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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Kee-Won Lee in JoVE
Elastomeric PGS Scaffolds in Arterial Tissue Engineering
Kee-Won Lee1, Yadong Wang1,2
1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 2McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh
Elastomeric PGS scaffolds with vascular smooth muscle cells cultured in a pulsatile flow bioreactor may lead to promising small-diameter arterial constructs with native ECM production in a relatively short culture period.
Other articles by Kee-Won Lee on PubMed
Fabrication and Characterization of Poly(propylene Fumarate) Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structures Using 3-dimensional Printing and Injection Molding
Tissue Engineering. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17518649
Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) is an injectable, biodegradable polymer that has been used for fabricating preformed scaffolds in tissue engineering applications because of in situ crosslinking characteristics. Aiming for understanding the effects of pore structure parameters on bone tissue ingrowth, 3-dimensional (3D) PPF scaffolds with controlled pore architecture have been produced in this study from computer-aided design (CAD) models. We have created original scaffold models with 3 pore sizes (300, 600, and 900 microm) and randomly closed 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% of total pores from the original models in 3 planes. PPF scaffolds were fabricated by a series steps involving 3D printing of support/build constructs, dissolving build materials, injecting PPF, and dissolving support materials. To investigate the effects of controlled pore size and interconnectivity on scaffolds, we compared the porosities between the models and PPF scaffolds fabricated thereby, examined pore morphologies in surface and cross-section using scanning electron microscopy, and measured permeability using the falling head conductivity test. The thermal properties of the resulting scaffolds as well as uncrosslinked PPF were determined by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. Average pore sizes and pore shapes of PPF scaffolds with 600- and 900-microm pores were similar to those of CAD models, but they depended on directions in those with 300-microm pores. Porosity and permeability of PPF scaffolds decreased as the number of closed pores in original models increased, particularly when the pore size was 300 microm as the result of low porosity and pore occlusion. These results show that 3D printing and injection molding technique can be applied to crosslinkable polymers to fabricate 3D porous scaffolds with controlled pore structures, porosity, and permeability using their CAD models.
Poly(propylene Fumarate) Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabrication Using Stereolithography: Effects of Resin Formulations and Laser Parameters
Biomacromolecules. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17326677
Stereolithography using photo-cross-linkable polymeric biomaterials is an effective technique for fabricating highly complex three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with controlled microstructures for tissue engineering applications. In this study, we have optimized the UV curable polymer solution composition and laser parameters for the stereolithography machine. Poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) was used as the biomaterial, diethyl fumarate (DEF) was used as the solvent, and bisacrylphosphrine oxide (BAPO) was used as the photoinitiator. Three different weight ratios of PPF/DEF and BAPO contents were characterized by measuring the viscosities and thermal properties of the un-cross-linked solutions and the mechanical properties of the formed scaffolds. After optimizing the resin composition by satisfying both the viscosity limitation and the mechanical requirement, laser parameters such as critical exposure (Ec) and penetration depth (Dp) were determined from the working curve and the relationship between laser speed and energy by measuring the thickness of predesigned windows fabricated in stereolithography with different ranges of Ec and Dp. Three-dimensional scaffolds with various pore sizes, pore shapes, and porosities were designed in computer-aided design (CAD) software and were fabricated in stereolithography. The fabricated scaffolds were characterized by measuring external dimensions, porosities, mean pore sizes, and compressive moduli and were compared to the CAD models. Feature accuracy in the xy-plane was achieved and overcuring of the resin in z-axis was minimized. The stereolithographically fabricated scaffolds with controlled microstructures can be useful in diverse tissue engineering applications.
Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel Biodegradable Hydrogels Based on Poly(ethylene Glycol) and Sebacic Acid As Tissue Engineering Scaffolds
Biomacromolecules. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18072747
Novel biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) based hydrogels, namely, PEG sebacate diacrylate (PEGSDA) were synthesized, and their properties were evaluated. Chemical structures of these polymers were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) spectroscopy. After photopolymerization, the dynamic shear modulus of the hydrogels was up to 0.2 MPa for 50% PEGSDA hydrogel, significantly higher than conventional hydrogels such as PEG diacrylate (PEGDA). The swelling ratios of these macromers were significantly lower than PEGDA. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that these hydrogels were biodegradable with weight losses about 66% and 32% for 25% and 50% PEGSDA after 8 weeks of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline at 37 degrees C. In vitro biocompatibility was assessed using cultured rat bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of unreacted monomers or degradation products. Unlike conventional PEGDA hydrogels, PEGSDA hydrogel without RGD peptide modification induced MSC cell adhesion similar to tissue culture polystyrene. Finally, complex three-dimensional structures of PEGSDA hydrogels using solid free form technique were fabricated and their structure integrity was better maintained than PEGDA hydrogels. These hydrogels may find use as scaffolds for tissue engineering applications.
