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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (23)
- Neurochemistry International
- International Journal of Circumpolar Health
- Journal of Neuroscience Methods
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- Behavioural Brain Research
- Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
- Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
- Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
- Journal of Chromatography. A
- Journal of Neuroscience Research
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
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Articles by Kelly L. Drew in JoVE
और वयस्क hippocampal आर्कटिक ग्राउंड गिलहरी तंत्रिका स्टेम सेल के विकास और भेदभाव
Kelly L. Drew1, Rebecca C. McGee2, Matthew S. Wells3, Judith A. Kelleher-Andersson4
1Alaska Basic Neuroscience Program, Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska at Fairbanks, 2Department Biochemistry, Hood College, 3Department of Cell Biology, Neuronascent, Inc., 4Research and Development, Neuronascent, Inc.
तंत्रिका स्टेम कोशिकाओं वयस्क गैर सुप्तावस्था एक बरस आर्कटिक जमीन गिलहरी (AGS) के हिप्पोकैम्पस से तैयार थे. इन तंत्रिका स्टेम सेल कई मार्ग के माध्यम से विस्तार किया जा सकता है है, भेदभाव और glial संस्कृति के लिए एक लगभग 50:50 न्यूरॉन के रूप में बनाए रखा.
Other articles by Kelly L. Drew on PubMed
Amyloid-beta, Tau Alterations and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Alzheimer Disease: the Chickens or the Eggs?
Neurochemistry International. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11850109
Alzheimer disease (AD) is defined pathologically and diagnostically defined by amyloid-beta senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) composed of tau. From the time of their original description nearly a century ago, a major focus has been to understand the role that these lesions play in the pathogenesis of the disease. The majority favors the notion that these lesions cause the disease and therefore attempts at therapeutic intervention are focused on preventing lesions formation. However, this rationale may be misguided since new evidence from our laboratories and others suggest that the lesions not only occur as a by-product of the fundamental disease process but also that they may be protective.
International Journal of Circumpolar Health. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12002945
Stroke is a major cause of brain injury in Alaska. Since antioxidant levels are decreased in aged brain, the greater predisposition to neuronal death in stroke leading to subsequent neurodegeneration in aged individuals may be related to changes in oxidant balance. We studied the effect of the endogenous antioxidant melatonin on excitotoxic injury resulting from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced damage by developing an organotypic mouse brain slice model. Our objective was to inhibit the effects of oxidative stress induced by NMDA in mouse brain slices, using melatonin.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12323415
Using quantitative microdialysis in hibernating Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), striatal glutamate concentrations ([glu](dia)) progressively increased to approximately 200 microM after 3 days of microdialysis in euthermic but not hibernating ground squirrels. Initially, the progressive increase in [glu](dia) was thought to be related to greater tissue response in euthermic animals. Alternatively, given the vastly different body temperatures between the two groups (37 vs. 3 degrees C), glutamate might have originated from microbes, replicating at a faster rate in the warmer animals. To test these hypotheses, microdialysis was repeated using sterile technique and tissue response surrounding the probe tract was assessed in hematoxylin and eosin stained sections. Using sterile microdialysis technique, traumatic tissue response was greater in euthermic compared to hibernating tissue. However, sterile microdialysis abolished the progressive increase in glutamate. To confirm the microbial origin of glutamate we monitored [glu](dia) collected in vitro from probes immersed in glutamine-rich liquid medium incubated at 37 degrees C. In vitro, [glu](dia) increased as much as in vivo. Two bacteria isolated from in vitro dialysate and liquid medium were both identified as Ralstonia pickettii. Growth of these isolates as well as glutamate release was enhanced when glutamine rather than NH(4)NO(3) was added to the medium suggesting the bacteria utilize glutamine preferentially over ammonium as a nitrogen source.
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Nov, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12391597
Abnormalities in mitochondrial function relate to the spectrum of pathological changes seen in Alzheimer's disease. Here we review the causes and consequences of mitochondrial disturbances in Alzheimer's disease as well as how this information might impact on therapeutic approaches to this disease.
