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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
- Current Biology : CB
- Journal of Biology
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
- The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
- Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
- Journal of Cell Science
- Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter : an Institute of Physics Journal
- Chemistry & Biodiversity
- Developmental Cell
- Mechanisms of Development
Articles by Keiji Itoh in JoVE
Polarized Translocation of Fluorescent Proteins in Xenopus Ectoderm in Response to Wnt Signaling
Keiji Itoh, Sergei Y. Sokol
Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine
Xenopus embryonic ectoderm has become an attractive model for studies of cell polarity. An assay is described, in which subcellular distribution of fluorescent proteins is assessed in ectoderm cells. This protocol will help address questions related to spatial control of signaling.
Other articles by Keiji Itoh on PubMed
Current Biology : CB. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11790303
Extracellular Wnt ligands and their receptors of the Frizzled family control cell fate, proliferation, and polarity during metazoan development. Frizzled signaling modulates target gene expression through a beta-catenin-dependent pathway, functions to establish planar cell polarity in Drosophila epithelia, and activates convergent extension movements and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in frog and fish embryos. Here, we report that a Frizzled receptor, Xenopus Frizzled 8 (Xfz8), activates c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and triggers rapid apoptotic cell death in gastrulating Xenopus embryos. This activity of Xfz8 required the cytoplasmic tail of the receptor and was blocked by a dominant inhibitor of JNK. Moreover, the cytoplasmic tail of Xfz8 targeted to the membrane was sufficient for activation of JNK and apoptosis. The apoptotic signaling was shared by a specific subset of Frizzled receptors, was inhibited by Wnt5a, and occurred in a Dishevelled- and T cell factor (TCF)-independent manner. Thus, our experiments identify a novel Frizzled-dependent signaling pathway, which involves JNK and differs from the beta-catenin-dependent and convergent extension pathways.
Journal of Biology. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15720724
Dishevelled (Dsh) is a key component of multiple signaling pathways that are initiated by Wnt secreted ligands and Frizzled receptors during embryonic development. Although Dsh has been detected in a number of cellular compartments, the importance of its subcellular distribution for signaling remains to be determined.
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16086323
Frizzled receptors transduce signals from the extracellular Wnt ligands through multiple signaling pathways that affect cytoskeletal organization and regulate gene expression. Direct intracellular mediators of Frizzled signaling are largely unknown. We identified FRIED (Frizzled interaction and ectoderm defects) by its association with the C-terminal PDZ-binding motif of Xenopus Frizzled 8. FRIED contains an N-terminal KIND domain, a FERM domain, six PDZ domains, and a tyrosine phosphatase domain, being similar in structure to the protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-BAS/PTP-BL. We report that FRIED proteins with the FERM domain localize to the apical cortex and can inhibit Wnt8-mediated, but not beta-catenin-mediated, secondary axis induction in Xenopus embryos, suggesting a specific interaction with Wnt signaling. A FRIED construct containing the FERM domain induced reorganization of pigment granules and cortical actin in Xenopus ectoderm. Wnt5a suppressed the depigmentation of ectoderm triggered by FRIED, demonstrating that Wnt5a and FRIED functionally interact to regulate the cytoskeletal organization. Our data are consistent with the possibility that FRIED functions by modulating Rac1 activity. We propose that FRIED is an adaptor protein that serves as a molecular link between Wnt signaling and actin cytoskeleton.
Structural Analysis of Polyelectrolyte Film Absorbing Metal Ion by SAXS Utilizing with X-ray Anomalous Dispersion Effect
The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Jul, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17569556
A distribution of Cu ions in polyelectrolyte film (Nafion) is directly observed with a small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) method utilizing an X-ray anomalous dispersion effect. A partial structure factor of the Cu ions, GAA(q), can be derived from the SAXS profiles obtained by scanning the incident X-ray energy around the Cu K absorption edge. GAA(q) has two peaks, indicating that the Cu ions hierarchically distribute in Nafion film. In addition, a standard SAXS also shows that Nafion film has a hierarchical structure. These results mean that the Cu ions locate in the domain where the hydrophilic bases aggregate.
