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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (139)

Articles by Kathryn Norby in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Monitoring Plasmid Replication in Live Mammalian Cells over Multiple Generations by Fluorescence Microscopy

1Department of Oncology, University of Wisconsin - Madison


JoVE 4305

A method of observing individual DNA molecules in live cells is described. The technique is based on the binding of a fluorescently tagged lac repressor protein to binding sites engineered into the DNA of interest. This method can be adapted to follow many recombinant DNAs in live cells over time.

Other articles by Kathryn Norby on PubMed

Characterisation of G418-induced Metabolic Load in Recombinant CHO and BHK Cells: Effect on the Activity and Expression of Central Metabolic Enzymes

In a previous article (Yallop and Svendsen 2001), recombinant CHO and BHK cell lines, expressing the human glucagon receptor and the gastric inhibitory peptide receptor, respectively, showed reduced growth rates and altered nutrient utilisation when grown with increasing concentrations of G418. This response was associated with an increased expression of the neo (r) protein, while expression of the recombinant membrane receptors remained unaltered. The metabolic response was characterised in both cell lines by an increase in the specific rate of glutamine utilisation and in CHO cells by a decrease in the yield of lactate from glucose, suggesting a change in the flux of glucose through central metabolism. The aim of this study was to further elucidate these metabolic changes by determining the activity and relative expression of key enzymes involved in glucose and glutamine metabolism. For both CHO and BHK cells, there was an increase in the activity of glutaminase, glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase, suggesting an increased flux through the glutaminolysis pathway. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate carboxylase in CHO cells was also increased whilst lactate dehydrogenase activity remained unaltered, suggesting an increased flux to the pentose phosphate pathway and TCA cycle, respectively. The activity of these enzymes in BHK cells was unchanged. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that expression levels of glutaminase and pyruvate carboxylase were the same with and without G418, indicating that the differences in activities were likely due to post-translational modifications.

[Minimally Invasive Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia]

The Sensitivity of Gross Necropsy, Caudal Fold and Comparative Cervical Tests for the Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

Bovine tuberculosis (bTb) was diagnosed in 22 cattle herds in the northeast comer of Michigan's lower peninsula. Of these 22 herds, 494 animals in 7 herds were examined by gross necropsy, histopathologic exam, mycobacterial culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay performed only on samples that were histologically compatible for bTb. Results of culture and PCR assay interpreted in parallel were used as the reference test for calculation of the sensitivity of 1) the caudal fold test (CFT), 2) the caudal fold and comparative cervical skin tests used in series (CFTCCTSER), and 3) gross necropsy. Mycobacterium bovis was isolated from 43 animals. Using all 7 herds, the sensitivities of the CFT, the CFTCCTSER, and gross necropsy were 93.02%, 88.37%, and 86.05%, respectively. When the data were stratified by low- and moderate-prevalence herds, the sensitivities were 83.33%, 75.0%, and 83.33% in low-prevalence herds and 96.77%, 93.55%, and 87.10% in moderate-prevalence herds. The sensitivities of the 2 skin tests were slightly higher when 2 or more gross lesions were present, and the sensitivity of gross necropsy was significantly higher (P = 0.049). The sensitivity of the CFT was found to be notably higher than most estimates in other studies; however, a direct comparison was not possible because the amount of purified protein derivative and the reference methods were different in this study compared with other published studies. Although the sensitivities are high, 2 of the 7 herds (29%) would have had 1 or more positive animals left in the herd if a test-and-removal program had been used. This suggests that when positive herds are identified, selective culling of skin test reactors is a less acceptable disease control strategy than is complete depopulation.

Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Distribution Within Leber Hereditary Optic Neuropathy Pedigrees

Tissue Factor-factor VIIa-specific Up-regulation of IL-8 Expression in MDA-MB-231 Cells is Mediated by PAR-2 and Results in Increased Cell Migration

Tissue factor (TF), the cellular receptor for factor VIIa (FVIIa), besides initiating blood coagulation, is believed to play an important role in tissue repair, inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumor metastasis. Like TF, the chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) is shown to play a critical role in these processes. To elucidate the potential mechanisms by which TF contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis, we investigated the effect of FVIIa on IL-8 expression and cell migration in a breast carcinoma cell line, MDA-MB-231, a cell line that constitutively expresses abundant TF. Expression of IL-8 mRNA in MDA-MB-231 cells was markedly up-regulated by plasma concentrations of FVII or an equivalent concentration of FVIIa (10 nM). Neither thrombin nor other proteases involved in hemostasis were effective in stimulating IL-8 in these cells. Increased transcriptional activation of the IL-8 gene is responsible for increased expression of IL-8 in FVIIa-treated cells. PAR-2-specific antibodies fully attenuated TF-FVIIa-induced IL-8 expression. Additional in vitro experiments showed that TF-FVIIa promoted tumor cell migration and invasion, active site-inactivated FVIIa, and specific antibodies against TF, PAR-2, and IL-8 inhibited TF-FVIIa-induced cell migration. In summary, the studies described herein provide insight into how TF may contribute to tumor invasion.

Fine-root Production Dominates Response of a Deciduous Forest to Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment

Fine-root production and turnover are important regulators of the biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems and key components of their response to global change. We present a nearly continuous 6-year record of fine-root production and mortality from minirhizotron analysis of a closed-canopy, deciduous sweetgum forest in a free-air CO(2) enrichment experiment. Annual production of fine roots was more than doubled in plots with 550 ppm CO(2) compared with plots in ambient air. This response was the primary component of the sustained 22% increase in net primary productivity. Annual fine-root mortality matched annual production, and the mean residence time of roots was not altered by elevated CO(2), but peak fine-root standing crop in midsummer was significantly higher in CO(2)-enriched plots, especially deeper in the soil profile. The preferential allocation of additional carbon to fine roots, which have a fast turnover rate in this species, rather than to stemwood reduces the possibility of long-term enhancement by elevated CO(2) of carbon sequestration in biomass. However, sequestration of some of the fine-root carbon in soil pools is not precluded, and there may be other benefits to the tree from a seasonally larger and deeper fine-root system. Root-system dynamics can explain differences among ecosystems in their response to elevated atmospheric CO(2); hence, accurate assessments of carbon flux and storage in forests in a globally changing atmosphere must account for this unseen and difficult-to-measure component.

Hydrogen in Oxides

The paper reviews the history and present understanding of protons in oxides; their defect chemistry, thermodynamics, and transport. Focus is put on correlations between hydration thermodynamics and other materials properties which may help to predict proton uptake and proton conduction in oxides. Also effects of defect association and the particular problem of high grain boundary resistance in high temperature proton conductors are addressed. In the second part, a number of experimental observations attributed to the presence of hydride ions under mildly reducing conditions are discussed in relation to the unlikelihood that general thermodynamic considerations predict of finding these species under such conditions.

Transport Numbers from Hydrogen Concentration Cells over Different Oxides Under Oxidising and Reducing Conditions

Partial hydrogen ion conductivity in acceptor doped CaTiO(3), BaCeO(3) and ZrO(2) and nominally undoped BaTiO(3) and TiO(2) has been investigated by transport number measurements using the hydrogen concentration cell/EMF method in wet atmospheres as a function of pO(2)(10(-20)-1 atm) at 800 or 1000 [degree]C. All oxides investigated, except ZrO(2), show minor proton conductivity in oxidising atmospheres. Earlier indications of apparent negative charge transport by hydrogen under reducing conditions and high temperatures in SrTiO(3) samples have been reproduced for all the investigated oxides including ZrO(2).

Fabrication of Rutile Rod-like Particle by Hydrothermal Method: an Insight into HNO3 Peptization

In this work, well-crystallized and well-dispersed rod-like TiO(2) rutile particles were prepared by hydrothermally treating acid-peptized TiO(2) sols at relatively low temperatures of 200 and 240 degrees C. Raman spectra, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the peptized sols before and after hydrothermal treatment. The results showed that HNO(3) peptization of amorphous TiO(2) was able to promote, at room temperature, the formation of crystalline phases of anatase or rutile, at low (HNO(3)/Ti=1) or at high (HNO(3)/Ti=4) concentrations of peptizer, respectively. However, after hydrothermal treatment, well-crystalline rutile developed independent of the starting concentration of the peptizer. The formation of well-dispersed rutile particles is attributed to high long-range electrostatic forces between particles in the presence of the high concentration of the peptizer. The acid peptization would easily break the oxolation bonds between triple bond Ti-O-Ti triple bond, promote the formation of titanium species with fewer oxolation bonds depending on the amount of acid, and create conditions for the formation of rutile nuclei after structural rearrangements.

Characterization of Recombinant Murine Factor VIIa and Recombinant Murine Tissue Factor: a Human-murine Species Compatibility Study

Tissue factor (TF) is believed to play an important role in coagulation, inflammation, angiogenesis and wound healing as well as in tumor growth and metastasis. To facilitate in vivo studies in experimental murine models, we have produced recombinant murine factor VII (FVII) and the ectodomain of murine TF, TF(1-223). Murine FVII was activated to FVIIa with human factor Xa and upon reaction with FFR-chloromethyl ketone converted into an active site-blocked TF antagonist, FFR-FVIIa. The activity of murine FVIIa was characterized in factor X activation assays as well as in clot assays with murine and human thromboplastin in murine and human plasma. In these assays murine FVIIa exhibited a specific activity equivalent to or higher than human FVIIa. Further analysis showed that murine FVIIa binds with high affinity to both murine and human TF, whereas the association of human FVIIa to murine TF is about three orders of magnitude weaker than the association to human TF. This difference was further emphasized by the effect of murine-and human FFR-FVIIa on bleeding in an in vivo mouse model. Intra-peritoneal administration of 1 mg/kg murine FFR-FVIIa significantly prolonged the tail-bleeding time, whereas no effect on bleeding was observed with a 25-times higher dose of the human FFR-FVIIa. Together, these data confirms the notion of poor species compatibility between human FVII and murine TF and emphasizes the requirement for autologous FVIIa in studies on the role of the TF in experimental in vivo pharmacology.

Thin Basement Membrane Nephropathy Associated with Other Glomerular Diseases

Many reports confirm that thin basement membrane nephropathy (TBMN) commonly occurs together with other glomerular diseases such as minimal change glomerulonephritis, diabetes, membranous nephropathy, immunoglobulin (Ig)A glomerulonephritis, and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We postulate 3 explanations for these observations. The association of minimal change glomerulonephritis with TBMN probably is artifactual whereas the association with diabetes and membranous glomerulonephritis probably is coincidental. However, the link between TBMN and IgA disease and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis may be pathogenetic. Clinical evidence indicates that the presence of an associated glomerulopathy significantly worsens the prognosis of TBMN. Thus, patients with TBMN and another glomerular lesion usually have more marked proteinuria, and are more likely to have hypertension and renal insufficiency. The frequency of another glomerulopathy in patients with TBMN means that all patients in whom TBMN is suspected but who have heavy proteinuria or renal insufficiency should undergo a renal biopsy examination. However, there is no evidence that TBMN alters the prognosis of another glomerulopathy, and, in particular, patients with TBMN and IgA disease do not have different clinical features or a worse prognosis than those with IgA disease alone.

Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in the Danish Population: a Population-based Study of Symptom Prevalence, Health-care Seeking Behavior and Prevalence of Treatment in Elderly Males and Females

To estimate the prevalence of LUTS in the elderly Danish population. Furthermore to evaluate the quality of life, the health-care seeking behavior and the prevalence of treatment with relation to LUTS.

[Mendelian Randomization]

MCP-1 is Up-regulated in Unstressed and Stressed HO-1 Knockout Mice: Pathophysiologic Correlates

Up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) occurs in, and often confers protection to, the injured kidney. Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) promotes not only acute and chronic nephritides but also acute ischemic and nephrotoxic injury. The present study was stimulated by the hypothesis that expression of MCP-1 is suppressed by HO-1, and analyzed the effect of HO-1 on the expression of MCP-1 in stressed and unstressed conditions.

Use of Simulation Modeling to Estimate Herd-level Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Values of Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Tuberculosis in Cattle

To estimate herd-level sensitivity (HSe), specificity (HSp), and predictive values for a positive (HPVP) and negative (HPVN) test result for several testing scenarios for detection of tuberculosis in cattle by use of simulation modeling.

Forest Response to Elevated CO2 is Conserved Across a Broad Range of Productivity

Climate change predictions derived from coupled carbon-climate models are highly dependent on assumptions about feedbacks between the biosphere and atmosphere. One critical feedback occurs if C uptake by the biosphere increases in response to the fossil-fuel driven increase in atmospheric [CO(2)] ("CO(2) fertilization"), thereby slowing the rate of increase in atmospheric [CO(2)]. Carbon exchanges between the terrestrial biosphere and atmosphere are often first represented in models as net primary productivity (NPP). However, the contribution of CO(2) fertilization to the future global C cycle has been uncertain, especially in forest ecosystems that dominate global NPP, and models that include a feedback between terrestrial biosphere metabolism and atmospheric [CO(2)] are poorly constrained by experimental evidence. We analyzed the response of NPP to elevated CO(2) ( approximately 550 ppm) in four free-air CO(2) enrichment experiments in forest stands. We show that the response of forest NPP to elevated [CO(2)] is highly conserved across a broad range of productivity, with a stimulation at the median of 23 +/- 2%. At low leaf area indices, a large portion of the response was attributable to increased light absorption, but as leaf area indices increased, the response to elevated [CO(2)] was wholly caused by increased light-use efficiency. The surprising consistency of response across diverse sites provides a benchmark to evaluate predictions of ecosystem and global models and allows us now to focus on unresolved questions about carbon partitioning and retention, and spatial variation in NPP response caused by availability of other growth limiting resources.

