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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (6)
Articles by Kelli Delaloye in JoVE
Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques for Studying Ion Channels Expressed in Xenopus oocytes
Junqiu Yang1, Kelli Delaloye2, Urvi S. Lee2, Jianmin Cui3
1Department of Energy, Environmental & Chemical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering and Cardiac Bioelectricity and Arrhythmia Center, Washington University in St. Louis
Ionic current of BK channels is recorded using patch clamp techniques. BK channels are expressed in Xenopus oocytes by injecting messenger RNA. The intracellular solution during patch clamp recordings is controlled by a perfusion system.
Other articles by Kelli Delaloye on PubMed
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17984060
The voltage-sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-dependent ion channels and enzymes is critical for cellular responses to membrane potential. The VSD can also be regulated by interaction with intracellular proteins and ligands, but how this occurs is poorly understood. Here, we show that the VSD of the BK-type K(+) channel is regulated by a state-dependent interaction with its own tethered cytosolic domain that depends on both intracellular Mg(2+) and the open state of the channel pore. Mg(2+) bound to the cytosolic RCK1 domain enhances VSD activation by electrostatic interaction with Arg-213 in transmembrane segment S4. Our results demonstrate that a cytosolic domain can come close enough to the VSD to regulate its activity electrostatically, thereby elucidating a mechanism of Mg(2+)-dependent activation in BK channels and suggesting a general pathway by which intracellular factors can modulate the function of voltage-dependent proteins.
Biophysical Journal. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18339745
Large conductance Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K(+) (BK) channels, composed of pore-forming alpha-subunits and auxiliary beta-subunits, play important roles in diverse physiological processes. The differences in BK channel phenotypes are primarily due to the tissue-specific expression of beta-subunits (beta1-beta4) that modulate channel function differently. Yet, the molecular basis of the subunit-specific regulation is not clear. In our study, we demonstrate that perturbation of the voltage sensor in BK channels by mutations selectively disrupts the ability of the beta1-subunit--but not that of the beta2-subunit--to enhance apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity. These mutations change the number of equivalent gating charges, the voltage dependence of voltage sensor movements, the open-close equilibrium of the channel, and the allosteric coupling between voltage sensor movements and channel opening to various degrees, indicating that they alter the conformation and movements of the voltage sensor and the activation gate. Similarly, the ability of the beta1-subunit to enhance apparent Ca(2+) sensitivity is diminished to various degrees, correlating quantitatively with the shift of voltage dependence of voltage sensor movements. In contrast, none of these mutations significantly reduces the ability of the beta2-subunit to enhance Ca(2+) sensitivity. These results suggest that the beta1-subunit enhances Ca(2+) sensitivity by altering the conformation and movements of the voltage sensor, whereas the similar function of the beta2-subunit is governed by a distinct mechanism.
Nature Structural & Molecular Biology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18931675
The voltage-sensor domain (VSD) and the ligand sensor (cytoplasmic domain) of BK channels synergistically control channel activities, thereby integrating electrical and chemical signals for cell function. Studies show that intracellular Mg2+ mediates the interaction between these sensory domains to activate the channel through an electrostatic interaction with the VSD. Here we report that Mg2+ binds to a site that consists of amino acid side chains from both the VSD (Asp99 and Asn172) and the cytoplasmic domain (Glu374 and Glu399). For each Mg2+ binding site, the residues in the VSD and those in the cytoplasmic domain come from neighboring subunits. These results suggest that the VSD and the cytoplasmic domains from different subunits may interact during channel gating, and the packing of VSD or the RCK1 domain to the pore in BK channels differ from that in Kv1.2 or MthK channels.
The Journal of General Physiology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20479111
The voltage-sensing domain of voltage-gated channels is comprised of four transmembrane helices (S1-S4), with conserved positively charged residues in S4 moving across the membrane in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. Although it has been shown that positive charges in S4 interact with negative countercharges in S2 and S3 to facilitate protein maturation, how these electrostatic interactions participate in channel gating remains unclear. We studied a mutation in Kv7.1 (also known as KCNQ1 or KvLQT1) channels associated with long QT syndrome (E1K in S2) and found that reversal of the charge at E1 eliminates macroscopic current without inhibiting protein trafficking to the membrane. Pairing E1R with individual charge reversal mutations of arginines in S4 (R1-R4) can restore current, demonstrating that R1-R4 interact with E1. After mutating E1 to cysteine, we probed E1C with charged methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents. MTS reagents could not modify E1C in the absence of KCNE1. With KCNE1, (2-sulfonatoethyl) MTS (MTSES)(-) could modify E1C, but [2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl] MTS (MTSET)(+) could not, confirming the presence of a positively charged environment around E1C that allows approach by MTSES(-) but repels MTSET(+). We could change the local electrostatic environment of E1C by making charge reversal and/or neutralization mutations of R1 and R4, such that MTSET(+) modified these constructs depending on activation states of the voltage sensor. Our results confirm the interaction between E1 and the fourth arginine in S4 (R4) predicted from open-state crystal structures of Kv channels and reveal an E1-R1 interaction in the resting state. Thus, E1 engages in electrostatic interactions with arginines in S4 sequentially during the gating movement of S4. These electrostatic interactions contribute energetically to voltage-dependent gating and are important in setting the limits for S4 movement.
An Epilepsy/dyskinesia-associated Mutation Enhances BK Channel Activation by Potentiating Ca2+ Sensing
Neuron. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20620873
Ca(2+)-activated BK channels modulate neuronal activities, including spike frequency adaptation and synaptic transmission. Previous studies found that Ca(2+)-binding sites and the activation gate are spatially separated in the channel protein, but the mechanism by which Ca(2+) binding opens the gate over this distance remains unknown. By studying an Asp-to-Gly mutation (D434G) associated with human syndrome of generalized epilepsy and paroxysmal dyskinesia (GEPD), we show that a cytosolic motif immediately following the activation gate S6 helix, known as the AC region, mediates the allosteric coupling between Ca(2+) binding and channel opening. The GEPD mutation inside the AC region increases BK channel activity by enhancing this allosteric coupling. We found that Ca(2+) sensitivity is enhanced by increases in solution viscosity that reduce protein dynamics. The GEPD mutation alters such a response, suggesting that a less flexible AC region may be more effective in coupling Ca(2+) binding to channel opening.
Biophysical Journal. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21112284
The KCNE1 auxiliary subunit coassembles with the Kv7.1 channel and modulates its properties to generate the cardiac I(Ks) current. Recent biophysical evidence suggests that KCNE1 interacts with the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of Kv7.1. To investigate the mechanism of how KCNE1 affects the VSD to alter the voltage dependence of channel activation, we perturbed the VSD of Kv7.1 by mutagenesis and chemical modification in the absence and presence of KCNE1. Mutagenesis of S4 in Kv7.1 indicates that basic residues in the N-terminal half (S4-N) and C-terminal half (S4-C) of S4 are important for stabilizing the resting and activated states of the channel, respectively. KCNE1 disrupts electrostatic interactions involving S4-C, specifically with the lower conserved glutamate in S2 (Glu(170) or E2). Likewise, Trp scanning of S4 shows that mutations to a cluster of residues in S4-C eliminate current in the presence of KCNE1. In addition, KCNE1 affects S4-N by enhancing MTS accessibility to the top of the VSD. Consistent with the structure of Kv channels and previous studies on the KCNE1-Kv7.1 interaction, these results suggest that KCNE1 alters the interactions of S4 residues with the surrounding protein environment, possibly by changing the protein packing around S4, thereby affecting the voltage dependence of Kv7.1.