Biomacromolecules. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18211002
External stresses cause certain proteins to lose their regular structure and aggregate. In order to clarify this abnormal aggregation process, a structural evolution of human recombinant alphaB-crystallin under UV irradiation was observed with in situ small-angle neutron scattering. The abnormal aggregation process was identified to fall in three time zones: incubation, aggregation, and saturation. During the incubation time, the size of aggregates was almost unchanged but a deformation in the local structure was developing. After the incubation time, abnormal aggregation proceed. When the volume of the aggregates reached around twice the size as that of the initial aggregates, the aggregation rate slowed down, which marked the onset of saturation.
Partial Pair Correlation Functions of Low-density Supercritical Water Determined by Neutron Diffraction with the H/D Isotopic Substitution Method
The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18361526
Neutron diffraction measurements were carried out on H/ D isotopically substituted water in the low-density supercritical condition (T = 673 K, P = 26.3 MPa, and rho = 0.0068 molecules.A-3) in order to obtain direct information on the intermolecular partial structure functions, gHH inter(r), gOH inter(r), and gOO inter(r). In correspondence to the high-density supercritical water previously reported, the intermolecular nearest neighbor peaks in gHH inter(r), gOH inter(r), and gOO inter(r) are diffuse compared with the ambient ones. The nearest neighbor O...O distance (3.3 A) and its coordination number (2.6) were determined from the observed gOO inter(r). These results indicate that the orientational correlation between neighboring water molecules is considerably lost in low-density supercritical water. Small clusters involving a few water molecules are preferentially formed in low-density supercritical water, which is consistent with results obtained by previous IR and NMR studies.
Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19113132
Density fluctuation structures of supercritical carbon dioxide along the isothermal and isochoric lines were observed with small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). All the scattering intensities in the low-Q range were well described with the Ornstein-Zernike (OZ) equation. It was confirmed that there exists a locus where the OZ correlation length and scattering intensity at Q=0 exhibit extrema on the isothermal lines: this locus, named the ridge, was interpreted as the boundary by which the supercritical state is divided into liquidlike and gaslike phases. In order to clarify the difference of the fluctuation structure between the liquidlike and the gaslike phases, a real-space molecular distribution was obtained with a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method. Number density distributions of CO2 molecules at all measured states were calculated with the real-space molecular distributions obtained. In addition, the statistical parameters of the number density distributions, the standard deviations, and the skewnesses, were examined. The standard deviations of the number density distributions almost coincide with the results of the OZ analysis. On the other hand, the skewnesses, which describe the asymmetric nature of the number density distribution, clearly showed a difference between the two phases: the skewness became negative in the liquidlike phase, positive in the gaslike phase, and almost zero at the nearest state to the ridge in all isotherms. It was proved with simple equations of statistical mechanics that the skewness is described as the first differential of the magnitude of the density fluctuation with respect to the pressure. We conclude that the skewness, obtained with a RMC analysis for SANS data, is an important structural parameter distinguishing between the liquidlike and gaslike phases.
Both the RGS Domain and the Six C-terminal Amino Acids of Mouse Axin Are Required for Normal Embryogenesis
Genetics. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19204372
Axin is a negative regulator of canonical Wnt signaling, which promotes the degradation of beta-catenin, the major effector in this signaling cascade. While many protein-binding domains of Axin have been identified, their significance has not been evaluated in vivo. Here, we report the generation and analysis of mice carrying modified Axin alleles in which either the RGS domain or the six C-terminal amino acids (C6 motif) were deleted. The RGS domain is required for APC-binding, while the C6 motif has been implicated in the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but is not required for the effects of Axin on the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, in vitro. Both mutant Axin alleles caused recessive embryonic lethality at E9.5-E10.5, with defects indistinguishable from those caused by a null allele. As Axin-DeltaRGS protein was produced at normal levels, its inability to support embryogenesis confirms the importance of interactions between Axin and APC. In contrast, Axin-DeltaC6 protein was expressed at only 25-30% of the normal level, which may account for the recessive lethality of this allele. Furthermore, many Axin(DeltaC6/DeltaC6) embryos that were heterozygous for a beta-catenin null mutation survived to term, demonstrating that early lethality was due to failure to negatively regulate beta-catenin.
