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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (11)
- The Journal of Physiology
- The Journal of Physiology
- British Journal of Pharmacology
- Clinical Chemistry
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- The Journal of Physiology
- Autonomic Neuroscience : Basic & Clinical
- Experimental Physiology
- British Journal of Pharmacology
- Experimental Physiology
- PloS One
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Articles by Keith L. Brain in JoVE
Focus Ca 2 + Voorbijgaande Detectie in glad spierweefsel
John S. Young, Robert J. Amos, Keith L. Brain
Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford
Details methoden voor hoge-resolutie Ca
Other articles by Keith L. Brain on PubMed
Intermittent ATP Release from Nerve Terminals Elicits Focal Smooth Muscle Ca2+ Transients in Mouse Vas Deferens
The Journal of Physiology. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12068045
A confocal Ca2+ imaging technique has been used to detect ATP release from individual sympathetic varicosities on the same nerve terminal branch. Varicose nerve terminals and smooth muscle cells in mouse vas deferens were loaded with the Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1. Field (nerve) stimulation evoked discrete, focal increases in [Ca2+] in smooth muscle cells adjacent to identified varicosities. These focal increases in [Ca2+] have been termed 'neuroeffector Ca2+ transients' (NCTs). NCTs were abolished by alpha,beta-methylene ATP (1 microM), but not by nifedipine (1 microM) or prazosin (100 nM), suggesting that NCTs are generated by Ca2+ influx through P2X receptors without a detectable contribution from L-type Ca2+ channels or alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-mediated pathways. Action potential-evoked ATP release was highly intermittent (mean probability 0.019 +/- 0.002; range 0.001-0.10) at 1 Hz stimulation, even though there was no failure of action potential propagation in the nerve terminals. Twenty-eight per cent of varicosities failed to release transmitter following more than 500 stimuli. Spontaneous ATP release was very infrequent (0.0014 Hz). No Ca2+ transient attributable to noradrenaline release was detected even in response to 5 Hz stimulation. There was evidence of local noradrenaline release as the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine increased the probability of occurrence of NCTs by 55 +/- 21 % during trains of stimuli at 1 Hz. Frequency-dependent facilitation preferentially occurred at low probability release sites. The monitoring of NCTs now allows transmitter release to be detected simultaneously from each functional varicosity on an identified nerve terminal branch on an impulse-to-impulse basis.
The Sources and Sequestration of Ca(2+) Contributing to Neuroeffector Ca(2+) Transients in the Mouse Vas Deferens
The Journal of Physiology. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14500773
The detection of focal Ca(2+) transients (called neuroeffector Ca(2+) transients, or NCTs) in smooth muscle of the mouse isolated vas deferens has been used to detect the packeted release of ATP from nerve terminal varicosities acting at postjunctional P2X receptors. The present study investigates the sources and sequestration of Ca(2+) in NCTs. Smooth muscle cells in whole mouse deferens were loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 AM and viewed with a confocal microscope. Ryanodine (10 microM) decreased the amplitude of NCTs by 45 +/- 6 %. Cyclopiazonic acid slowed the recovery of NCTs (from a time course of 200 +/- 10 ms to 800 +/- 100 ms). Caffeine (3 mM) induced spontaneous focal smooth muscle Ca(2+) transients (sparks). Neither of the T-type Ca(2+) channel blockers NiCl2 (50 microM) or mibefradil dihydrochloride (10 microM) affected the amplitude of excitatory junction potentials (2 +/- 5 % and -3 +/- 10 %) or NCTs (-20 +/- 36 % and 3 +/- 13 %). In about 20 % of cells, NCTs were associated with a local, subcellular twitch that remained in the presence of the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (100 nM), showing that NCTs can initiate local contractions. Slow (5.8 +/- 0.4 microm s(-1)), spontaneous smooth muscle Ca(2+) waves were occasionally observed. Thus, Ca(2+) stores initially amplify and then sequester the Ca(2+) that enters through P2X receptors and there is no amplification by local voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels.