Nitrogen Uptake, Distribution, Turnover, and Efficiency of Use in a CO2-enriched Sweetgum Forest

The Progressive Nitrogen Limitation (PNL) hypothesis suggests that ecosystems in a CO2-enriched atmosphere will sequester C and N in long-lived biomass and soil organic pools, thereby limiting available N and constraining the continued response of net primary productivity to elevated [CO2]. Here, we present a six-year record of N dynamics of a sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) stand exposed to elevated [CO2] in the free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. We also evaluate the concept of PNL for this ecosystem from the perspective of N uptake, content, distribution, and turnover, and N-use efficiency. Leaf N content was 11% lower on a leaf mass basis (NM) and 7% lower on a leaf area basis (NA) in CO2-enriched trees. However, there was no effect of [CO2] on total canopy N content. Resorption of N during senescence was not altered by [CO2], so NM of litter, but not total N content, was reduced. The NM of fine roots was not affected, but the total amount of N required for fine-root production increased significantly, reflecting the large stimulation of fine-root production in this stand. Hence, total N requirement of the trees was higher in elevated [CO2], and the increased requirement was met through an increase in N uptake rather than increased retranslocation of stored reserves. Increased N uptake was correlated with increased net primary productivity (NPP). N-use efficiency, however, did not change with CO2 enrichment because increased N productivity was offset by lower mean residence time of N in the trees. None of the measured responses of plant N dynamics in this ecosystem indicated the occurrence of PNL, and the stimulation of NPP by elevated [CO2] was sustained for the first six years of the experiment. Although there are some indications of developing changes in the N economy, the N supply in the soil at this site may be sufficient to meet an increasing demand for available N, especially as the roots of CO2-enriched trees explore deeper in the soil profile.

[An Editorial Negligence]

The Room-temperature Superstructure of ZrP2O7 is Orthorhombic: There Are No Unusual 180 Degrees P-O-P Bond Angles

The structure of room-temperature ZrP2O7 is shown to be orthorhombic by a combination of high-resolution synchrotron powder diffraction and single-crystal synchrotron diffraction data. Small nontwinned single crystals were obtained by synthesizing the compound using solvothermal methods at temperatures below the cubic to orthorhombic phase transition. The average P-O-P angle is 146 degrees. DFT calculations (B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ) on the isolated P2O7(4-) anion yield a P-O-P angle of 153.42 degrees and indicate that the barrier to inversion is of the order 3.6 kJ mol(-1).

[Suprapubic Catheterization]

Resin-based Sealing of Root Canals in Endodontic Therapy

This study evaluated the effect of the obturation technique on leakage, which may be the primary cause of failure in endodontic treatment. The apical seal and leakage behavior of teeth obturated with a resin-based sealer and gutta-percha alternative were compared to conventionally obturated teeth. Sound premolars (N = 10) were instrumented and treated by conventional root canal obturation. A second group (N = 10) was treated with the Resilon-Epiphany system and the remaining 10 roots were divided into two groups (N = 5) and obturated without sealer. A detector electrode was placed coronally in each root in contact with the obturation system and sealed in place and the apices were left patent. The teeth were immersed in 0.9% sodium chloride with a stainless steel counter electrode. A 20V potential was connected between the stainless steel and each tooth in turn with current flow determined by voltage drop across a standard resistor. Leakage was followed for 30 days and statistically analyzed for differences between groups. All teeth in Groups 1, 3A, and 38 (p > 0.05) leaked at 30 days. In Group 2, four roots showed no leakage, five roots showed minimal leakage, and one root exhibited a leakage current at a greater magnitude than the others in the group. A significant difference (p < 0.005) was found between Groups 1 and 2 but not between Group 1 and Groups 3A and 3B (p > 0.05) or between Group 2 and Groups 3A and 3B.

["Heredity and Cancer"--a Special Feature Issue with Problems]

[Wrong Citation--correction and a Comment]

Retrograde Intrarenal Stone Surgery for Extracorporeal Shock-wave Lithotripsy-resistant Kidney Stones

The newer flexible ureteroscopes, 150-200-microm holmium YAG laser fibres and superflexible Dormia baskets have made it possible to reach and treat stones in all parts of the kidney. The object of this evaluation was to study the outcome of retrograde intrarenal stone surgery (RIRS) for extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL)-resistant kidney stones.

[Molecular Genetics of Myeloproliferative Diseases]

[Thymidine and Phenylalanine--a Reply]

The Likely Impact of Elevated [CO2], Nitrogen Deposition, Increased Temperature and Management on Carbon Sequestration in Temperate and Boreal Forest Ecosystems: a Literature Review

Temperate and boreal forest ecosystems contain a large part of the carbon stored on land, in the form of both biomass and soil organic matter. Increasing atmospheric [CO2], increasing temperature, elevated nitrogen deposition and intensified management will change this C store. Well documented single-factor responses of net primary production are: higher photosynthetic rate (the main [CO2] response); increasing length of growing season (the main temperature response); and higher leaf-area index (the main N deposition and partly [CO2] response). Soil organic matter will increase with increasing litter input, although priming may decrease the soil C stock initially, but litter quality effects should be minimal (response to [CO2], N deposition, and temperature); will decrease because of increasing temperature; and will increase because of retardation of decomposition with N deposition, although the rate of decomposition of high-quality litter can be increased and that of low-quality litter decreased. Single-factor responses can be misleading because of interactions between factors, in particular those between N and other factors, and indirect effects such as increased N availability from temperature-induced decomposition. In the long term the strength of feedbacks, for example the increasing demand for N from increased growth, will dominate over short-term responses to single factors. However, management has considerable potential for controlling the C store.

IL-20 Gene Expression is Induced by IL-1beta Through Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase and NF-kappaB-dependent Mechanisms

IL-20 is a novel member of the IL-10 cytokine family with pleiotropic effects. Current knowledge of what triggers and regulates IL-20 gene expression is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of IL-20 expression in cultured normal human keratinocytes. The expression of IL-20 was rapidly induced by proinflammatory stimuli, in particular IL-1beta, IL-6, and UVB irradiation. Using kinase inhibitors and small-interfering RNA, we discovered that the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as well as inhibitory kappaB kinase-NF-kappaB signaling pathways are crucial for IL-20 expression. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay two kappaB-binding sites were identified upstream from the start codon in the IL-20 gene. Supershift analysis revealed binding of the p50/p65 heterodimer. Furthermore, the p38 MAPK was shown to exert its effects on IL-20 expression through activation of the downstream kinase mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1), indicating transactivation of NF-kappaB driven IL-20 messenger RNA transcription as an important mechanism of action. IL-20 is assumed to be a key cytokine in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and possibly cancer, and therefore the p38 MAPK, MSK1, and NF-kappaB may be important new molecular targets for the modulation of IL-20 expression in these diseases.

The Leakage Resistance of Endodontic Fiber Obturators

Fiber obturators have been introduced into endodontics but few reports exist regarding their efficacy compared to standard obturation materials. This study evaluated the leakage resistance of fiber obturators compared with other obturation materials. All specimens showed a progressive increase in leakage with time. The data indicate that fiber obturation and a new cone/sealer system provide the best canal obturation as evidenced by the leakage behavior.

New Phytologist and the Environment

Contribution of Environmental Mycobacteria to False-positive Serum ELISA Results for Paratuberculosis

To evaluate the effect of exposure to environmental mycobacteria on results of 2 commercial ELISAs for paratuberculosis in cattle.

Changes in Antimicrobial Susceptibility in a Population of Escherichia Coli Isolated from Feedlot Cattle Administered Ceftiofur Crystalline-free Acid

To determine effects of administration of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) on antimicrobial susceptibility of Escherichia coli in feedlot cattle.

68-year-old Woman with Hepatitis C and Abnormal Kidney Function

A 68-year-old woman with a history of hepatitis C (contracted from a blood transfusion in 1974) complicated by cirrhosis and portal hypertension came to the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, for evaluation for possible liver transplantation. Her symptomatic ascites had been treated initially with furosemide and spironolactone, but this treatment regimen was limited because of an increase in her creatinine level. During evaluation, hypertension (an average blood pressure of 180/90 mm Hg on 6-hour ambulatory monitoring) and abnormal renal function were noted. She was referred to our institution for further evaluation of her blood pressure and abnormal urinalysis results.

Environmental Mycobacteria in Soil and Water on Beef Ranches: Association Between Presence of Cultivable Mycobacteria and Soil and Water Physicochemical Characteristics

Exposure to environmental mycobacteria has been reported to be a factor contributing to false-positive results on bovine serological tests detecting antibodies to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Mptb). This study was conducted to investigate the association between recovery of mycobacteria from the environment of cattle and both (i) historically high or low seroprevalence to Mptb, and (ii) soil and water physicochemical characteristics. Eighty-two samples (soil and water) from nine beef cattle ranches in South-central and South Texas were assessed for the presence of mycobacteria. Twelve mycobacterial species were cultured from soil and water from four herds; no Mptb were detected in environmental samples. A positive culture of environmental mycobacteria from soil was significantly associated with lower pH and calcium as well as higher iron, zinc and manganese contents. Beef cattle are likely to be exposed to environmental mycobacteria that may contribute to false-positive results on ELISAs for Mptb infection. Exposure rates to these mycobacteria likely vary across small geographical areas and may be related to soil and/or water physicochemistry.

Isoprene Emission from Terrestrial Ecosystems in Response to Global Change: Minding the Gap Between Models and Observations

Coupled surface-atmosphere models are being used with increased frequency to make predictions of tropospheric chemistry on a 'future' earth characterized by a warmer climate and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration. One of the key inputs to these models is the emission of isoprene from forest ecosystems. Most models in current use rely on a scheme by which global change is coupled to changes in terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) which, in turn, is coupled to changes in the magnitude of isoprene emissions. In this study, we conducted measurements of isoprene emissions at three prominent global change experiments in the United States. Our results showed that growth in an atmosphere of elevated CO2 inhibited the emission of isoprene at levels that completely compensate for possible increases in emission due to increases in aboveground NPP. Exposure to a prolonged drought caused leaves to increase their isoprene emissions despite reductions in photosynthesis, and presumably NPP. Thus, the current generation of models intended to predict the response of isoprene emission to future global change probably contain large errors. A framework is offered as a foundation for constructing new isoprene emission models based on the responses of leaf biochemistry to future climate change and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

[Surgical Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in Denmark--1993-2003]

The treatment of BPH includes many possibilities, from medical treatment to open prostatectomy. During the last 20 years medical treatment has increasingly been used. Furthermore, new minimal invasive techniques have been developed. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the surgical treatment of BPH from 1993 to 2003.

[Investigation of Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms Among Men in General Practice and in Hospitals]

Many men over 50 years of age have lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). It is therefore important that evaluation of symptoms and treatment decision is mainly taken care of by the family practitioner. A guideline for evaluation of LUTS is described, giving the family practitioner an adequate tool for evaluation and decision-making. The guidelines also describe which patients should be referred to an urologist and the extent of supplementary evaluation that should be performed in this setting.

Prevalence and Pattern of Antimicrobial Susceptibility in Escherichia Coli Isolated from Pigs Reared Under Antimicrobial-free and Conventional Production Methods

To determine and compare levels and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from pigs on farms that did not use antimicrobial agents versus pigs produced under conventional methods.

Increases in Nitrogen Uptake Rather Than Nitrogen-use Efficiency Support Higher Rates of Temperate Forest Productivity Under Elevated CO2

Forest ecosystems are important sinks for rising concentrations of atmospheric CO(2). In previous research, we showed that net primary production (NPP) increased by 23 +/- 2% when four experimental forests were grown under atmospheric concentrations of CO(2) predicted for the latter half of this century. Because nitrogen (N) availability commonly limits forest productivity, some combination of increased N uptake from the soil and more efficient use of the N already assimilated by trees is necessary to sustain the high rates of forest NPP under free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE). In this study, experimental evidence demonstrates that the uptake of N increased under elevated CO(2) at the Rhinelander, Duke, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory FACE sites, yet fertilization studies at the Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory FACE sites showed that tree growth and forest NPP were strongly limited by N availability. By contrast, nitrogen-use efficiency increased under elevated CO(2) at the POP-EUROFACE site, where fertilization studies showed that N was not limiting to tree growth. Some combination of increasing fine root production, increased rates of soil organic matter decomposition, and increased allocation of carbon (C) to mycorrhizal fungi is likely to account for greater N uptake under elevated CO(2). Regardless of the specific mechanism, this analysis shows that the larger quantities of C entering the below-ground system under elevated CO(2) result in greater N uptake, even in N-limited ecosystems. Biogeochemical models must be reformulated to allow C transfers below ground that result in additional N uptake under elevated CO(2).

Comparative Analysis of the Threaded and Tapered Locking Reconstruction Plates

Comparison of the Effects of Pioglitazone and Metformin on Hepatic and Extra-hepatic Insulin Action in People with Type 2 Diabetes

To determine mechanisms by which pioglitazone and metformin effect hepatic and extra-hepatic insulin action.

Endoluminal Isoproterenol Irrigation Decreases Renal Pelvic Pressure During Flexible Ureterorenoscopy: a Clinical Randomized, Controlled Study

Irrigation during ureterorenoscopic procedures causes increased pelvic pressure (PP), which may lead to intrarenal backflow with potential harmful consequences. This study aims to investigate PP response to intraluminal administration of isoproterenol (beta-agonist; ISO) during flexible ureterorenoscopy.

Comparison of Three Methods of Surveillance with Application to the Detection of Johne's Disease Seropositivity in Texas Cattle

Surveillance and monitoring are important for measuring the level of disease in a population, documenting changes in prevalence over time, determining high-risk areas for implementation of control measures, eradicating disease, and documenting freedom from disease. The documentation of freedom from disease has importance for international trade and the resumption of production after an outbreak. Johne's disease (JD) is an example of an endemic disease of cattle that has variable prevalence related to environmental and animal-level factors. Three methods of sample collection were used to describe the prevalence and distribution of JD seropositivity in Texas. Sampled cattle were: (1) extensively managed herds, (2) market cattle, and (3) clinically ill cattle examined by practicing veterinarians throughout Texas. Samples were evaluated for JD using a commercially available serum ELISA. Proportion of seropositive samples was compared and spatial distributions were evaluated for clustering. Difference of JD seropositivity was observed among the three sample populations suggesting that estimation of disease prevalence is dependant upon the source of samples.