Comparative Biology and Pathology of Oxidative Stress in Alzheimer and Other Neurodegenerative Diseases: Beyond Damage and Response
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology : CBP. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12458179
In this review, we consider comparative aspects of the biology and pathology of oxygen radicals in neurodegenerative disease and how these findings have influenced our concept of oxidative stress. The common definition of oxidative stress is a breach of antioxidant defenses by oxygen radicals leading to damage to critical molecules and disrupted physiology. Inherent in this definition is that oxidative stress is an unstable situation, for if there is net damage, viability of the system decreases with time, leading to disequilibria and death. While this circumstance defines acute conditions, such as stroke and head trauma which result in dysfunction and death, it does not fit physiological situations or chronic diseases closely aligned to normal physiology. Therefore, we propose that oxidative modifications in Alzheimer disease may actually serve as a homeostatic response to stress resulting in a shift of neuronal priority from normal function to basic survival. This phenomenon is comparable to normal physiological conditions of metabolic decrease, such as those seen in hibernation and estivation. Thus, Alzheimer disease could be seen as part of normal aging that includes additional pathology due to inadequate homeostatic response.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15256222
Distribution of ascorbate into tissues is an essential process in ascorbate antioxidant defense. Hibernating animals are studied as a model of tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion because of their tolerance to fluctuations in blood flow associated with prolonged torpor and periodic arousal episodes. Throughout hibernation, plasma ascorbate concentration ([Asc](p)) repetitively increases during torpor, then falls during periodic arousal bouts. We previously proposed that high [Asc](p) provides a ready source of antioxidant protection for distribution to the central nervous system and peripheral tissues during arousal. Here we tested whether deliberate oxidation of plasma ascorbate by intravenous administration of ascorbate oxidase (AO), prior to arousal, compromised tissue levels of ascorbate or the other water-soluble antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) and urate. Although AO decreased [Asc](p) to below the level of detection during torpor and after arousal, ascorbate oxidation did not decrease post-arousal tissue levels of reduced ascorbate, glutathione, or urate in any tissue examined, except liver. The data imply that ascorbate is taken up equally well into brain and other tissues as either ascorbate or its oxidized product dehydroascorbate, with subsequent intracellular reduction of dehydroascorbate. Lack of effect of ascorbate oxidation on tissue levels of GSH or urate indicates that dehydroascorbate uptake and reduction do not compromise tissue concentrations of these other water-soluble antioxidants. Thus, we show equal availability of reduced and oxidized plasma ascorbate during metabolically demanding thermogenesis and reperfusion associated with arousal from hibernation.
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15884016
Hibernating animals are very tolerant of trauma to the central nervous system such that dramatic fluctuations in cerebral blood flow occur during hibernation and arousal without apparent damage. Indeed, it was demonstrated that Arctic ground squirrels (AGS) experience acute and severe systemic hypoxia along with the dramatic fluctuation in cerebral blood flow when the animals are aroused from hibernation. While initial hypotheses concerned protective mechanisms in the hibernating state, recent evidence of sustained elevation of HIF1alpha in euthermic AGS from our laboratory suggests that a preparatory program of protective gene expression is chronically expressed in euthermic AGS. In this study we evaluated potential neuroprotective adaptations by examining the alteration of intracellular MAPK pathways that may be modulated by hypoperfusion/reperfusion in AGS during hibernation and arousal. We found that ERK and JNK are activated in both euthermic and aroused AGS compared to the hibernating group which positively correlated with HIF1alpha levels. The activation of ERK and JNK associated with HIF1alpha may play an important role in mediating neuroprotective adaptations that is essential for successful hibernation. Interestingly, p38 is activated in euthermic AGS but not in aroused AGS, which shows strong correlation with iNOS induction. Therefore, the attenuation of p38 activation and iNOS induction in hibernating and aroused animals may contribute to the attenuation of inflammation that plays important neuroprotective roles during hibernation. Taken together, the differential modulation of the MAPK pathways may be critical for neuroprotection of AGS necessary for fluctuations in oxygen and nutrient delivery during hibernation.