Journal of Cell Science. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19789178
Wnt pathways regulate many developmental processes, including cell-fate specification, cell polarity, and cell movements during morphogenesis. The subcellular distribution of pathway mediators in specific cellular compartments might be crucial for the selection of pathway targets and signaling specificity. We find that the ankyrin-repeat protein Diversin, which functions in different Wnt signaling branches, localizes to the centrosome in Xenopus ectoderm and mammalian cells. Upon stimulation with Wnt ligands, the centrosomal distribution of Diversin is transformed into punctate cortical localization. Also, Diversin was recruited by Frizzled receptors to non-homogeneous Dishevelled-containing cortical patches. Importantly, Diversin deletion constructs, which did not localize to the centrosome, failed to efficiently antagonize Wnt signaling. Furthermore, a C-terminal construct that interfered with Diversin localization inhibited Diversin-mediated beta-catenin degradation. These observations suggest that the centrosomal localization of Diversin is crucial for its function in Wnt signaling.
Evaluation of the Local Environment for Nanoscale Quasicrystal Formation in Zr(80)Pt(20) Glassy Alloy Using Voronoi Analysis
Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter : an Institute of Physics Journal. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 21832335
The local atomic structure of nano-quasicrystal-forming Zr(80)Pt(20) binary glassy alloy was investigated by reverse Monte Carlo modeling based on the results of x-ray diffraction. A prepeak at Q∼17 nm(-1) originating from the unique bonding between the Pt-Pt pair is observed in the structure factor. Voronoi analysis indicates that an icosahedral-like polyhedron is formed around Pt. It is also found that icosahedral-like polyhedra exist around Zr; however, the fraction of perfect icosahedra is considerably lower than that in the nano-quasicrystalforming Zr(70)Pd(30) glassy alloy. A difference in the local environment between the two binary quasicrystal-forming glassy alloys is suggested.
Chemistry & Biodiversity. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20564557
Aggregation states of human alpha-crystallins are observed complementarily using small-angle X-ray and small-angle neutron scatterings (SAXS and SANS). Infant alpha-crystallin is almost a monodispersed system of the aggregates with gyration radius of ca. 60 A, which is a normal aggregate. On the other hand, the aged and cataract alpha-crystallins have not only the normal but also the larger aggregates. In the aged alpha-crystallin, the normal aggregate is a major component, but in the cataract alpha-crystallin the larger ones are dominant. Both alpha A- and alpha B-crystallins, which are subunits of alpha-crystallin, also form an aggregate with the size close to the normal aggregate. Under UV irradiation, only aggregates of alpha B-crystallin undergo further aggregation. Therefore, considering increase of ratio of alpha B-crystallin in the aggregate of alpha-crystallin as aging, the abnormal aggregation (formation of the huge aggregates) mainly results in the further aggregation of alpha B-crystallin caused by external stresses.
Developmental Cell. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20951344
A commonly accepted model of Wnt/β-catenin signaling involves target gene activation by a complex of β-catenin with a T-cell factor (TCF) family member. TCF3 is a transcriptional repressor that has been implicated in Wnt signaling and plays key roles in embryonic axis specification and stem cell differentiation. Here we demonstrate that Wnt proteins stimulate TCF3 phosphorylation in gastrulating Xenopus embryos and mammalian cells. This phosphorylation event involves β-catenin-mediated recruitment of homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) to TCF3 and culminates in the dissociation of TCF3 from a target gene promoter. Mutated TCF3 proteins resistant to Wnt-dependent phosphorylation function as constitutive inhibitors of Wnt-mediated activation of Vent2 and Cdx4 during anteroposterior axis specification. These findings reveal an alternative in vivo mechanism of Wnt signaling that involves TCF3 phosphorylation and subsequent derepression of target genes and link this molecular event to a specific developmental process.
Mechanisms of Development. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21843637
The centrosome is essential for the formation of the cilia and has been implicated in cell polarization and signaling during early embryonic development. A number of Wnt pathway components were found to localize at the centrosome, but how this localization relates to their signaling functions is unclear. In this study, we assessed a role for Diversin, a putative Wnt pathway mediator, in developmental processes that involve cilia. We find that Diversin is specifically localized to the basal body compartment near the base of the cilium in Xenopus multi-ciliated skin cells. Overexpression of Diversin RNA disrupted basal body polarization in these cells, suggesting that tightly regulated control of Diversin levels is crucial for this process. In cells depleted of endogenous Diversin, basal body structure appeared abnormal and this was accompanied by disrupted polarity, shortened or absent cilia and defective ciliary flow. These results are consistent with the involvement of Diversin in processes that are related to the acquisition of cell polarity and require ciliary functions.