Oxaliplatin Induces Hyperexcitability at Motor and Autonomic Neuromuscular Junctions Through Effects on Voltage-gated Sodium Channels
British Journal of Pharmacology. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16231011
Oxaliplatin, an effective cytotoxic treatment in combination with 5-fluorouracil for colorectal cancer, is associated with sensory, motor and autonomic neurotoxicity. Motor symptoms include hyperexcitability while autonomic effects include urinary retention, but the cause of these side-effects is unknown. We examined the effects on motor nerve function in the mouse hemidiaphragm and on the autonomic system in the vas deferens. In the mouse diaphragm, oxaliplatin (0.5 mM) induced multiple endplate potentials (EPPs) following a single stimulus, and was associated with an increase in spontaneous miniature EPP frequency. In the vas deferens, spontaneous excitatory junction potential frequency was increased after 30 min exposure to oxaliplatin; no changes in resting Ca(2+) concentration in nerve terminal varicosities were observed, and recovery after stimuli trains was unaffected. In both tissues, an oxaliplatin-induced increase in spontaneous activity was prevented by the voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX). Carbamazepine (0.3 mM) also prevented multiple EPPs and the increase in spontaneous activity in both tissues. In diaphragm, beta-pompilidotoxin (100 microM), which slows Na(+) channel inactivation, induced multiple EPPs similar to oxaliplatin's effect. By contrast, blockers of K(+) channels (4-aminopyridine and apamin) did not replicate oxaliplatin-induced hyperexcitability in the diaphragm. The prevention of hyperexcitability by TTX blockade implies that oxaliplatin acts on nerve conduction rather than by effecting repolarisation. The similarity between beta-pompilidotoxin and oxaliplatin suggests that alteration of voltage-gated Na(+) channel kinetics is likely to underlie the acute neurotoxic actions of oxaliplatin.
Measurement of Urinary Metanephrines to Screen for Pheochromocytoma in an Unselected Hospital Referral Population
Clinical Chemistry. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16990424
Despite the rarity of pheochromocytoma, diagnosis is important because of the dangers of uncontrolled severe hypertension and the availability of very effective surgical treatment. Urinary or plasma catecholamines or catecholamine derivatives are commonly used to screen for pheochromocytomas before imaging, but data from 24-h urinary metanephrine results, patient age, and sex may better predict tumors in populations with a low pretest probability.
Actions of Two Main Metabolites of Propiverine (M-1 and M-2) on Voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ Currents and Ca2+ Transients in Murine Urinary Bladder Myocytes
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17928569
The anticholinergic propiverine (1-methyl-4-piperidyl diphenylpropoxyacetate), which is used for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome, has functionally active metabolites [M-1 (1-methyl-4-piperidyl diphenylpropoxyacetate N-oxide) and M-2 (1-methyl-4-piperidyl benzilate N-oxide)], but the site of actions of these metabolites is uncertain. Propiverine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration and is extensively biotransformed in the liver, giving rise to several active metabolites (M-1 and M-2). This study determines the effect of M-1 and M-2 on voltage-dependent nifedipine-sensitive inward Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca)) using patch-clamp techniques and fluorescent Ca(2+) imaging [after electrical field stimulation (EFS) and acetylcholine (ACh)] in the murine urinary bladder. In conventional whole-cell recording, propiverine and M-1 but not M-2 inhibited the peak amplitude of I(Ca) in a concentration-dependent manner at a holding potential of -60 mV (propiverine, K(i) = 10 microM; M-1, K(i) = 118 microM). M-1 shifted the steady-state inactivation curve of I(Ca) to the left at -90 mV by 7 mV. Carbachol (CCh) reversibly inhibited I(Ca). This inhibition probably occurred through muscarinic type 3 receptors, coupling with G-proteins, because nanomolar concentrations of 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methyl-piperidine greatly reduced this inhibition, whereas pirenzepine or 11-([2-[(diethylamino)methyl]-1-piperdinyl]acetyl)-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido[2,3-b][1,4]benzodiazepine-6-one (AF-DX 116) at concentrations up to 1 microM was almost ineffective. In the presence of M-2, the CCh-induced inhibition of I(Ca) was blocked. In fluorescent Ca(2+) imaging, M-2 inhibited EFS-induced and ACh-induced Ca(2+) transients. These results suggest that M-1 acts, at least in part, as a Ca(2+) channel antagonist (as it inhibited I(Ca)), whereas M-2 has more direct antimuscarinic actions.