Absence of Cellular Stress in Brain After Hypoxia Induced by Arousal from Hibernation in Arctic Ground Squirrels
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15976308
Although hypoxia tolerance in heterothermic mammals is well established, it is unclear whether the adaptive significance stems from hypoxia or other cellular challenge associated with euthermy, hibernation, or arousal. In the present study, blood gases, hemoglobin O2 saturation (S(O2), and indexes of cellular and physiological stress were measured during hibernation and euthermy and after arousal thermogenesis. Results show that arterial O2 tension (Pa(O2)) and S(O2) are severely diminished during arousal and that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1alpha accumulates in brain. Despite evidence of hypoxia, neither cellular nor oxidative stress, as indicated by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) levels and oxidative modification of biomolecules, was observed during late arousal from hibernation. Compared with rats, hibernating Arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryii) are well oxygenated with no evidence of cellular stress, inflammatory response, neuronal pathology, or oxidative modification following the period of high metabolic demand necessary for arousal. In contrast, euthermic Arctic ground squirrels experience mild, chronic hypoxia with low S(O2) and accumulation of HIF-1alpha and iNOS and demonstrate the greatest degree of cellular stress in brain. These results suggest that Arctic ground squirrels experience and tolerate endogenous hypoxia during euthermy and arousal.
Behavioural Brain Research. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16219369
Hibernation is a unique and highly regulated physiological state characterized by profound, albeit periodically reversible, depression in body temperature, metabolism, and consciousness. Hippocampal synapses undergo pronounced remodeling in concert with torpor and arousal. During hibernation, the number of postsynaptic densities, apical dendritic branches, and spine densities decreases substantially in the hippocampus. Upon arousal these parameters increase beyond pre-hibernation levels and peak within 2-3h. By 24h after arousal, dendritic parameters remain elevated but have started to subside, consistent with pruning and differentiation. The present study examined the functional consequences of these natural changes in synaptic structure. Wild-caught Arctic ground squirrels (AGS) were trained in a hippocampal-dependent contextual fear conditioning task at 3h, 24h, or 4 weeks after arousal (warm-adapted euthermic control group). All groups acquired the fear conditioned response similarly on the training day. During a subsequent retention test session, AGS in the 24h group exhibited enhanced expression of contextual fear compared to the other two groups. These data suggest that the morphological and biochemical changes occurring at 24h after arousal from hibernation affect hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. The natural change in synaptic structure during hibernation may provide a unique opportunity to assess the neural substrates underlying cognitive enhancement.
Persistent Tolerance to Oxygen and Nutrient Deprivation and N-methyl-D-aspartate in Cultured Hippocampal Slices from Hibernating Arctic Ground Squirrel
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16395285
Hibernating Arctic ground squirrel (hAGS), Spermophilus parryii, survive profound decreases in cerebral perfusion during torpor and return to normal blood flow during intermittent rewarming periods without neurologic damage. Hibernating AGS tolerate traumatic brain injury in vivo, and acute hippocampal slices from hibernating animals tolerate oxygen and glucose deprivation. It remains unclear, however, if neuroprotection results from intrinsic tissue properties or from differences in response to acute trauma associated with slice preparation. The goal of this work was therefore to determine whether an intrinsic tissue tolerance persists in chronic culture of AGS hippocampal slices at 37 degrees C. A second goal was to address N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor involvement and channel arrest as potential mechanisms of intrinsic tissue tolerance. Baseline neuronal survival and tolerance to oxygen and nutrient deprivation (OND), an in vitro model of ischemia-reperfusion, were assessed in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices from juvenile, hAGS and interbout euthermic AGS (ibeAGS). Early in culture (insult onset at 3 h), slices from both hAGS and ibeAGS tolerate OND (4 h deprivation followed by 20 h recovery) and 500 micromol/L NMDA plus 20 mmol/L KCl. Later in culture (insult onset at 24 h), tolerance persists in slices from hAGS but not in slices from ibeAGS. Ouabain (Na(+)K(+)ATPase inhibitor) administered 24 h in culture enhances survival of slices from hAGS (assessed 24 h later). Thus, tolerance to OND in slices from hAGS is due to intrinsic tissue properties likely involving NMDA receptors and ion channel arrest.