Longitudinal Study of Antimicrobial Resistance Among Escherichia Coli Isolates from Integrated Multisite Cohorts of Humans and Swine

In a 3-year longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the seasonal prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) Escherichia coli isolates from human wastewater and swine fecal samples and the following risk factors: the host species, the production type (swine), the vocation (human swine workers, non-swine workers, and slaughter plant workers), and the season, in a multisite, vertically integrated swine and human population representative of a closed agri-food system. Human and swine E. coli (n = 4,048 and 3,429, respectively) isolates from wastewater and fecal samples were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, using the Sensititre broth microdilution system. There were significant (P < 0.05) differences among AR E. coli prevalence levels of (i) the host species, in which swine isolates were at higher risk for resistance to tetracycline, kanamycin, ceftiofur, gentamicin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, sulfisoxazole, and ampicillin; (ii) the swine production group, in which purchased boars, nursery piglets, and breeding boars isolates had a higher risk of resistance to streptomycin and tetracycline; and iii) the vocation cohorts, in which swine worker cohort isolates exhibited lower sulfisoxazole and cefoxitin prevalence than the non-swine worker cohorts, while the slaughter plant worker cohort isolates exhibited elevated cefoxitin prevalence compared to that of non-swine workers. While a high variability was observed among seasonal samples over the 3-year period, no significant temporal trends were apparent. There were significant differences in the prevalence levels of multidrug-resistant isolates between host species, with swine at a higher risk of carrying multidrug-resistant strains than humans. Considering vocation, slaughter plant workers were at higher risk of exhibiting multidrug-resistant E. coli than non-swine workers.

Recurrent Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy After Kidney Transplantation: a Surveillance Biopsy Study

Membranous nephropathy (MN) is a common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults. MN can recur after kidney transplantation causing proteinuria, allograft dysfunction and graft failure. In this study we assessed the incidence of MN recurrence utilizing surveillance graft biopsies. The study included 1310 renal allograft recipients from 2000 to 2006. Glomerular diseases were the cause of kidney failure in 28% of patients and 23 (2%) had idiopathic MN. Recurrent MN was diagnosed in eight of 19 patients included in this analysis (42%) 13 +/- 20 months (median = 4; range 2-61 months) after transplant. The initial clinical manifestations of recurrent MN were mild or absent. Urine protein excretion was 825 +/- 959 (64-2286) mg/day and three patients had no proteinuria. Five of seven patients who did not receive additional immunosuppression for MN had significant increases in proteinuria during follow up and three became nephrotic. At diagnosis, light microscopic changes were subtle or absent. All patients had granular glomerular basement membrane deposits of IgG but little or absent C3 by immunofluorescence. Subepithelial deposits were observed in all cases by electron microscopy. In conclusion, idiopathic MN recurred in 42% of patients after transplantation. The initial clinical and histologic manifestations are subtle but the disease is progressive.

Analysis of Nitric Oxide-cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Signaling During Metamorphosis of the Nudibranch Phestilla Sibogae Bergh (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia)

The gas nitric oxide (NO), and in some cases its downstream second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) function in different taxa to regulate the timing of life-history transitions. Increased taxonomic sampling is required to foster conclusions about the evolution and function of NO/cGMP signaling during life-history transitions. We report on the function and localization of NO and cGMP signaling during metamorphosis of the nudibranch Phestilla sibogae. Pharmacological manipulation of NO or cGMP production in larvae modulated responses to a natural settlement cue from the coral Porites compressa in a manner that suggest inhibitory function for NO/cGMP signaling. However, these treatments were not sufficient to induce metamorphosis in the absence of cue, a result unique to this animal. We show that induction of metamorphosis in response to the settlement cue is associated with a reduction in NO production. We documented the expression of putative NO synthase (NOS) and the production of cGMP during larval development and observed no larval cells in which NOS and cGMP were both detected. The production of cGMP in a bilaterally symmetrical group of cells fated to occupy the distal tip of rhinophores is correlated with competence to respond to the coral settlement cue. These results suggest that endogenous NO and cGMP are involved in modulating responses of P. sibogae to a natural settlement cue. We discuss these results with respect to habitat selection and larval ecology.

Next Generation of Elevated [CO2] Experiments with Crops: a Critical Investment for Feeding the Future World

A rising global population and demand for protein-rich diets are increasing pressure to maximize agricultural productivity. Rising atmospheric [CO(2)] is altering global temperature and precipitation patterns, which challenges agricultural productivity. While rising [CO(2)] provides a unique opportunity to increase the productivity of C(3) crops, average yield stimulation observed to date is well below potential gains. Thus, there is room for improving productivity. However, only a fraction of available germplasm of crops has been tested for CO(2) responsiveness. Yield is a complex phenotypic trait determined by the interactions of a genotype with the environment. Selection of promising genotypes and characterization of response mechanisms will only be effective if crop improvement and systems biology approaches are closely linked to production environments, that is, on the farm within major growing regions. Free air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiments can provide the platform upon which to conduct genetic screening and elucidate the inheritance and mechanisms that underlie genotypic differences in productivity under elevated [CO(2)]. We propose a new generation of large-scale, low-cost per unit area FACE experiments to identify the most CO(2)-responsive genotypes and provide starting lines for future breeding programmes. This is necessary if we are to realize the potential for yield gains in the future.

CO2 Enrichment Increases Carbon and Nitrogen Input from Fine Roots in a Deciduous Forest

* Greater fine-root production under elevated [CO2] may increase the input of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) to the soil profile because fine root populations turn over quickly in forested ecosystems. * Here, the effect of elevated [CO)] was assessed on root biomass and N inputs at several soil depths by combining a long-term minirhizotron dataset with continuous, root-specific measurements of root mass and [N]. The experiment was conducted in a CO(2)-enriched sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) plantation. * CO2) enrichment had no effect on root tissue density or [N] within a given diameter class. Root biomass production and standing crop were doubled under elevated [CO2]. Though fine-root turnover declined under elevated [CO2], fine-root mortality was also nearly doubled under CO2 enrichment. Over 9 yr, root mortality resulted in 681 g m(-2) of extra C and 9 g m(-2) of extra N input to the soil system under elevated [CO2]. At least half of these inputs were below 30 cm soil depth. * Increased C and N input to the soil under CO2 enrichment, especially below 30 cm depth, might alter soil C storage and N mineralization. Future research should focus on quantifying root decomposition dynamics and C and N mineralization deeper in the soil.

[Point Mutations Behind Familial Dysalbuminemic Hyperthyroxinemia]

Raman Scattering Properties of a Protonic Titanate HxTi2-x/4[symbol: See Text]x/4O4.H2O ([symbol: See Text], Vacancy; X=0.7) with Lepidocrocite-type Layered Structure

Raman scattering spectroscopy is employed to characterize a layered titanate HxTi2-x/4[symbol: see text]x/4O4.H2O ([symbol: see text]: vacancy; x=0.7) with lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH)-type layered structure. Nine Raman lines corresponding to (3Ag+3B1g+3B3g) Raman-active modes expected from this orthorhombic structure (space group D2h25-Immm) are recorded at 183, 270, 387, 449, 558, 658, 704, 803, and 908 cm(-1), which are assigned to Ti-O lattice vibrations within the two-dimensional (2D) lepidocrocite-type TiO6 octahedral host layers. These intrinsic Raman bands present a clear signature that can be used for probing the protonic titanate HxTi2-x/4[symbol: see text]x/4O4.H2O and the 2D titanate nanosheets, as well as their corresponding derivates.

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Enteric Bacteria Recovered from Feedlot Cattle Administered Chlortetracycline in Feed

To evaluate administration of chlortetracycline in feed of cattle as a method to select for tetracycline resistance among enteric bacteria in feedlot settings.

Effects of Pioglitazone and Metformin on NEFA-induced Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes

We sought to determine whether pioglitazone and metformin alter NEFA-induced insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes and, if so, the mechanism whereby this is effected.

Increased Mercury in Forest Soils Under Elevated Carbon Dioxide

Fossil fuel combustion is the primary anthropogenic source of both CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere. On a global scale, most Hg that enters ecosystems is derived from atmospheric Hg that deposits onto the land surface. Increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2 may affect Hg deposition to terrestrial systems and storage in soils through CO(2)-mediated changes in plant and soil properties. We show, using free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments, that soil Hg concentrations are almost 30% greater under elevated atmospheric CO2 in two temperate forests. There were no direct CO2 effects, however, on litterfall, throughfall or stemflow Hg inputs. Soil Hg was positively correlated with percent soil organic matter (SOM), suggesting that CO(2)-mediated changes in SOM have influenced soil Hg concentrations. Through its impacts on SOM, elevated atmospheric CO2 may increase the Hg storage capacity of soils and modulate the movement of Hg through the biosphere. Such effects of rising CO2, ones that transcend the typically studied effects on C and nutrient cycling, are an important next phase for research on global environmental change.

Associations Between Dietary Factors and Pancreatitis in Dogs

To estimate associations between dietary factors and pancreatitis in dogs. Design-Retrospective case-control study.

[Loved Child...many Names of Lactose Intolerance]

Strength Analysis of 6 Resorbable Implant Systems: Does Heating Affect the Stress-strain Curve?

The objective was to directly compare the strength of 6 different resorbable implant plating systems using an in vitro model before and after heating.

[Lactose- and Other Intolerance]

Retrograde Ureteroscopic Holmium Laser Endopyelotomy in a Selected Population of Patients with Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction

Significant controversy remains concerning the best way to treat ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). This study evaluates subjective and objective outcomes of retrograde holmium laser endopyelotomy in a selected population with UPJO.

The Impact of Seasonal Variability in Wildlife Populations on the Predicted Spread of Foot and Mouth Disease

Modeling potential disease spread in wildlife populations is important for predicting, responding to and recovering from a foreign animal disease incursion such as foot and mouth disease (FMD). We conducted a series of simulation experiments to determine how seasonal estimates of the spatial distribution of white-tailed deer impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of potential FMD outbreaks. Outbreaks were simulated in a study area comprising two distinct ecoregions in South Texas, USA, using a susceptible-latent-infectious-resistant geographic automata model (Sirca). Seasonal deer distributions were estimated by spatial autoregressive lag models and the normalized difference vegetation index. Significant (P < 0.0001) differences in both the median predicted number of deer infected and number of herds infected were found both between seasons and between ecoregions. Larger outbreaks occurred in winter within the higher deer-density ecoregion, whereas larger outbreaks occurred in summer and fall within the lower deer-density ecoregion. Results of this simulation study suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion in a population of wildlife would depend on the density of the population infected and when during the year the incursion occurs. It is likely that such effects would be seen for FMD incursions in other regions and countries, and for other diseases, in cases in which a potential wildlife reservoir exists. Study findings indicate that the design of a mitigation strategy needs to take into account population and seasonal characteristics.

Crystal Structures of Titanate Nanotubes: a Raman Scattering Study

Crystal structures of titanate nanotubes prepared from a NaOH treatment of TiO(2) with subsequent acid washing were discussed from a viewpoint of vibrational spectroscopy. The correlation between the vibrational feature and the polymerization nature of the TiO(6) octahedron was established by analyzing Raman scattering data of crystalline TiO(2) (anatase and rutile) and layered protonic titanates. Then, the polymerization nature of TiO(6) octahedra in the titanate nanotubes was identified by comparing their Raman scattering spectra with those of the crystalline TiO(2) and layered protonic titanates. It demonstrated that the titanate nanotubes consist of two-dimensional TiO(6) octahedral host layers with a lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH)-type layered structure. This conclusion was confirmed further by considering the Raman scattering properties of a restacked titanate prepared by assembling TiO(6) octahedral layers derived from the original scroll-like titanate nanotubes. Our findings offered a convenient approach to validate the crystal structures of the products from an alkaline treatment of TiO(2) under different experimental conditions.

Maternal and Foetal Outcomes in Pregnant Patients with Active Lupus Nephritis

The objective of this study was to determine the impact of lupus nephritis disease activity on maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Medical records of all pregnant patients with SLE treated at our institution between 1976 and 2007 were reviewed. All patients met American College of Rheumatology classification criteria for SLE. Demographic data, history of lupus nephritis, nephritis disease activity and maternal and foetal outcomes of pregnancy were abstracted. Active lupus nephritis was defined as the presence of proteinuria >0.5 g/day and/or active urinary sediment with or without an elevation in serum creatinine (Cr). Quiescent lupus nephritis was confirmed in the presence of proteinuria <0.5 mg/day and inactive urinary sediment. We identified 58 patients with 90 pregnancies. Compared with pregnancies in SLE patients without renal involvement (n = 47), pregnancies in patients with active lupus nephritis (n = 23) were associated with a higher incidence of maternal complications (57% vs 11%, P < 0.001), whereas those with quiescent lupus nephritis (n = 20) were not (35% vs 11%, P = 0.10). Women with active lupus nephritis were more likely to deliver preterm than women without lupus nephritis, median of 34 weeks vs 40 gestational weeks, respectively (P = 0.002) and were more likely to suffer foetal loss (35% vs 9%, P = 0.031). Active, but not quiescent, lupus nephritis during pregnancy is associated with a higher incidence of maternal and foetal complications compared with pregnancies in SLE patients without renal involvement.

Effect of Fluvastatin on Cardiac Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Randomized Placebo-controlled Study

Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), with or without end-stage renal failure, are at increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. Although statin therapy has been found to reduce cardiovascular risk in the general population, its effectiveness in kidney transplant recipients with SLE has not been examined. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of fluvastatin on cardiac end points in a randomized controlled trial of renal transplant patients with SLE.