The Journal of Physiology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18936079
Spontaneous purinergic neurotransmission was characterized in the mouse urinary bladder, a model for the pathological or ageing human bladder. Intracellular electrophysiological recording from smooth muscle cells of the detrusor muscle revealed spontaneous depolarizations, distinguishable from spontaneous action potentials (sAPs) by their amplitude (< 40 mV) and insensitivity to the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nifedipine (1 microm) (100 +/- 29%). Spontaneous depolarizations were abolished by the P2X(1) receptor antagonist NF449 (10 microm) (frequency 8.5 +/- 8.5% of controls), insensitive to the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine (1 microm) (103.4 +/- 3.0%), and became more frequent in latrotoxin (LTX; 1 nm) (438 +/- 95%), suggesting that they are spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (sEJPs). Such sEJPs were correlated, in amplitude and timing, with focal Ca(2+) transients in smooth muscle cells (measured using confocal microscopy), suggesting a common origin: ATP binding to P2X(1) receptors. sAPs were abolished by NF449, insensitive to atropine (126 +/- 39%) and increased in frequency by LTX (930 +/- 450%) suggesting a neurogenic, purinergic origin, in common with sEJPs. By comparing the kinetics of sAPs and sEJPs, we demonstrated that sAPs occur when sufficient cation influx through P2X(1) receptors triggers L-type Ca(2+) channels; the first peak of the differentiated rising phase of depolarizations - attributed to the influx of cations through the P2X(1) receptor - is of larger amplitude for sAPs (2248 mV s(-1)) than sEJPs (439 mV s(-1)). Surprisingly, sAPs in the mouse urinary bladder, unlike those from other species, are triggered by stochastic ATP release from parasympathetic nerve terminals rather than being myogenic.
Prejunctional and Postjunctional Actions of Heptanol and 18 Beta-glycyrretinic Acid in the Rodent Vas Deferens
Autonomic Neuroscience : Basic & Clinical. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19375392
Heptanol and 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid (18 beta GA) block gap junctions, but have other actions on transmitter release that have not been characterised. This study investigates the prejunctional and postjunctional effects of these compounds in guinea pig and mouse vas deferens using intracellular electrophysiological recording and confocal Ca(2+) imaging of sympathetic nerve terminals. In mice, heptanol (2 mM) reversibly decreased the amplitude of purinergic excitatory junction potentials (EJPs; 52+/-5%, P<0.05) while having little effect on spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (sEJPs). Heptanol (2 mM) reversibly abolished the nerve terminal Ca(2+) transient in 52% of terminals. 18 beta GA (10 microM) decreased the mean EJP amplitude, and increased input resistance in both mouse (137+/-17%, P<0.05) and guinea pig (354+/-50%, P<0.001) vas deferens indicating gap junction blockade. Further, 18 beta GA increased the sEJP frequency significantly in guinea pigs (by 71+/-25%, P<0.05) and in 5 out of 6 tissues in mice (19+/-3%, P<0.05). Moreover, 18 beta GA depolarised cells from both mice (11+/-1%, P<0.01) and guinea pigs (8+/-1%, P<0.005). Therefore, we conclude that heptanol (2 mM) decreases neurotransmitter release (given the decrease in EJP amplitude) by abolishing the nerve terminal action potential in a proportion of nerve terminals. 18 betaGA (10 microM) effectively blocks the gap junctions, but the increase in sEJP frequency suggests an additional prejunctional effect, which might involve the induction of spontaneous nerve terminal action potentials.