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16574920
Hetereothermic mammals tolerate hypoxia during euthermy and torpor, and evidence suggests this tolerance may extend beyond hypoxia to cerebral ischemia. During hibernation, CA1 hippocampal neurons endure extreme fluctuations in cerebral blood flow during transitions into and out of torpor as well as reductions in cerebral blood flow during torpor. In vitro studies likewise show evidence of ischemia tolerance in hippocampal slices harvested from euthermic ground squirrels; however, no studies have investigated tolerance in a clinically relevant model of in vivo global cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the euthermic Arctic ground squirrel (AGS; Spermophillus parryii) is resistant to injury from asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA).
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16676330
Heterothermic mammals such as ground squirrels tolerate ischemia and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) better than homeothermic mammals such as rats both in vivo and in vitro, and this tolerance is enhanced in the hibernating state. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying this tolerance remain unclear. NMDA receptors (NMDAR) play a key role in excitotoxicity. The purpose of the current study was therefore to test the hypothesis that NMDAR are down-regulated in hibernating Arctic ground squirrels (hAGS; Spermophilus parryii). To address this hypothesis, we used Western blot analysis to investigate NMDAR phosphorylation, an activator of NMDAR function, and internalization in naïve hippocampal tissue from hAGS, interbout euthermic AGS (ibeAGS), and rats. Furthermore, we used fura-2 calcium imaging to examine NMDAR function in cultured hippocampal slices from hAGS, ibeAGS, and rats. We report that phosphorylation of the NMDAR1 (NR1) subunit is decreased in hippocampal tissue from hAGS and that the NMDAR component of Glu-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i) is decreased in hippocampal slices from hAGS. Moreover, the fraction of NR1 in the functional membrane pool in AGS is less than that in rats.
Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16918494
Hibernation is a unique phenotype displayed by a phylogenetically diverse group of organisms including several species of mammals and one species of primate. Here we review evidence for blood and tissue borne signaling molecules in hibernating animals, achievements in isolating and characterizing these molecules, and potential medicinal applications.
Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17097266
Hibernation is a natural model of neuroprotection and adult synaptic plasticity. NMDA receptors (NMDAR), which play key roles in excitotoxicity and synaptic plasticity, have not been characterized in a hibernating species. Tolerance to excitotoxicity and cognitive enhancement in Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Spermophilus parryii) suggests that NMDAR expression may decrease in hibernation and increase upon arousal. NMDAR consist of at least one NMDAR1 (NR1) subunit, which is required for receptor function. Localization of NR1 reflects localization of the majority, if not all, NMDAR complexes. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to characterize the distribution of NR1 subunits in AGS central nervous system using immunohistochemistry. In addition, we compare NR1 expression in hippocampus of hibernating AGS (hAGS) and inter-bout euthermic AGS (ibeAGS) and assess changes in cell somata size using NR1 stained sections in three hippocampal sub-regions (CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus). For the first time, we report that immunoreactivity of anti-NR1 is widely distributed throughout the central nervous system in AGS and is similar to other species. No differences exist in the expression and distribution of NR1 in hAGS and ibeAGS. However, we report a significant decrease in size of hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus NR1-expressing neuronal somata during hibernation torpor.