Physical Properties and Cellular Responses to Crosslinkable Poly(propylene Fumarate)/hydroxyapatite Nanocomposites
Biomaterials. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18403013
A series of crosslinkable nanocomposites has been developed using hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles and poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF). PPF/HA nanocomposites with four different weight fractions of HA nanoparticles have been characterized in terms of thermal and mechanical properties. To assess surface chemistry of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites, their hydrophilicity and capability of adsorbing proteins have been determined using static contact angle measurement and MicroBCA protein assay kit after incubation with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), respectively. In vitro cell studies have been performed using MC3T3-E1 mouse pre-osteoblast cells to investigate the ability of PPF/HA nanocomposites to support cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 1, 4, and 7 days. By adding HA nanoparticles to PPF, the mechanical properties of crosslinked PPF/HA nanocomposites have not been increased due to the initially high modulus of crosslinked PPF. However, hydrophilicity and serum protein adsorption on the surface of nanocomposites have been significantly increased, resulting in enhanced cell attachment, spreading, and proliferation after 4 days of cell seeding. These results indicate that crosslinkable PPF/HA nanocomposites are useful for hard tissue replacement because of excellent mechanical strength and osteoconductivity.
Enhanced Cell Ingrowth and Proliferation Through Three-dimensional Nanocomposite Scaffolds with Controlled Pore Structures
Biomacromolecules. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20112899
We present enhanced cell ingrowth and proliferation through cross-linked three-dimensional (3D) nanocomposite scaffolds fabricated using poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles. Scaffolds with controlled internal pore structures were produced from computer-aided design (CAD) models and solid freeform fabrication (SFF) technique, while those with random pore structures were fabricated by a NaCl leaching technique for comparison. The morphology and mechanical properties of scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical testing, respectively. Pore interconnectivity of scaffolds was assessed using X-ray microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) and 3D imaging analysis. In vitro cell studies have been performed using MC3T3-E1 mouse preosteoblasts and cultured scaffolds in a rotating-wall-vessel bioreactor for 4 and 7 days to assess cell attachment, viability, ingrowth depth, and proliferation. The mechanical properties of cross-linked nanocomposite scaffolds were not significantly different after adding HA or varying pore structures. However, pore interconnectivity of PPF/HA nanocomposite scaffolds with controlled pore structures has been significantly increased, resulting in enhanced cell ingrowth depth 7 days after cell seeding. Cell attachment and proliferation are also higher in PPF/HA nanocomposite scaffolds. These results suggest that cross-linked PPF/HA nanocomposite scaffolds with controlled pore structures may lead to promising bone tissue engineering scaffolds with excellent cell proliferation and ingrowth.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21282618
Mature elastin synthesis is a key challenge in arterial tissue engineering. Most engineered vessels lack elastic fibers in the medial layer and those present are poorly organized. The objective of this study is to increase mature elastin synthesis in small-diameter arterial constructs. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded in the lumen of porous tubular scaffolds fabricated from a biodegradable elastomer, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) and cultured in a pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 wk. We tested the effect of pore sizes on construct properties by histological, biochemical, and mechanical evaluations. Histological analysis revealed circumferentially organized extracellular matrix proteins including elastin and the presence of multilayered SMCs expressing calponin and α-smooth muscle actin. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that the constructs contained mature elastin equivalent to 19% of the native arteries. Mechanical tests indicated that the constructs could withstand up to 200 mmHg burst pressure and exhibited compliance comparable to native arteries. These results show that nontransfected cells in PGS scaffolds in unsupplemented medium produced a substantial amount of mature elastin within 3 wk and the elastic fibers had similar orientation as those in native arteries. The 25-32 μm pore size supported cell organization and elastin synthesis more than larger pore sizes. To our knowledge, there was no prior report of the synthesis of mature and organized elastin in arterial constructs without exogenous factors or viral transduction.