included image preprocessing, segmentation, and determination of morphological features of segmented objects, was developed. Oil-roasting processes (140 °C and 150 °C) were found to have a significant impact on microstructure of almonds when compared to the hot air-roasting and blanching processes. Oil-roasted almond at 150 °C had a greater cellular damage due to cell wall and membrane rupture. These changes in microstructure of almonds would make them slightly more susceptible to release oil during storage. The image analysis presented allows quantitative evaluation for the effect of different processing on almond microstructure.
Journal of Food Science. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22251393
Divalent salts are used commonly for gelation of polymer molecules. Calcium, Ca(+2) , is one of the most common divalent ions that is used in whey protein gels. Manganese, Mn(+2) , is also divalent, but paramagnetic, enhancing relaxation decay rates in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and can be used as a probe to understand the behavior of Ca(+2) in whey protein gels. The objective of this study was to investigate the diffusion of Ca(+2) and Mn(+2) ions in heat-set whey protein gels by using MRI and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry. Whey protein gels were immersed in solutions containing MnCl(2) and CaCl(2) at neutral pH. Images obtained with gels immersed in MnCl(2) solution revealed a relaxation sink region in the gel's surface and the thickness of the region increased with time. These "no signal" regions in the MR images were attributed to uptake of Mn(+2) by the gel. Results obtained with CaCl(2) solution indicated that since Ca(+2) did not have the paramagnetic effect, the regions where Ca(+2) diffused into the gel exhibited a slight decrease in signal intensity. The relaxation spectrums exhibited 3 populations of protons, for gels immersed in MnCl(2) solution, and 2 populations for gels in CaCl(2) solution. No significant change in T(2) distributions was observed for the gels immersed in CaCl(2) solution. The results demonstrated that MRI and NMR relaxometry can be used to understand the diffusion of ions into the whey protein gel, which is useful for designing gels of different physical properties for controlled release applications. Practical Application: Design of food systems for delivery of bioactive compounds requires knowledge of diffusion rates and structure. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging the diffusion rates of ions can be measured. Relaxation spectra could yield information concerning molecular interactions.
Impact of Storage Time and Temperature on Thermal Inactivation of Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 on Oil-Roasted Almonds
Journal of Food Science. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22260116
Whole Nonpareil variety almonds were inoculated with Salmonella Enteritidis PT 30 and stored at 4 or 23 °C for up to 48 wk. At 1, 12, 24, 37, and 48 wk of storage, almonds were heated by immersion in 121 °C oil. After heating for 0.5 to 2.5 min, almonds were drained, transferred to tryptic soy broth, and mixed with a stomacher prior to plating onto tryptic soy and bismuth sulfite agars. Over the 48 wk of storage, Salmonella declined by 0.5 and 2.1 log CFU/g at 4 and 23 °C, respectively. The survivor inactivation curves were upwardly concave with rapid initial reductions in the levels of Salmonella. For up to 24 wk of storage, the mean counts of the survivors after treatment were not significantly different. The Weibull model predicted 4- and 5-log reductions of Salmonella in 0.85 ± 0.16 and 1.8 ± 0.43 min, respectively, for almonds stored at 4 °C, and in 1.6 ± 0.53 and 3.2 ± 1.0 min, respectively, for almonds stored at 23 °C. Refrigerated storage had little impact on heat resistance of Salmonella that were inoculated on almonds. Practical Application: This research provides information of value in performing or evaluating validation studies for thermally processed almonds. The sensitivity of Salmonella to oil roasting is demonstrated during typical commercial almond storage times and temperatures.