Structural and Morphological Evolution of Beta-MnO2 Nanorods During Hydrothermal Synthesis

Beta-MnO(2) nanorods were synthesized via a redox reaction of (NH(4))(2)S(2)O(8) and MnSO(4) under hydrothermal conditions. In situ and ex situ x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were employed to follow the structural and morphological evolution during growth. It was found that the crystallization of beta-MnO(2) nanorods proceeds through two steps: gamma-MnO(2) nanorods form first via a dissolution-recrystallization process and then transform topologically into beta-MnO(2) with increasing temperature. The phase transformation was associated with a short-range rearrangement of MnO(6) octahedra. Vibrational spectroscopic studies showed that the beta-MnO(2) nanorods had four infrared absorptions at 726, 552, 462 and 418 cm(-1) and four Raman scattering bands at 759 (B(2g)), 662 (A(1g)), 576 (Ramsdellite impurity) and 537 (E(g)) cm(-1), which are in agreement with Mn-O lattice vibrations within a rutile-type MnO(6) octahedral matrix.

Microstructures, Surface Properties, and Topotactic Transitions of Manganite Nanorods

Manganite (gamma-MnOOH) nanorods with typical diameters of 20-500 nm and lengths of several micrometers were prepared by reacting KMnO(4) and ethanol under hydrothermal conditions. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveal that the gamma-MnOOH nanorods crystallize in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with unit cell dimensions a = 5.2983(3) A, b = 5.2782(2) A, c = 5.3067(3) A, and beta = 114.401(2) degrees . Transmission electron microscopy shows that the gamma-MnOOH nanorods are single crystalline and that lateral attachment occurs for primary rods elongated along 101. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the surfaces of the gamma-MnOOH nanorods are hydrogen deficient and compensated by surface complexation. The Raman scattering spectrum features five main contributions at 360, 389, 530, 558, and 623 cm(-1) along with four weak ones at 266, 453, 492, and 734 cm(-1), attributed to Mn-O vibrations within MnO(6) octahedral frameworks. The structural stability of the gamma-MnOOH nanorods was discussed by means of in situ time-resolved synchrotron XRD. The monoclinic gamma-MnOOH nanorods transform into tetragonal beta-MnO(2) upon heating in air at about 200 degrees C. The reaction is topotactic and shows distinctive differences from those seen for bulk counterparts. A metastable, intermediate phase is observed, possibly connected with hydrogen release via the interstitial (1 x 1) tunnels of the gamma-MnOOH nanorods.

Quantification of the Bla(CMY-2) in Feces from Beef Feedlot Cattle Administered Three Different Doses of Ceftiofur in a Longitudinal Controlled Field Trial

The objective of this longitudinal controlled trial was to quantitatively compare carriage of a gene encoding for ceftiofur-resistance (bla(CMY-2)), standardized to a reference gene (16SrRNA), among total community DNA extracted from fecal samples collected from cattle treated with three different dose regimens of ceftiofur crystalline-free acid (CCFA) versus those untreated (controls). Sixty-one steers were assigned to three treatment regimens and housed in six pens. In each pen, five steers were treated and five were controls (one of the pens had six controls). CCFA administration was as follows: two-thirds dose treatment (4.4 mg/kg, on day 0), single-dose treatment (6.6 mg/kg, on day 0), and three-dose treatment (6.6 mg/kg, on days 0, 6, and 13). Fecal samples were collected on days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 18, 21, and 28. The gene copy numbers/gram of feces for bla(CMY-2) and 16SrRNA were determined in total community DNA samples using quantitative real-time PCR. The relationships between the quantities of standardized bla(CMY-2), nonstandardized bla(CMY-2), and nonstandardized 16SrRNA, and the explanatory variables (treatment, time, and treatment x time) were assessed using repeated measures mixed models. There were significant differences in each of the three models with respect to each explanatory variable. Overall, while steers administered three doses and two-thirds dose of CCFA had significantly higher quantities of nonstandardized bla(CMY-2) than controls, the standardized values were lower. The administration of CCFA in feedlot cattle may provide selection pressure favoring higher levels of bla(CMY-2) carriage, but this may also lead to concurrent reductions in the total bacterial population (as reflected by lowered 16SrRNA) during the treatment period.

A Comparison Study on Raman Scattering Properties of Alpha- and Beta-MnO2

In this comment to a recent paper [Anal. Chim. Acta 585 (2007) 241-245], we report a comparison study on Mn oxide-related compounds with different crystallographic forms, which distinguish between beta-MnO(2) and alpha-MnO(2) type materials via Raman scattering (RS) spectroscopy. The tetragonal rutile-type beta-MnO(2) is characterized by a RS band at approximately 667cm(-1) of symmetry A(1g), whereas the alpha-MnO(2) type materials feature two main RS contributions at about 574 and 634cm(-1), belonging to A(g) spectroscopic species of a tetragonal hollandite-type framework. These data represent a clear signature for identifying beta-MnO(2) and alpha-MnO(2) type materials via RS spectroscopy.

Evaluation of a 384-well Format for High-throughput Real-time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction for Avian Influenza Testing

As concerns over the global spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 have heightened, more countries are faced with increased surveillance efforts and incident response planning for handling a potential outbreak. The incorporation of molecular techniques in most diagnostic laboratories has enabled fast and efficient testing of many agents of concern, including avian influenza. However, the need for high-throughput testing remains. In this study, the use of a 384-well format for high-throughput real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) testing for avian influenza is described. The analytical sensitivity of a real-time RT-PCR assay for avian influenza virus matrix gene with the use of both 96- and 384-well assay formats and serial dilutions of transcribed control RNA were comparable, resulting in similar limits of detection. Of 28 hunter-collected cloacal swabs that were positive by virus isolation, 26 (92.9%) and 27 (96.4%) were positive in the 96- and 384-well assays, respectively; of the 340 hunter-collected swabs that were negative by virus isolation, 45 (13.2%) and 23 (6.8%) were positive in the 96- and 384-well assays, respectively. The data presented herein supports the utility of the 384-well format in the event of an avian influenza outbreak for high-throughput real-time RT-PCR testing.

Introduction to a Virtual Special Issue: Probing the Carbon Cycle with (13)C

Syntheses, Structures, and Magnetic Properties of Nickel-doped Lepidocrocite Titanates

Ni-doped titanate Cs(x)Ti(2-x/2)Ni(x/2)O(4) and its protonic derivative H(x)Ti(2-x/2)Ni(x/2)O(4) x xH(2)O (x = 0.7) were synthesized and characterized by means of synchrotron X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and magnetic measurements. Cs(x)Ti(2-x/2)Ni(x/2)O(4) crystallizes in an orthorhombic structure (space group Immm), consisting of infinite two-dimensional (2D) host layers of the lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) type. The substitution of Ni atoms for Ti in the 2D octahedral layers results in negative charges that are compensated by interlayer Cs(+) ions. Raman scattering and XPS indicate that local structural perturbations are induced upon exchange of interlayer Cs ions with protons H(3)O(+). Magnetic measurements reveal typical paramagnetism induced by Ni substitution; the effective paramagnetic moment mu(eff) = 1.57(1) mu(B) and Curie-Weiss temperature -2.51(1) K are obtained for H(x)Ti(2-x/2)Ni(x/2)O(4) x xH(2)O. Ni- and Mg-codoped titanates Cs(x)Ti(2-x/2)(Ni(y)Mg(1-y))(x/2)O(4) (x = 0.7, 0 < or = y < or = 1) were also reported. The crystal structure, interlayer chemistry, and magnetic properties of the titanates depend on the Ni substitution levels, indicating opportunities for tuning of the properties by controlling the nature and level of lattice substitutions.

[Convalescence and Sick Leave Following Transurethral Prostatectomy]

Recovery after transurethral prostatectomy (TUR-P) is characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and haematuria often affecting the patient's social life negatively. Procedure-specific information reduces the patient's anxiety postoperatively. When giving advice on level of activity during recovery, the risk of haematuria is the most important factor. Since bleeding ceases in 95% of cases within three weeks, patients should avoid hard physical activity for three weeks. Normal activity can be resumed immediately, although bothersome LUTS may be a limiting factor. Equivalent advice should be given with regard to the need for sick-leave.

Local Condensation Around Oxygen Vacancies in T-LaNbO4 from First Principles Calculations

First principles calculations reveal that formation of a fully ionized oxide vacancy leads to local condensation of coordination polyhedra forming Nb3O11(7-) in t-LaNbO4.

Recurrent Idiopathic Membranous Nephropathy: Early Diagnosis by Protocol Biopsies and Treatment with Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibodies

Membranous nephropathy (MN) recurs posttransplant in 42% of patients. We compared MN recurrence rates in a historical cohort transplanted between 1990 and 1999 and in a current cohort diagnosed by protocol biopsies, we analyzed the progression of the disease and we assessed the effects of anti-CD20 antibodies (Rituximab) on recurrent MN. The incidence of recurrent MN was similar in the historical (53%) and the current cohorts (41%), although in the later the diagnosis was made earlier (median, 4[2-21] months vs. 83[6-149], p = 0.002) and the disease was clinically milder. Twelve out of 14 patients (86%) with recurrent MN in the current cohort had progressive increases in proteinuria. Eight recipients were treated with Rituximab after their proteinuria increased from median, 211 mg/day (64-4898) at diagnosis to 4489 (898-13 855) (p = 0.038). Twelve months post-Rituximab, 75% of patients had either partial (PR) or complete remission (CR). After 24 months 6/7 (86%) had PR/CR and one patient relapsed. Posttreatment biopsies showed resorption of electron dense immune deposits in 6/7 cases and were negative for C3 (4/7) and IgG (3/7). Protocol biopsies allow early diagnosis of subclinical recurrent MN, which is often progressive. Treatment of recurrent MN with Rituximab is promising and should be evaluated in a prospective randomized controlled trial.

Efficient Complete Oxidation of Acetaldehyde into CO2 over Au/TiO2 Core-shell Nano Catalyst Under UV and Visible Light Irradiation

Photocatalytic degradation of acetaldehyde and its photocatalytic mechanisms over Au/TiO2 core-shell nano catalyst were, for the first time, investigated under UV and visible light irradiation. The results indicate that Au/TiO2 core-shell catalyst shows higher activity for the oxidation of acetaldehyde into CO2 under both UV and visible light irradiation comparing with P-25 and metal-deposited TiO2 photocatalysts. When Au/TiO2 core-shell catalyst is excited by UV light, the Au-core acts as the sink to restore the separated electrons, thus to improve the photoinduced charge separation; while under visible light irradiation, the mechanism can be understood as the coordinate effect of the plasmon resonance of Au-core particles and the formation of an impurity energy level induced by TiO(2-x)F(x).

Preparation of Nb-substituted Titanates by a Novel Sol-gel Assisted Solid State Reaction

Single-phase layered Nb-substituted titanates, Na(2)Ti(3-x)Nb(x)O(7) (x = 0-0.06) and Cs(0.7)Ti(1.8-x)Nb(x)O(4) (x = 0-0.03), were for the first time synthesized by a novel sol-gel assisted solid state reaction (SASSR) route. Conventional solid state reactions as well as sol-gel synthesis did not succeed in producing phase pure Nb-substituted titanates. In the SASSR synthesis route we combine the advantages of traditional sol-gel technique (i.e., homogeneous products formed at low temperatures) and solid state reaction (i.e., formation of stable, crystalline phases) for preparing single-phase niobium-substituted layered titanates. The obtained products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Results indicate that the Ti(IV) in the host layer of the samples could be partially replaced by Nb(V) without structural deterioration. After proton-exchange, more water molecules were intercalated into the interlayer of H(0.7)Ti(1.8-x)Nb(x)O(4) x nH(2)O with increasing niobium content, whereas the interlayer distance of H(2)Ti(3-x)Nb(x)O(7) (x = 0-0.06) was unchanged.

Critical Parameters for Modelling the Spread of Foot-and-mouth Disease in Wildlife

A series of simulation experiments was conducted to determine how estimates of the latent and infectious periods, number of neighbours (contacts) and population size impact on the predicted magnitude and distribution of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks in white-tailed deer in southern Texas. Outbreaks were simulated using a previously developed and applied susceptible-latent-infected-recovered geographic automata model. There were substantial differences in the estimated predicted number of deer and locations infected, based on the model parameters used (3779-119 879 deer infected and 227-6526 locations affected). There were also substantial differences in the spatial risk of infection based on the model parameters used. The predicted spread of FMD was found to be most sensitive to the assumed latent period and the assumed number of contacts. How these parameters are estimated is likely to be critical in studies on the impact of FMD spread in situations in which wildlife reservoirs might potentially exist.

Purification and Characterization of a New Recombinant Factor VIII (N8)

SUMMARY: A new recombinant factor VIII (FVIII), N8, has been produced in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The molecule consists of a heavy chain of 88 kDa including a 21 amino acid residue truncated B-domain and a light chain of 79 kDa. The two chains are held together by non-covalent interactions. The four-step purification includes capture, affinity purification using a monoclonal recombinant antibody, anion exchange chromatography and gel filtration. The specific clotting activity of N8 was 8800-9800 IU mg(-1). Sequence and mass spectrometry analysis revealed two variants of the light chain, corresponding to two alternative N-terminal sequences also known from plasma FVIII. Two variants of the heavy chain are present in the purified product, namely with and without the B-domain linker attached. This linker is removed upon thrombin activation of N8 rendering an activated FVIII (FVIIIa) molecule similar to plasma FVIIIa. All six known tyrosine sulphations of FVIII were confirmed in N8. Two N-linked glycosylations are present in the A3 and C1 domain of the light chain and two in the A1 domain of the heavy chain. The majority of the N-linked glycans are sialylated bi-antennary structures. An O-glycosylation site is present in the B-domain linker region. This site was glycosylated with a doubly sialylated GalNAc-Gal structure in approximately 65% of the product. In conclusion, the present data show that N8 is a pure and well-characterized FVIII product with biochemical properties that equal other FVIII products.