Central Nervous System Regulation of Mammalian Hibernation: Implications for Metabolic Suppression and Ischemia Tolerance
Journal of Neurochemistry. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17555547
Torpor during hibernation defines the nadir of mammalian metabolism where whole animal rates of metabolism are decreased to as low as 2% of basal metabolic rate. This capacity to decrease profoundly the metabolic demand of organs and tissues has the potential to translate into novel therapies for the treatment of ischemia associated with stroke, cardiac arrest or trauma where delivery of oxygen and nutrients fails to meet demand. If metabolic demand could be arrested in a regulated way, cell and tissue injury could be attenuated. Metabolic suppression achieved during hibernation is regulated, in part, by the central nervous system through indirect and possibly direct means. In this study, we review recent evidence for mechanisms of central nervous system control of torpor in hibernating rodents including evidence of a permissive, hibernation protein complex, a role for A1 adenosine receptors, mu opiate receptors, glutamate and thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Central sites for regulation of torpor include the hippocampus, hypothalamus and nuclei of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, we discuss evidence that hibernation phenotypes can be translated to non-hibernating species by H(2)S and 3-iodothyronamine with the caveat that the hypothermia, bradycardia, and metabolic suppression induced by these compounds may or may not be identical to mechanisms employed in true hibernation.
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18284615
The microtubule-associated protein tau is abnormally hyperphosphorylated in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, and is believed to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of these diseases. While the mechanisms leading to abnormal tau phosphorylation remain elusive, the recent demonstration of reversible tau phosphorylation during hibernation provides an ideal physiological model to study this critical process in vivo. In this study, Arctic ground squirrels (AGS) during hibernation were used to study mechanisms related to tau hyperphosphorylation. Our data demonstrate that tau is hyperphosphorylated at all six sites (S199, T205, S214, S262, S396, and S404) examined in hibernating AGS. Interestingly, only three of these sites (S199, S262, and S404) are dephosphorylated in aroused animals, suggesting a reversible phosphorylation at selective sites. Summer-active AGS demonstrated the lowest tau phosphorylation at all these sites. To explore the mechanisms underlying increased tau phosphorylation during hibernation, the expression level and enzyme activity of various potential tau kinases and protein phosphatases were examined. The kinetic analysis of enzyme activity at different temperatures revealed differential changes in enzyme activity with temperature decline. Specifically, increased protein kinase A activity, decreased protein phosphatase 2A activity, as well as substantial contribution from glycogen synthase kinase-3beta, likely play a key role in increased tau phosphorylation during hibernation in AGS.
Arctic Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus Parryii) Hippocampal Neurons Tolerate Prolonged Oxygen-glucose Deprivation and Maintain Baseline ERK1/2 and JNK Activation Despite Drastic ATP Loss
Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism : Official Journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18398417
Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) initiates a cascade of intracellular responses that culminates in cell death in sensitive species. Neurons from Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), a hibernating species, tolerate OGD in vitro and global ischemia in vivo independent of temperature or torpor. Regulation of energy stores and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways can regulate neuronal survival. We used acute hippocampal slices to investigate the role of ATP stores and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPKs in promoting survival. Acute hippocampal slices from AGS tolerated 30 mins of OGD and showed a small but significant increase in cell death with 2 h OGD at 37 degrees C. This tolerance is independent of hibernation state or season. Neurons from AGS survive OGD despite rapid ATP depletion by 3 mins in interbout euthermic AGS and 10 mins in hibernating AGS. Oxygen-glucose deprivation does not induce JNK activation in AGS and baseline ERK1/2 and JNK activation is maintained even after drastic depletion of ATP. Surprisingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 or JNK during OGD had no effect on survival, whereas inhibition of JNK increased cell death during normoxia. Thus, protective mechanisms promoting tolerance to OGD by AGS are downstream from ATP loss and are independent of hibernation state or season. Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism (2008) 28, 1307-1319; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2008.20; published online 9 April 2008.