Experimental Physiology. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19395661
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 17beta-oestradiol (E(2)) on detrusor smooth muscle contractility and its possible neuroprotective role against ischaemic-like condition, which could arise during overactive bladder disease. The effect of E(2) was investigated on rat detrusor muscle strips stimulated with carbachol, KCl and electrically, in the absence or presence of a selective oestrogen receptor antagonist (ICI 182,780) and, by using confocal Ca(2+) imaging technique, measuring the amplitude (DeltaF/F(0)) and the frequency of spontaneous whole cell Ca(2+) flashes. Moreover, the effect of 1 and 2 h of anoxia-glucopenia and reperfusion (A-G/R), in the absence or presence of the hormone, was evaluated in rat detrusor strips perfused with Krebs solution which underwent electrical field stimulation to stimulate intrinsic nerves; the amplitude and the frequency of Ca(2+) flashes were also measured. 17beta-Oestradiol exhibited antispasmogenic activity assessed on detrusor strips depolarized with 60 mm KCl at two different Ca(2+) concentrations. 17beta-Oestradiol at the highest concentration tested (30 microm) significantly decreased detrusor contractions induced by all the stimuli applied. In addition, the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous Ca(2+) flashes were significantly decreased in the presence of E(2) (10 and 30 microm) compared with control detrusor strips. In strips subjected to A-G/R, a significant increase in the amplitude of both spontaneous and evoked flashes was observed. 17beta-Oestradiol was found to increase the recovery of detrusor strips subjected to A-G/R. The ability of E(2) to suppress contraction in control conditions may explain its ability to aid recovery following A-G/R.
Dynamic Monitoring of NET Activity in Mature Murine Sympathetic Terminals Using a Fluorescent Substrate
British Journal of Pharmacology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20136837
To validate a fluorescence approach for monitoring norepinephrine transporter (NET) transport rate in mature sympathetic terminals, and to determine how prejunctional muscarinic receptors affect NET rate.
Experimental Physiology. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20150402
Mechanisms Involved in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-induced Neurotransmitter Release from Sympathetic Nerve Terminals in the Mouse Vas Deferens
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22216213
Prejunctional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) amplify postganglionic sympathetic neurotransmission, and there are indications that intraterminal Ca(2+) stores might be involved. However, the mechanisms by which nAChR activation stimulates neurotransmitter release at such junctions is unknown. Rapid local delivery (picospritzing) of the nAChR agonist epibatidine was combined with intracellular sharp microelectrode recording to monitor spontaneous and field-stimulation-evoked neurotransmitter release from sympathetic nerve terminals in the mouse isolated vas deferens. Locally applied epibatidine (1 µM) produced 'epibatidine-induced depolarisations' (EIDs) that were similar in shape to spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (SEJPs) and were abolished by nonselective nAChR antagonists and the purinergic desensitizing agonist α,β-methylene ATP. The amplitude distribution of EIDs was only slightly shifted towards lower amplitudes by the selective α7 nAChR antagonists α-bungarotoxin and methyllcaconitine, the voltage-gated Na(+) channel blocker tetrodotoxin or by blocking voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels with Cd(2+). Lowering the extracellular Ca(2+) concentration reduced the frequency of EIDs by 69%, but more surprisingly, the Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release blocker ryanodine greatly decreased the amplitude (by 41%) and the frequency of EIDs by 36%. Ryanodine had no effect on electrically-evoked neurotransmitter release, paired-pulse facilitation, SEJP frequency, SEJP amplitude or SEJP amplitude distribution. These results show that activation of non-α7 nAChRs on sympathetic postganglionic nerve terminals induces high-amplitude junctional potentials that are argued to represent multipacketed neurotransmitter release synchronized by intraterminal Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release, triggered by Ca(2+) influx directly through the nAChR. This nAChR-induced neurotransmitter release can be targeted pharmacologically without affecting spontaneous or electrically-evoked neurotransmitter release.