Forgetting to Forget: on the Duration of Voluntary Suppression of Neutral and Emotional Memories

Can we control the content of our memory and forget what we do not want to think about by an act of will? If so, is forgetting temporary or permanent, and is it independent of the nature of what we wish to forget? Using Anderson and Green's (2001) "think/no-think" paradigm with neutral and emotional nouns, we found in agreement with other studies that memory for neutral words was reduced instantly upon repeated attempts at suppression. However, the effect was temporary and vanished after a period of one week, which strongly suggests that intended memory suppression interferes with immediate retrieval but does not lead to long-term forgetting. Furthermore, the amount of training that clearly reduced immediate recall of neutral items did not at all reduce recall of emotional items. This finding is in accordance with the notion that emotional items have a higher degree of salience and tend to attract more attention than neutral items.

Challenges in Elevated CO2 Experiments on Forests

Current forest Free Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) experiments are reaching completion. Therefore, it is time to define the scientific goals and priorities of future experimental facilities. In this opinion article, we discuss the following three overarching issues (i) What are the most urgent scientific questions and how can they be addressed? (ii) What forest ecosystems should be investigated? (iii) Which other climate change factors should be coupled with elevated CO(2) concentrations in future experiments to better predict the effects of climate change? Plantations and natural forests can have conflicting purposes for high productivity and environmental protection. However, in both cases the assessment of carbon balance and how this will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations and the interacting climate change factors is the most pressing priority for future experiments.

Development, Implementation, and Results of the ASN In-training Examination for Fellows

The American Society of Nephrology and the fellowship training program directors in conjunction with the National Board of Medical Examiners developed a comprehensive assessment of medical knowledge for nephrology fellows in-training. This in-training examination (ITE) consisted of 150 multiple-choice items covering 11 broad content areas in a blueprint similar to the American Board of Internal Medicine certifying examination for nephrology. Questions consisted of case vignettes to simulate real-life clinical experience. The first examination was given in April 2009 to 682 fellows and six training program directors. Examinees felt that the examination was well structured and relevant to their training experience Longitudinal performance on the examination will be helpful in allowing training programs to utilize results from content areas in identifying deficits in medical knowledge as well as assessing the results of any curriculum changes.

Assessing the Similarity of Antimicrobial Resistance Phenotypes Among Fecal Escherichia Coli Isolates from Two Aggregated Occupational Cohorts of Humans Versus Swine Using Cluster Analysis and Multivariate Statistics

Statistical methods employed to analyze antimicrobial resistance (AR) phenotypic data have largely focused on multiple individual antimicrobial resistance outcomes without considering the pharmacologic and biological dependence among these data. In our 3-year longitudinal study, the relationship between AR phenotype of E. coli isolates from integrated multi-site group cohorts of humans and swine and the following risk factors: host-species (human versus swine) and human vocation (swine-workers versus non-workers) was assessed; first, by using cluster analysis techniques and then multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Human sewage wastewater draining from occupation-specific housing and swine fecal E. coli isolates (n=3,113 and 3,428, respectively) were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility to 15 agents on the 2003 NARMS panel using the Sensititre system (Trek Diagnostics, Cleveland, OH). The MIC values for each isolate were interpreted according to standardized breakpoints into resistant or susceptible. The phenotypic data (n=6,541) were cluster-analyzed using Ward's minimum variance with Jaccard's distance measure. The multivariate relationships of E. coli cluster membership with the risk factors in the study were assessed using a multivariate GEE model in a SAS((R)) macro to adjust for the multiple cluster dependencies as well as adjusting for response dependencies within each unit location. The cluster solution that best described our entire dataset and where the multivariate GEE model converged was 14. In general, the adjusted odds-ratios of the multiple clusters (i.e., 14 clusters) for human isolates were significantly (P<0.05) at a higher odds of being in the pansusceptible cluster (OR=12.8), and also in clusters that contained high levels of resistance to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, sulfisoxazole, and/or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, when compared to swine isolates. The adjusted odds-ratios of the multiple clusters for non-swine worker isolates were at significantly (P<0.05) higher risk of being in the pansusceptible cluster (OR=13.6) compared to swine-worker isolates (OR=12.1) (swine isolates were the referent group). In general, the adjusted odds-ratios of the multiple clusters for swine-worker E. coli isolates were significantly (P<0.05) at higher odds of being in multi-resistant clusters (defined as resistant to >or=3 antimicrobial agents) as compared to non-swine worker isolates. Considering vocation, swine-worker E. coli isolates exhibited increased odds of falling in multi-drug resistance clusters compared to those isolates arising from non-swine-workers.

Soil Microbial Community Responses to Multiple Experimental Climate Change Drivers

Researchers agree that climate change factors such as rising atmospheric [CO2] and warming will likely interact to modify ecosystem properties and processes. However, the response of the microbial communities that regulate ecosystem processes is less predictable. We measured the direct and interactive effects of climatic change on soil fungal and bacterial communities (abundance and composition) in a multifactor climate change experiment that exposed a constructed old-field ecosystem to different atmospheric CO2 concentration (ambient, +300 ppm), temperature (ambient, +3 degrees C), and precipitation (wet and dry) might interact to alter soil bacterial and fungal abundance and community structure in an old-field ecosystem. We found that (i) fungal abundance increased in warmed treatments; (ii) bacterial abundance increased in warmed plots with elevated atmospheric [CO2] but decreased in warmed plots under ambient atmospheric [CO2]; (iii) the phylogenetic distribution of bacterial and fungal clones and their relative abundance varied among treatments, as indicated by changes in 16S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes; (iv) changes in precipitation altered the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and Acidobacteria, where Acidobacteria decreased with a concomitant increase in the Proteobacteria in wet relative to dry treatments; and (v) changes in precipitation altered fungal community composition, primarily through lineage specific changes within a recently discovered group known as soil clone group I. Taken together, our results indicate that climate change drivers and their interactions may cause changes in bacterial and fungal overall abundance; however, changes in precipitation tended to have a much greater effect on the community composition. These results illustrate the potential for complex community changes in terrestrial ecosystems under climate change scenarios that alter multiple factors simultaneously.

Prevalence and Patterns of Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Spp Isolated from Pigs Reared Under Antimicrobial-free and Conventional Production Methods in Eight States in the Midwestern United States

To compare apparent prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter spp in feces collected from pigs reared with antimicrobial-free versus conventional production methods in 8 states in the Midwestern United States.

Recurrence of Amyloidosis in a Kidney Transplant

The Impact of Potential Mitigation Strategies on the Predicted Spread of Foot and Mouth Disease in White-tailed Deer in South Texas

The United States has been free of FMD since the 1920s. Faced with an incursion of FMD virus that might involve wildlife species, it is crucial that appropriate mitigation strategies be applied rapidly to control the disease. Disease spread models can be used to evaluate the design of optimal strategies. Using a previously developed susceptible-infected-recovered geographic automata model (Sirca) to simulate the spread of FMD through white-tailed deer populations in south Texas, we conducted a series of experiments to determine how pre-emptive mitigation strategies applied to white-tailed deer populations might impact the predicted magnitude and distribution of outbreaks following FMD virus incursion. Based on previously derived deer distributions in the two ecoregions found within the study area, simulated outbreaks were evaluated by comparing the median number of deer predicted to be infected and the median area predicted affected for a baseline scenario and 3 mitigation strategies: targeted cull, random cull and targeted depopulation buffer. Substantial differences were observed in the predicted magnitude of outbreaks both by mitigation strategy and by ecoregion: depending on the ecoregion, the creation of a targeted depopulation buffer could reduce the number of deer predicted infected by up to 52%, and the area affected by up to 31%. Results suggest that the outcome of an FMD incursion that involves wildlife species, such as white-tailed deer in south Texas, might depend on both where the incursion occurs and the type of pre-emptive mitigation strategy applied.

[Spieghel Hernia]

[The God and Prenatal Diagnosis]

The B-domain of Factor VIII Reduces Cell Membrane Attachment to Host Cells Under Serum Free Conditions

Factor VIII (FVIII) is an important protein in the blood coagulation cascade and dysfunction or deficiency of FVIII causes haemophilia A. Replacement therapy with exogenous recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) works as a substitute for the missing or non-functioning FVIII. The rFVIII protein has been engineered extensively throughout the years to increase the low production yields that initially were obtained from mammalian cell cultures. The scope of this work was to investigate the interaction of rFVIII with the cell membrane surface of the producing cells in serum free medium. We wondered whether binding of rFVIII to the cell membrane could be a factor diminishing the production yield. We studied the contribution of the rFVIII B-domain to membrane attachment by transfecting several constructs containing increasing lengths of the B-domain into cells under serum free conditions. We found that 90% of rFVIII is attached to the cell membrane of the producing cell when the rFVIII variant contains a short B-domain (21aa). By increasing the length of the B-domain the membrane attached fraction can be reduced to 50% of the total expressed rFVIII. Further, our studies show that the N-linked glycosylations within the B-domain have no influence on either total expression level or membrane attachment properties.

Evaluation and Management of Pain in Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease

Transient episodes of pain are common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). A small fraction of patients have disabling chronic pain. In this review, we discuss the etiologies of pain in ADPKD; review how ADPKD patients should be assessed; and discuss medical, surgical, and other management options.

Correlation Between the Characteristic Green Emissions and Specific Defects of ZnO

In this work, the correlation between the characteristic green emissions and specific defects of ZnO was investigated through a series of experiments that were designed to separate the subtle interplays among the various types of specific defects. With physical analysis and multimode Brownian oscillator modeling, the underlying mechanisms of the variant effects on green emission were revealed. The results demonstrate that the observed green emissions can be identified as two types of individual emissions, namely high energy and low energy, that are associated with specific defects and their locations. The surface modification that leads to downwards band bending was found to be responsible for the high-energy green emission. The relationship between the intensity of the low- energy green emission and the crystallographic lattice contraction indicates that oxygen vacancy is the dominant cause of such an emission that resides within the bulk of ZnO.

Ab Initio Studies of Hydrogen and Acceptor Defects in Rutile TiO(2)

The behaviour of hydrogen in both defect free and acceptor doped bulk rutile TiO2 is investigated through defect calculations performed within the density functional theory formalism. Both interstitial and substitutional hydrogen defects are shown to behave as shallow donors in the material, thereby existing as effectively positive hydroxide defects, OH*(O), and substitutional hydrogen defects, H*O. Of the investigated isolated hydrogen defects, the OH*(O) defect is shown to have the lowest formation energy over the whole Fermi level range under both oxidising and reducing conditions. However, the formation energy of H*O is only 0.35 eV higher under conditions where TiO2 is in equilibrium with Ti2O3, indicating that it exists as a minority defect in rutile TiO2 under highly reducing conditions such as under growth of TiO2 on a Ti metal surface. The enthalpy of hydration of oxygen vacancies is calculated to be -1.64 and -1.60 eV for the 2 x 2 x 3 and 3 x 3 x 3 supercells, indicating that OH*(O) defects will prevail in wet atmospheres, even at high temperatures. Hydrogen incorporated in the material can furthermore be expected to associate significantly with various acceptor centres (e.g., substitutional N and Al acceptors and Ti vacancies). The binding energies of the substitutional NH(x)O (imide) defect and of the association complexes between H and fully ionised substitutional Al, (Al'Ti x OH*(O)), and Ti vacancies, (V(Ti)x OH*(O)and (V(Ti) x 4OH*(O)) (i.e., Ruetschi type defects), are calculated to be -0.36, -0.12, -0.47 and -0.82 eV, respectively.

Recurrent Lupus Nephritis After Kidney Transplantation: a Surveillance Biopsy Study

To determine the incidence of recurrent lupus nephritis (LN) in renal transplant recipients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

[Lupus-nephritis--diagnosis and Treatment]

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune, multiorgan disease that usually affects young women. The kidneys are affected (lupus nephritis) in close to one fifth of the patients. Over the past decade earlier diagnosis and improved treatment of lupus nephritis has resulted in substantial improvement of renal function and patient survival. Despite these advances, 10 - 15 % of SLE patients with lupus nephritis progress to end-stage renal disease, requiring dialysis or renal transplantation. The article outlines main principles for diagnosing and treating lupus nephritis, according to current practice at Oslo University Hospital.

Proton Mobility Through a Second Order Phase Transition: Theoretical and Experimental Study of LaNbO4

The gradual change in the crystal structure of the high temperature proton conductor LaNbO(4) through a second order phase transition and its relation to the activation enthalpy of mobility of protons have been studied by means of first principles calculations and conductivity measurements. The computations have revealed that protons diffuse by an inter-tetrahedral mechanism where the activation enthalpies of mobility are 39 and 60 kJ mol(-1) in tetragonal and monoclinic LaNbO(4), respectively. The activation enthalpy of mobility of protons for tetragonal LaNbO(4), determined from the conductivity curve, is 35 kJ mol(-1). Below the transition temperature the conductivity curve bends; initially dropping off steeply, followed by a less steep decrease towards lower temperatures. The bend in the conductivity curve at the onset of the phase transition in LaNbO(4) should not be given the traditional interpretation as an abrupt change in the activation enthalpy of mobility. After application of the proper analysis of the conductivity data, which takes the second order transition into account, the activation enthalpy of mobility of protons is found to continuously increase with increasing monoclinic angle at decreasing temperature, reaching approximately 57 kJ mol(-1) at 205 degrees C for the end monoclinic phase.

A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Pregnancy Outcomes in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis

Studies of the impact of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its pregnancy complications have yielded conflicting results. Major limitations of these studies relate to their small numbers of patients and retrospective designs. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic literature review of pregnancy outcomes in women with SLE and a meta-analysis of the association of lupus nephritis with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

CO2 Enhancement of Forest Productivity Constrained by Limited Nitrogen Availability

Stimulation of terrestrial plant production by rising CO(2) concentration is projected to reduce the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO(2) emissions. Coupled climate-carbon cycle models are sensitive to this negative feedback on atmospheric CO(2), but model projections are uncertain because of the expectation that feedbacks through the nitrogen (N) cycle will reduce this so-called CO(2) fertilization effect. We assessed whether N limitation caused a reduced stimulation of net primary productivity (NPP) by elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentration over 11 y in a free-air CO(2) enrichment (FACE) experiment in a deciduous Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum) forest stand in Tennessee. During the first 6 y of the experiment, NPP was significantly enhanced in forest plots exposed to 550 ppm CO(2) compared with NPP in plots in current ambient CO(2), and this was a consistent and sustained response. However, the enhancement of NPP under elevated CO(2) declined from 24% in 2001-2003 to 9% in 2008. Global analyses that assume a sustained CO(2) fertilization effect are no longer supported by this FACE experiment. N budget analysis supports the premise that N availability was limiting to tree growth and declining over time--an expected consequence of stand development, which was exacerbated by elevated CO(2). Leaf- and stand-level observations provide mechanistic evidence that declining N availability constrained the tree response to elevated CO(2); these observations are consistent with stand-level model projections. This FACE experiment provides strong rationale and process understanding for incorporating N limitation and N feedback effects in ecosystem and global models used in climate change assessments.

Climate Change Alters Seedling Emergence and Establishment in an Old-field Ecosystem

Ecological succession drives large-scale changes in ecosystem composition over time, but the mechanisms whereby climatic change might alter succession remain unresolved. Here, we asked if the effects of atmospheric and climatic change would alter tree seedling emergence and establishment in an old-field ecosystem, recognizing that small shifts in rates of seedling emergence and establishment of different species may have long-term repercussions on the transition of fields to forests in the future.

Mentoring for Subspecialty Training Program Directors: an Unrecognized, Unmet Need?

The benefits of mentoring residents have been studied, but there is no research about mentoring new program directors. Program directors' responsibilities have become increasingly complicated, and they may not be adequately prepared for their role at the time of appointment without the benefit of mentoring that is specific to their new role.

Nitrogen Defects from NH3 in Rare-earth Sesquioxides and ZrO2

Effects of nitrogen defects on the electrical properties of RE(2)O(3) (RE = Nd, Gd, Er, Y) and ZrO(2) have been investigated by equilibration in ammonia (NH(3)) atmospheres in the temperature range 1000-1200 °C. The electrical conductivity in ammonia corresponded to that in H(2)-Ar mixtures of similar pO(2). However, upon replacing ammonia with an inert gas, the conductivity increases abruptly, typically one order of magnitude, before gradually returning to its equilibrium value. A defect model based on dissolution and dissociation of effectively neutral imide defects substituting oxide ions, NH, is proposed to describe this behavior. Conductivity measurements are interpreted in terms of nitrogen acceptors which are passivated by protons in the presence of H(2)(g), and subsequently compensated by positive charge carriers in an inert atmosphere as out-diffusion of hydrogen leaves an effective acceptor, N. In the case of Y(2)O(3), a NH concentration of 0.7 mol% was estimated from quantification of the nitrogen and hydrogen contents of a sample quenched in NH(3).

Effects of Multiple Climate Change Factors on the Tall Fescue-fungal Endophyte Symbiosis: Infection Frequency and Tissue Chemistry

• Climate change (altered CO(2) , warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. • To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. • The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO(2) (91% infected) than with ambient CO(2) (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO(2) decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO(2) reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. • These results suggest that elevated CO(2) , more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

Optimisation of the Factor VIII Yield in Mammalian Cell Cultures by Reducing the Membrane Bound Fraction

In vivo, clotting Factor VIII (FVIII) circulates in plasma bound to von Willebrand factor (vWF), and the vWF:FVIII complex prevents binding of FVIII to phosphatidylserine (PS). Activation of FVIII by thrombin releases FVIII from vWF, and subsequently FVIII binds to PS exposed on activated platelets and forms the tenase complex together with clotting Factor IX. In vitro, during serum free production of recombinant FVIII (rFVIII), production cells also expose PS, and since vWF is not present to hinder interaction of secreted rFVIII with PS, rFVIII is partly associated with the cell membrane of the production cells. Recently, we showed that as much as 90% of secreted rFVIII is bound to transiently transfected production cells during serum free conditions. In this study, we investigated the effect of including vWF in the serum free medium, and demonstrate that addition of vWF results in release of active membrane bound rFVIII to the culture medium. Moreover, the attachment of rFVIII to cell membranes of un-transfected HEK293 cells was studied in the presence of compounds that competes for interactions between rFVIII and PS. Competitive assays between iodinated rFVIII (¹²⁵I-rFVIII) and annexin V or ortho-phospho-L-serine (OPLS) demonstrated that annexin V and OPLS were able to reduce the membrane bound fraction of rFVIII by 70% and 30%, respectively. Finally, adding OPLS to CHO cells stably expressing FVIII increased the yield by 50%. Using this new knowledge, the recovery of rFVIII could be increased considerably during serum free production of this therapeutic protein.

The Effect of Intramuscular Injection of Dinoprost or Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone in Dairy Cows on Beef Quality

Intramuscular injections of drugs and vaccines cause tissue damage and subsequent effects on tenderness and consumer acceptability of beef. In the 2007 National Market Cow and Bull Beef Quality Audit, 100% of plants reported fabricating subprimal cuts such as rib eyes and tenderloins from cow and bull carcasses. Dairy beef quality should therefore be a consideration when injections are given to dairy animals. The discussion about injection site reactions and tenderness has focused on vaccines and antimicrobial drugs with little concern for the effects of reproductive hormones. The objective of this study was to quantify antemortem the effects of semimembranosis/semitendinosis muscle injection of dinoprost and GnRH in lactating dairy cows by estimating the weight of tissue damaged and comparing that with a drug known to cause extensive tissue damage, flunixin meglumine. Tissue damage was estimated from previously reported equations for grams of muscle tissue damage based on area under the curve of serum concentrations of the muscle enzyme creatine kinase over time. Dinoprost and flunixin injection both caused a significantly increased estimate of muscle tissue damaged compared with needle only (P = 0.0351 and 0.0355, respectively). Dinoprost and flunixin caused a marginally significant increased muscle tissue damage compared with GnRH (P = 0.1394 and 0.1475, respectively). No statistically significant difference was found between the estimated weight of muscle tissue damaged by flunixin compared with dinoprost (P = 1.0000), or by saline compared with GnRH (P = 0.7736) or needle only (P = 0.4902). The assumption that reproductive hormones are less damaging than vaccines and antimicrobial drugs should be examined more closely, including postmortem evaluation of injection site lesions and effects on tenderness.

Carbon Cycling in Tropical Ecosystems

Premature Cardiovascular Disease in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Influences Survival After Renal Transplantation

To assess graft and patient survival as well as causes for graft loss and patient death after renal transplantation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Analgesic Drug Administration and Attitudes About Analgesia in Cattle Among Bovine Practitioners in the United States

To determine current attitudes and practices related to pain and analgesia in cattle among US veterinarians in bovine practice and to identify factors associated with these attitudes and practices.

Chronic Thrombotic Microangiopathy Secondary to Chemotherapy for Urothelial Carcinoma in a Patient with a History of Wegener Granulomatosis

We present the case of a 62-year-old man with a history of Wegener granulomatosis who developed chronic thrombotic microangiopathy attributed to gemcitabine chemotherapy. Wegener granulomatosis had been diagnosed 15 years earlier, and the patient was treated using cyclophosphamide and prednisone, then maintained on mycophenolate mofetil and prednisone. Four years previously, he had been treated with mitomycin C for urothelial carcinoma and at the time of presentation had developed significant anemia and thrombocytopenia after a course of gemcitabine and carboplatin due to metastasis of the carcinoma. He was managed using red blood cell and platelet transfusions but then developed acute kidney injury, along with progressive dyspnea and pulmonary infiltrates. Imaging studies showed bilateral ureteral obstruction requiring placement of nephrostomy tubes. Because of concern about a flare of Wegener granulomatosis after withdrawing maintenance immunosuppression in the context of the malignancy, a kidney biopsy was performed that showed chronic thrombotic microangiopathy, likely secondary to gemcitabine chemotherapy. Clinical, laboratory, and pathologic findings of this case are discussed to illustrate the natural history of thrombotic microangiopathy associated with gemcitabine chemotherapy.

Elevated COâ‚‚ Enhances Leaf Senescence During Extreme Drought in a Temperate Forest

In 2007, an extreme drought and acute heat wave impacted ecosystems across the southeastern USA, including a 19-year-old Liquidambar styraciflua L. (sweetgum) tree plantation exposed to long-term elevated (E(CO(2))) or ambient (A(CO(2))) CO(2) treatments. Stem sap velocities were analyzed to assess plant response to potential interactions between CO(2) and these weather extremes. Canopy conductance and net carbon assimilation (A(net)) were modeled based on patterns of sap velocity to estimate indirect impacts of observed reductions in transpiration under E(CO(2)) on premature leaf senescence. Elevated CO(2) reduced sap flow by 28% during early summer, and by up to 45% late in the drought during record-setting temperatures. Modeled canopy conductance declined more rapidly in E(CO(2)) plots during this period, thereby directly reducing carbon gain at a greater rate than in A(CO(2)) plots. Indeed, pre-drought canopy A(net) was similar across treatment plots, but declined to ∼40% less than A(net) in A(CO(2)) as the drought progressed, likely leading to negative net carbon balance. Consequently, premature leaf senescence and abscission increased rapidly during this period, and was 30% greater for E(CO(2)). While E(CO(2)) can reduce leaf-level water use under droughty conditions, acute drought may induce excessive stomatal closure that could offset benefits of E(CO(2)) to temperate forest species during extreme weather events.

Quality of Life in Kidney Donors

Reports on quality of life of kidney donors include small populations with variable response rates. The aim was to evaluate quality of life in kidney donors in a large cross-sectional study. Through the Norwegian Renal Registry we contacted all 1984 kidney donors in the period 1963-2007 with a response rate of 76%. All received the Short-Form-36 (SF-36) survey form and a questionnaire specifically designed for kidney donors. SF-36 scores for a subgroup (n = 1414) of kidney donors were not inferior to a general population sample, adjusted for age, gender and education. When asked to reconsider, a majority stated that they still would have consented to donate. Risk factors for having doubts were graft loss in the recipient (OR 3.1, p < 0.001), medical problems after donation (OR 3.7, p < 0.001), unrelated donor (OR 2.2, p = 0.01) and less than 12 years since donation (OR 1.8, p = 0.04). Older age at donation was associated with lower risk (OR 0.98, p = 0.03). Compared with other donors, those expressing doubts had inferior SF-36 scores. Norwegian kidney donors are mostly first-degree relatives. They are fully reimbursed and offered life-long follow-up. All inhabitants are provided universal healthcare. This should be considered when extrapolating these results to other countries.

Inflammation-associated Graft Loss in Renal Transplant Recipients

Although short-term graft survival has improved substantially in renal transplant recipients, long-term graft survival has not improved over the last decades. The lack of knowledge of specific causes and risk factors has hampered improvements in long-term allograft survival. There is an uncertainty if inflammation is associated with late graft loss.

Litterfall 15N Abundance Indicates Declining Soil Nitrogen Availability in a Free-air CO2 Enrichment Experiment

Forest productivity increases in response to carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment of the atmosphere. However, in nitrogen-limited ecosystems, increased productivity may cause a decline in soil nitrogen (N) availability and induce a negative feedback on further enhancement of forest production. In a free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiment, the response of sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) productivity to elevated CO2 concentrations [CO2] has declined over time, but documenting an associated change in soil N availability has been difficult. Here we assess the time history of soil N availability through analysis of natural 15N abundance in archived samples of freshly fallen leaf litterfall. Litterfall delta15N declined from 1998 to 2005, and the rate of decline was significantly faster in elevated [CO2]. Declining leaf litterfall delta15N is indicative of a tighter ecosystem N cycle and more limited soil N availability. By integrating N availability over time and throughout the soil profile, temporal dynamics in leaf litterfall delta15N provide a powerful tool for documenting changes in N availability and the critical feedbacks between C and N cycles that will control forest response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations.

Rosuvastatin in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis showed no effect of atorvastatin on a composite cardiovascular endpoint, but analysis of the component cardiac endpoints suggested that atorvastatin may significantly reduce risk. Because the AURORA (A Study to Evaluate the Use of Rosuvastatin in Subjects on Regular Hemodialysis: An Assessment of Survival and Cardiovascular Events) trial included patients with and without diabetes, we conducted a post hoc analysis to determine whether rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of cardiac events in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis. Among the 731 participants with diabetes, traditional risk factors such as LDL-C, smoking, and BP did not associate with cardiac events (cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction). At baseline, only age and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were independent risk factors for cardiac events. Assignment to rosuvastatin associated with a nonsignificant 16.2% reduction in risk for the AURORA trial's composite primary endpoint of cardiac death, nonfatal MI, or fatal or nonfatal stroke (HR 0.84; 95% CI 0.65 to 1.07). There was no difference in overall stroke, but the rosuvastatin group had more hemorrhagic strokes than the placebo group (12 versus two strokes, respectively; HR, 5.21; 95% CI 1.17 to 23.27). Rosuvastatin treatment significantly reduced the rates of cardiac events by 32% among patients with diabetes (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.90). In conclusion, among hemodialysis patients with diabetes mellitus, rosuvastatin might reduce the risk of fatal and nonfatal cardiac events.

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Calcification Following Kidney Transplantation for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Patients with SLE who undergo kidney transplantation are at increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of coronary artery calcification in transplanted SLE patients without coronary symptoms and to explore risk factors associated with coronary atherosclerosis.

Mentorship Programs for Gastroenterology Program Directors: is There an Unmet Need?

The purpose of this study was to determine whether a need exists for mentorship programs among gastroenterology (GI) fellowship program directors (PDs), to investigate specific areas where mentoring would be helpful, and to assess the willingness to establish mentoring relationships.

Prevalence and Genotypic Characteristics of Clostridium Difficile in a Closed and Integrated Human and Swine Population

Recently, an apparent rise in the number of cases attributed to community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection has led researchers to explore additional sources of infection. The finding of C. difficile in food animals and retail meat has raised concern about potential food-borne and occupational exposures. The objective of this study was to compare C. difficile isolated from a closed population of healthy individuals consisting of both humans and swine in order to investigate possible food safety and occupational risks for exposure. Using a multistep enrichment isolation technique, we identified 11.8% of the human wastewater samples and 8.6% of the swine samples that were positive for C. difficile. The prevalences of C. difficile in swine production groups differed significantly (P < 0.05); however, the prevalences in the two human occupational group cohorts did not differ significantly (P = 0.81). The majority of the human and swine isolates were similar based on multiple typing methods. The similarity in C. difficile prevalence in the human group cohorts suggests a low occupational hazard, while a greatly decreased prevalence of C. difficile in later-stage swine production groups suggests a diminished risk for food-borne exposure. The similarity of strains in the two host species suggests the possibility of a common environmental source for healthy individuals in a community setting.

Effects of Dietary Protein Content on Renal Parameters in Normal Cats

This study evaluates the effect of dietary protein content on renal parameters in 23 healthy spayed female cats. The objective was to determine if cats eating diets high in protein will have higher serum urea nitrogen (UN) and creatinine values without a detectable change in kidney function, as assessed by urinalysis. A single random cross-over design was used. Cats were fed a standard maintenance diet for at least 1 month prior to the dietary trial. They were fed in two phases. For the first phase, cats were randomly assigned to receive either a high protein [HP=46% metabolizable energy (ME)] or low protein (LP=26% ME) diet. For the second phase, cats were fed whichever diet they were not fed during the phase I period. Blood and urine samples were collected at 2-week intervals for the duration of the study (10 weeks). UN, albumin, alanine aminotransferase and urine specific gravity were significantly higher, and creatinine and phosphorus were significantly lower (P<0.05) when cats were fed the HP diet as compared to when they were fed the LP diet, although none of the mean values were found to be outside of the corresponding reference interval. Dietary intake can result in clinically significant changes in UN and statistically significantly changes in several other biochemical analytes, although all analytes are likely to remain within normal reference intervals. Therefore, an accurate dietary history is necessary to help determine if renal parameters are being influenced by diet in a particular patient.

Age, Gender, and Body Mass Index Are Associated with Renal Function After Kidney Donation

Renal function is thoroughly evaluated before live kidney donation. However, some donors experience impaired recovery of renal function after donation. Our aim was to assess estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and mean relative (%) increase in creatinine one yr after donor nephrectomy. The study was based on retrospective data from kidney donors during the period 1997-2009. Pre-operative and one-yr follow-up data were available for 721 of 1067 donors. Mean relative increase in creatinine and eGFR were stratified by gender, body mass index (BMI), and age at donation. At one yr post-donation, overweight (BMI > 5 kg/m(2) ) women 50 yr or older experienced the lowest eGFR of 49.6 ± 8.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Men younger than 50 yr with normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m(2) ) had the highest eGFR of 66.6 ± 10.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) . Overweight men 50 yr or older had the highest relative increase in creatinine of 49.4% compared to pre-donation. Men under 50 yr with normal weight had the smallest increase in creatinine of 35.2%. In multivariate analysis, older age (p < 0.001), male gender (p < 0.001), and overweight (p = 0.01) were associated with relative increase in creatinine after donation. Potential donors should be offered counseling regarding overweight, as this is a modifiable risk factor.

Clostridium Difficile in Retail Meat and Processing Plants in Texas

The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of C. difficile in pork from sausage manufacturing plants and retail meat in Texas. Twenty-three C. difficile isolates were detected from 243 meat samples (9.5%) from 3 sausage-manufacturing plants and 5 retail meat outlets from 2004 to 2009. Twenty-two isolates were positive for toxins A, B, and binary toxin, and were characterized as toxinotype V, PFGE type-NAP7, or "NAP7-variant." Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study were similar to those reported previously for toxinotype V isolates, although the results suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat, animal, or human clinical toxinotype V isolates.

Utility of Endoscopic Biopsies of the Duodenum and Ileum for Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Small Cell Lymphoma in Cats

Endoscopic duodenal biopsies are relatively convenient, minimally invasive tests for infiltrative intestinal disorders of cats. Ileal endoscopic biopsies might not be performed because of technical difficulty and effort required to prepare the colon. It is not known whether or not histopathology of feline duodenal and ileal biopsies for detection of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and small cell lymphoma (SC-LSA) provides comparable results.

Meta-analysis of Field Studies on Bovine Tuberculosis Skin Tests in United States Cattle Herds

Our objective was to summarize information on the diagnostic accuracy, in terms of test sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp), for bovine tuberculosis (bTb) tuberculin skin tests as currently used in the United States. Meta-analyses including Se and Sp estimates from field studies of bTb tuberculin tests conducted in North American cattle were conducted to provide a distribution of estimates and central tendency for Se and Sp of the caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) and serial interpretation of the CFT and comparative cervical tuberculin (CFT-CCT) tests. In total, 12 estimates for CFT and CFT-CCT test Se and Sp were identified from seven publications matching inclusion criteria. Estimates for CFT test Se ranged from 80.4% to 93.0% and CFT test Sp from 89.2% to 95.2%. Estimates for CFT-CCT test Se ranged from 74.4% to 88.4% and CFT-CCT test Sp ranged from 97.3% to 98.6%. These distributions of test Se and Sp are intended to provide a more realistic representation for U.S. bTb skin tests than previously reported. Estimation and discussion of herd-level CFT and CFT-CCT test parameters is also included. These results should be considered at the herd and individual animal level when evaluating results from tuberculin skin test results in North American cattle herds.

Utilizing Qualitative Methods in Survey Design: Examining Texas Cattle Producers' Intent to Participate in Foot-and-mouth Disease Detection and Control

The effective control of an outbreak of a highly contagious disease such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the United States will require a strong partnership between the animal agriculture industry and the government. However, because of the diverse number of economic, social, and psychological influences affecting livestock producers, their complete cooperation during an outbreak may not be assured. We conducted interviews with 40 individuals involved in the Texas cattle industry in order to identify specific behaviors where producer participation or compliance may be reduced. Through qualitative analysis of these interviews, we identified specific factors which the participants suggested would influence producer behavior in regard to FMD detection and control. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as an initial guide, we developed an expanded theoretical framework in order to allow for the development of a questionnaire and further evaluation of the relative importance of the relationships indicated in the framework. A 2-day stakeholder workshop was used to develop and critique the final survey instruments. The behaviors which we identified where producer compliance may be reduced included requesting veterinary examination of cattle with clinical signs of FMD either before or during an outbreak of FMD, gathering and holding cattle at the date and time requested by veterinary authorities, and maintaining cattle in their current location during an outbreak of FMD. In addition, we identified additional factors which may influence producers' behavior including risk perception, trust in other producers and regulatory agencies, and moral norms. The theoretical frameworks presented in this paper can be used during an outbreak to assess barriers to and social pressures for producer compliance, prioritize the results in terms of their effects on behavior, and improve and better target risk communication strategies.

Spin ½ Delafossite Honeycomb Compound Cu5SbO6

Cu(5)SbO(6) is found to have a monoclinic, Delafossite-derived structure consisting of alternating layers of O-Cu(I)-O sticks and magnetic layers of Jahn-Teller distorted Cu(II)O(6) octahedra in an edge sharing honeycomb arrangement with Sb(V)O(6) octahedra. This yields the structural formula Cu(I)(3)Cu(II)(2)Sb(V)O(6). Variants with ordered and disordered layer stacking are observed, depending on the synthesis conditions. The spin ½ Cu(2+) ions form dimers in the honeycomb layer. The magnetic susceptibility measured between 5 and 300 K is characteristic of the presence of a singlet-triplet spin gap of 189 K. High resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction studies indicate that changes in the intra- or interdimer distances between 300 and 20 K, such as might indicate an increase in strength of the Peierls-like distortion through the spin gap temperature, if present, are very small. A comparison to the NaFeO(2)-type Cu(2+) honeycomb compounds Na(3)Cu(2)SbO(6) and Na(2)Cu(2)TeO(6) is presented.

Timing and Magnitude of C Partitioning Through a Young Loblolly Pine (Pinus Taeda L.) Stand Using 13C Labeling and Shade Treatments

The dynamics of rapid changes in carbon (C) partitioning within forest ecosystems are not well understood, which limits improvement of mechanistic models of C cycling. Our objective was to inform model processes by describing relationships between C partitioning and accessible environmental or physiological measurements, with a special emphasis on short-term C flux through a forest ecosystem. We exposed eight 7-year-old loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees to air enriched with (13)CO(2) and then implemented adjacent light shade (LS) and heavy shade (HS) treatments in order to manipulate C uptake and flux. The impacts of shading on photosynthesis, plant water potential, sap flow, basal area growth, root growth and soil CO(2) efflux rate (CER) were assessed for each tree over a 3-week period. The progression of the (13)C label was concurrently tracked from the atmosphere through foliage, phloem, roots and surface soil CO(2) efflux. The HS treatment significantly reduced C uptake, sap flow, stem growth and fine root standing crop, and resulted in greater residual soil water content to 1 m depth. Soil CER was strongly correlated with sap flow on the previous day, but not the current day, with no apparent treatment effect on the relationship. Although there were apparent reductions in new C flux belowground, the HS treatment did not noticeably reduce the magnitude of belowground autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration based on surface soil CER, which was overwhelmingly driven by soil temperature and moisture. The (13)C label was immediately detected in foliage on label day (half-life = 0.5 day), progressed through phloem by Day 2 (half-life = 4.7 days), roots by Days 2-4, and subsequently was evident as respiratory release from soil which peaked between Days 3 and 6. The δ(13)C of soil CO(2) efflux was strongly correlated with phloem δ(13)C on the previous day, or 2 days earlier. While the (13)C label was readily tracked through the ecosystem, the fate of root C through respiratory, mycorrhizal or exudative release pathways was not assessed. These data detail the timing and relative magnitude of C flux through various components of a young pine stand in relation to environmental conditions.

Variation in Foliar Nitrogen and Albedo in Response to Nitrogen Fertilization and Elevated CO2

Foliar nitrogen has been shown to be positively correlated with midsummer canopy albedo and canopy near infrared (NIR) reflectance over a broad range of plant functional types (e.g., forests, grasslands, and agricultural lands). To date, the mechanism(s) driving the nitrogen–albedo relationship have not been established, and it is unknown whether factors affecting nitrogen availability will also influence albedo. To address these questions, we examined variation in foliar nitrogen in relation to leaf spectral properties, leaf mass per unit area, and leaf water content for three deciduous species subjected to either nitrogen (Harvard Forest, MA, and Oak Ridge, TN) or CO(2) fertilization (Oak Ridge, TN). At Oak Ridge, we also obtained canopy reflectance data from the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS) to examine whether canopy-level spectral responses were consistent with leaf-level results. At the leaf level, results showed no differences in reflectance or transmittance between CO(2) or nitrogen treatments, despite significant changes in foliar nitrogen. Contrary to our expectations, there was a significant, but negative, relationship between foliar nitrogen and leaf albedo, a relationship that held for both full spectrum leaf albedo as well as leaf albedo in the NIR region alone. In contrast, remote sensing data indicated an increase in canopy NIR reflectance with nitrogen fertilization. Collectively, these results suggest that altered nitrogen availability can affect canopy albedo, albeit by mechanisms that involve canopy-level processes rather than changes in leaf-level reflectance.

From Systems Biology to Photosynthesis and Whole-plant Physiology: a Conceptual Model for Integrating Multi-scale Networks

Network analysis is now a common statistical tool for molecular biologists. Network algorithms are readily used to model gene, protein and metabolic correlations providing insight into pathways driving biological phenomenon. One output from such an analysis is a candidate gene list that can be responsible, in part, for the biological process of interest. The question remains, however, as to whether molecular network analysis can be used to inform process models at higher levels of biological organization. In our previous work, transcriptional networks derived from three plant species were constructed, interrogated for orthology and then correlated with photosynthetic inhibition at elevated temperature. One unique aspect of that study was the link from co-expression networks to net photosynthesis. In this addendum, we propose a conceptual model where traditional network analysis can be linked to whole-plant models thereby informing predictions on key processes such as photosynthesis, nutrient uptake and assimilation, and C partitioning.

Ecosystem Impacts of Geoengineering: a Review for Developing a Science Plan

Geoengineering methods are intended to reduce climate change, which is already having demonstrable effects on ecosystem structure and functioning in some regions. Two types of geoengineering activities that have been proposed are: carbon dioxide (CO(2)) removal (CDR), which removes CO(2) from the atmosphere, and solar radiation management (SRM, or sunlight reflection methods), which reflects a small percentage of sunlight back into space to offset warming from greenhouse gases (GHGs). Current research suggests that SRM or CDR might diminish the impacts of climate change on ecosystems by reducing changes in temperature and precipitation. However, sudden cessation of SRM would exacerbate the climate effects on ecosystems, and some CDR might interfere with oceanic and terrestrial ecosystem processes. The many risks and uncertainties associated with these new kinds of purposeful perturbations to the Earth system are not well understood and require cautious and comprehensive research.

Comparison of Intraosseous and Peripheral Venous Fluid Dynamics in the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus Agassizii)

The efficacy of intraosseous catheterization has not been described previously in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii). The goal of this study was to describe and compare the efficacy of four intraosseous catheter sites (humerus, femur, plastocarapacial junction [bridge], and gular region of the plastron) to jugular catheterization. Five adult tortoises were catheterized in each of the sites at least once. The distribution of a bolus injection of radiopharmaceutical (technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepentaacidic acid [99mTc -DTPA]) was monitored via gamma camera over 2-min periods at five time intervals over 24 min. Compared to jugular catheterization, the humerus and femur sites provided the next best vascular access, with 84.4 and 61.8% of activity reaching the systemic circulation by 7 min, respectively. The bridge and gular catheter sites were less effective with only 41.9 and 40.8% systemic activity, respectively. Intraosseous catheters were no more technically difficult to place than jugular catheters and were less commonly dislodged, making them a viable option for vascular access in tortoises.

Differentiating Scleroderma Renal Crisis from Other Causes of Thrombotic Microangiopathy in a Postpartum Patient

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) all present with features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Distinguishing among these entities is critical, however, as treatments differ and may be mutually exclusive. We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman with an undefined mixed connective tissue disease who presented 6 weeks post-partum with fever, transient aphasia, thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, and acute kidney injury eventually requiring initiation of hemodialysis. Renal biopsy revealed thrombotic microangiopathy. Renal function did not improve despite immediate initiation of plasma exchange, and an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor was initiated following discontinuation of plasma exchange. At last follow up, she remained dialysis dependent. Due to the myriad causes of thrombotic microangiopathy and potential for diagnostic uncertainty, the patient’s response to therapy should be closely monitored and used to guide modification of therapy.

Low-resistivity 10 Nm Diameter Magnetic Sensors

Resistivities of 5.4 μΩ·cm were measured in 10-nm-diameter metallic wires. Low resistance is important for interconnections of the future to prevent heating, electromigration, high power consumption, and long RC time constants. To demonstrate application of these wires, Co/Cu/Co magnetic sensors were synthesized with 20-30 Ω and 19% magnetoresistance. Compared to conventional lithographically produced magnetic tunnel junction sensors, these structures offer facile fabrication and over 2 orders of magnitude lower resistances due to smooth sidewalls from in situ templated chemical growth.

Nitrogen Defects in Wide Band Gap Oxides: Defect Equilibria and Electronic Structure from First Principles Calculations

The nitrogen related defect chemistry and electronic structure of wide band gap oxides are investigated by density functional theory defect calculations of N(O)(q), NH(O)(×), and (NH2)(O)(·) as well as V(O)(··) and OH(O)(·) in MgO, CaO, SrO, Al(2)O(3), In(2)O(3), Sc(2)O(3), Y(2)O(3), La(2)O(3), TiO(2), SnO(2), ZrO(2), BaZrO(3), and SrZrO(3). The N(O)(q) acceptor level is found to be deep and the binding energy of NH(O)(×) with respect to N(O)' and (OH(O)(·) is found to be significantly negative, i.e. binding, in all of the investigated oxides. The defect structure of the oxides was found to be remarkably similar under reducing and nitriding conditions (1 bar N(2), 1 bar H(2) and 1 × 10(-7) bar H(2)O): NH(O)(×) predominates at low temperatures and [N(O)'] = 2[V(O)(··) predominates at higher temperatures (>900 K for most of the oxides). Furthermore, we evaluate how the defect structure is affected by non-equilibrium conditions such as doping and quenching. In terms of electronic structure, N(O)' is found to introduce isolated N-2p states within the band gap, while the N-2p states of NH(O)(×) are shifted towards, or overlap with the VBM. Finally, we assess the effect of nitrogen incorporation on the proton conducting properties of oxides and comment on their corrosion resistance in nitriding atmospheres in light of the calculated defect structures.

Plant Root Distributions and Nitrogen Uptake Predicted by a Hypothesis of Optimal Root Foraging

CO(2)-enrichment experiments consistently show that rooting depth increases when trees are grown at elevated CO(2) (eCO(2)), leading in some experiments to increased capture of available soil nitrogen (N) from deeper soil. However, the link between N uptake and root distributions remains poorly represented in forest ecosystem and global land-surface models. Here, this link is modeled and analyzed using a new optimization hypothesis (MaxNup) for root foraging in relation to the spatial variability of soil N, according to which a given total root mass is distributed vertically in order to maximize annual N uptake. MaxNup leads to analytical predictions for the optimal vertical profile of root biomass, maximum rooting depth, and N-uptake fraction (i.e., the proportion of plant-available soil N taken up annually by roots). We use these predictions to gain new insight into the behavior of the N-uptake fraction in trees growing at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory free-air CO(2)-enrichment experiment. We also compare MaxNup with empirical equations previously fitted to root-distribution data from all the world's plant biomes, and find that the empirical equations underestimate the capacity of root systems to take up N.

Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Thermal Properties of Ca6(C12H14O4)4(CO3)(OH)2(H2O)x--a 3D Inorganic Hybrid Material

The inorganic-organic compound Ca(6)(1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate)(4)(CO(3))(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(x) with 0 < x < 15.2 was synthesized by hydrothermal methods. The crystal structure was determined on the basis of high resolution synchrotron powder diffraction data and poly-crystal measurements. The crystal structure of Ca(6)(C(12)H(14)O(4))(4)(CO(3))(OH)(2)(H(2)O)(14) is tetragonal, space group I4(1)/amd (141) with a = 29.12 Ã…, c = 15.85 Ã…, V = 13,440 Ã…(3) and Z = 8. The compound is classified as a 3D inorganic hybrid material with a 3-dimensional inorganic framework consisting of Ca and O, connected to 1,3-adamantanedicarboxylate anions. The structure shows hydrophilic channels in a diamond-like network. In between the channels there exist hydrophobic pores with surfaces defined by adamantane cages. The shortest distance between hydrogen atoms from different molecules in these pores is 3.6 Ã…. The largest hydrophilic cavity has a diameter of 10 Ã… and the pores connecting the channels have a diameter of 5 Ã…. In the as-synthesised state these channels are filled with water molecules. Reversible dehydration-rehydration occurs. The dehydrated compound easily takes up water from ambient air.

Digital Manifestations of Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism

Drugs and Birth Defects: a Knowledge Database Providing Risk Assessments Based on National Health Registers

PURPOSE: To present concept, methods and use of a knowledge database providing assessments of potential fetal risks for all drugs on the Swedish market. METHODS: Assessments of fetal risks are made primarily by analyzing prospective epidemiological data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on drug intake in relation to birth outcome. This is complemented by evaluation of the scientific literature. Following standardized working procedures, a statement is compiled for each substance, which is also classified into one of three categories depending on the estimated risk level. The final documents include drug product names on the market, via linkage to a medicinal products register. The information is free and published on the website www.janusinfo.se . It can also be used as an integrated part of electronic health records. RESULTS: The database covers assessments of fetal risks for close to 1,250 medicinal drug substances on the Swedish market. Each year, 96,000 searches are made, which might be compared to the around 100,000 children born in Sweden yearly. Apart from the Swedish Physicians' Desk Reference (Fass), the database is the most commonly used resource among specialists within gynaecology and perinatal medicine for information on drugs during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: A non-commercial knowledge base with assessments of fetal risk of different drugs is valued by health care professionals and is used extensively in Sweden. Based on analyses of national health registers, the database provides unique information on teratogenic drug risks.

Evaluation of Serum Cobalamin Concentrations in Dogs of 164 Dog Breeds (2006-2010)

Altered serum cobalamin concentrations have been observed in dogs with gastrointestinal disorders such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or gastrointestinal inflammation. The aims of the current study were 1) to identify breeds with a higher proportion of dogs with a decreased serum cobalamin concentration, 2) to determine whether dogs with such decreased concentrations tend to have serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations diagnostic for EPI, and 3) to compare the number of submissions for serum cobalamin analysis by breed to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed ranking list of 2009. In this retrospective study, results of 28,675 cobalamin tests were reviewed. Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retrievers had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval (<251 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, and Border Collies had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (<150 ng/l; all P < 0.0001). Akitas, Border Collies, and German Shepherd Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <150 ng/l were more likely to have a serum cTLI concentration considered diagnostic for EPI (≤2.5 µg/l; all P ≤ 0.001). The breed with the highest proportion of samples submitted for serum cobalamin analysis in comparison with the AKC ranking list was the Greyhound (odds ratio: 84.6; P < 0.0001). In Akitas and Border Collies, further investigations are warranted to clarify if a potentially breed-specific gastrointestinal disorder is responsible for the increased frequency of decreased serum cobalamin and cTLI concentrations.

A Decade After the KDOQI CKD Guidelines: Impact on Medical Education

Theoretical Analysis of Oxygen Vacancies in Layered Sodium Cobaltate, Na(x)CoO(2-δ)

Sodium cobaltate with high Na content is a promising thermoelectric material. It has recently been reported that oxygen vacancies can alter the material properties, reducing its figure of merit. However, experimental data concerning the oxygen stoichiometry are contradictory. We therefore studied the formation of oxygen vacancies in Na(x)CoO(2) with first principles calculations, focusing on x = 0.75. We show that a very low oxygen vacancy concentration is expected at the temperatures and partial pressures relevant for applications.

BlaCTX-M-32 on an IncN Plasmid in E. Coli from U.S. Beef Cattle

CTX-M-type enzymes are the most extensively distributed extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) conferring resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Enterobacteriaceae worldwide(3).…

Acute Hyperglycemia Reduces Myocardial Blood Flow Reserve and the Magnitude of Reduction is Associated with Insulin Resistance: a Study in Nondiabetic Humans Using Contrast Echocardiography

The effect of acute hyperglycemia per se on coronary perfusion in humans is undefined. We evaluated the effects of short-term hyperglycemia on myocardial blood flow reserve (MBFR) in healthy nondiabetic volunteers. Twenty-one nondiabetic volunteers (76 % females, mean ± SD, age 48 ± 5 years) had noninvasive MBFR assessment while exposed to pancreatic clamp with somatostatin and replacement glucagon and growth hormone infusions, with frequent interval plasma glucose (PG) monitoring. Insulin was infused at 0.75 mU/kg/min to mimic postprandial plasma insulin concentrations, and glucose was infused to maintain euglycemia (PG 93.9 ± 7.3 mg/dl) followed by hyperglycemia (PG 231.5 ± 18.1 mg/dl). Myocardial contrast echocardiography (MCE) was performed during each glycemic steady state using continuous infusion of Definity at rest and during regadenoson (Lexiscan 5 ml (400 μg) intravenous bolus) infusion to quantify myocardial blood flow (MBF) and determine MBFR. Insulin resistance (IR) was assessed by glucose infusion rate (GIR; mg/kg/min) at euglycemia. Median stress MBF, MBFR, and β reserve were significantly reduced during acute hyperglycemia versus euglycemia (stress MBF 3.9 vs 5.4, P = 0.02; MBFR 2.0 vs 2.7, P < 0.0001; β reserve 1.45 vs 2.4, P = 0.007). Using a median threshold GIR of 5 mg/kg/min, there was a correlation between GIR and hyperglycemic MBFR (r = 0.506, P = 0.019). MBFR, as determined noninvasively by MCE, is significantly decreased during acute hyperglycemia in nondiabetic volunteers, and the magnitude of this reduction is modulated by IR.

Long-Term Outcomes of Post-Thrombolytic Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Ischemic Stroke Patients

BACKGROUND: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an infrequent complication of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) for the treatment of acute stroke. However, such ICH is an important reason for withdrawal of care because of lack of adequate data regarding long-term patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To report the long-term outcomes in patients with post-thrombolytic ICH. METHODS: We analyzed patient data from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in patients with ischemic stroke presenting within 3 h of symptom onset. Baseline clinical characteristics and outcomes defined by modified Rankin scale (mRS) were ascertained at 3, 6, and 12 months after treatment in patients who suffered from post-thrombolytic ICH. Favorable outcome was defined by mRS of 0-3 and unfavorable outcome by mRS of 4-6 at 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 48 patients suffered post-thrombolytic ICH in the trial. Fourteen patients had favorable outcomes and 34 patients had unfavorable outcomes. Clinical characteristics did not have an impact on patient outcomes at 12 months. Patients with unfavorable outcomes were more likely to have an National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥20 at 7-10 days after treatment (64 vs. 7 %, p < 0.0009). Patients with unfavorable outcomes were more likely to have a worsening of NIHSS score of >4 points at 7-10 days from their baseline NIHSS (44 vs. 0 %, p = 0.0006). CONCLUSION: Approximately 30 % of patients with post-thrombolytic ICH have favorable outcomes at 1 year which does not support early withdrawal of care. Ascertainment of NIHSS score and worsening of NIHSS score at 7-10 days may be necessary for accurate prognostic stratification.

Elevated CO(2) Increases Tree-level Intrinsic Water Use Efficiency: Insights from Carbon and Oxygen Isotope Analyses in Tree Rings Across Three Forest FACE Sites

Elevated CO(2) increases intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i) ) of forests, but the magnitude of this effect and its interaction with climate is still poorly understood. We combined tree ring analysis with isotope measurements at three Free Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE, POP-EUROFACE, in Italy; Duke FACE in North Carolina and ORNL in Tennessee, USA) sites, to cover the entire life of the trees. We used δ(13) C to assess carbon isotope discrimination and changes in water-use efficiency, while direct CO(2) effects on stomatal conductance were explored using δ(18) O as a proxy. Across all the sites, elevated CO(2) increased (13) C-derived water-use efficiency on average by 73% for Liquidambar styraciflua, 77% for Pinus taeda and 75% for Populus sp., but through different ecophysiological mechanisms. Our findings provide a robust means of predicting water-use efficiency responses from a variety of tree species exposed to variable environmental conditions over time, and species-specific relationships that can help modelling elevated CO(2) and climate impacts on forest productivity, carbon and water balances.

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