Journal of Chromatography. A. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18814875
The capability of continuously sampling the extracellular fluid opens up a wide range of applications of microdialysis in biological, pharmaceutical, and clinical studies. Existing microdialysis, however, faces challenges in sampling analytes with fast clearance and limited diffusivity because sampling resolution is limited by device size. Size reduction in probes and interconnected cannulae is a promising solution to improve temporal and spatial resolution. But the back pressure produced by resistance to laminar flows will be magnified in smaller channels, raising a concern as to whether it is feasible to operate continuous perfusion for miniaturized microdialysis. We demonstrate that a 10-fold smaller channel will exhibit 100-fold larger back pressure in response to the increase in the flow rate to maintain the relative recovery. In order to overcome the foreseen back pressure issue, this paper discusses a new concept using discrete droplets instead of continuous flows to operate dialysis in a miniaturized probe. This conceptual design is referred to as droplet-based digital microdialysis, in which droplets are produced, controlled and advanced within microchannels at a rate that in theory should allow for analytes to equilibrate with the extracellular fluid under no flow conditions. Expecting that a digital droplet design will entirely eliminate back pressure by introducing air between droplets, we numerically compare the equilibration kinematics of droplets to that of continuous flow. Results suggest equilibration of low molecular weight analytes between intermittently stationary droplets and the extracellular fluid in a few seconds. Considerations in design, prototyping, calibration and quantification, and the integration with other devices are suggested.
Simultaneous Efflux of Endogenous D-ser and L-glu from Single Acute Hippocampus Slices During Oxygen Glucose Deprivation
Journal of Neuroscience Research. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19437552
D-serine and L-glutamate play crucial roles in excitotoxicity through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor coactivation, but little is known about the temporal profile of efflux during cerebral ischemia. We utilized a newly designed brain slice microperfusion device coupled offline to capillary electrophoresis laser-induced fluorescence to monitor dynamic efflux of endogenous D-ser and L-glu in response to oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) in single acute hippocampus slices. Efflux profiles with 2-min temporal resolution in response to 24-min OGD show that efflux of D-ser slightly precedes efflux of L-glu by one 2-min sampling interval. Thus both coagonists are available to activate NMDA receptors by the time when glu is released. The magnitude of D-ser efflux relative to baseline values is, however, less than that for L-glu. Peak efflux during OGD, expressed as pre-OGD baseline values, was as follows: D-ser 254% +/- 24%, L-glu 1,675% +/- 259%, L-asp 519% +/- 128%, and L-thr 313% +/- 33%. L-glutamine efflux was shown to decrease significantly in response to OGD. The microperfusion/CE-LIF approach shows several promising attributes for studying endogenous chemical efflux from single, acute brain slices.
Protein Kinase C Epsilon Activation Delays Neuronal Depolarization During Cardiac Arrest in the Euthermic Arctic Ground Squirrel
Journal of Neurochemistry. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19493168
During the pre-hibernation season, arctic ground squirrels (AGS) can tolerate 8 min of asphyxial cardiac arrest (CA) without detectable brain pathology. Better understanding of the mechanisms regulating innate ischemia tolerance in AGS has the potential to facilitate the development of novel prophylactic agents to induce ischemic tolerance in patients at risk of stroke or CA. We hypothesized that neuroprotection in AGS involves robust maintenance of ion homeostasis similar to anoxia-tolerant turtles. Ion homeostasis was assessed by monitoring ischemic depolarization (ID) in cerebral cortex during CA in vivo and during oxygen glucose deprivation in vitro in acutely prepared hippocampal slices. In both models, the onset of ID was significantly delayed in AGS compared with rats. The epsilon protein kinase C (epsilonPKC) is a key mediator of neuroprotection and inhibits both Na+/K+-ATPase and voltage-gated sodium channels, primary mediators of the collapse of ion homeostasis during ischemia. The selective peptide inhibitor of epsilonPKC (epsilonV1-2) shortened the time to ID in brain slices from AGS but not in rats despite evidence that epsilonV1-2 decreased activation of epsilonPKC in brain slices from both rats and AGS. These results support the hypothesis that epsilonPKC activation delays the collapse of ion homeostasis during ischemia in AGS.
Psychopharmacology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20186398
Evidence links longevity to dietary restriction (DR). A decrease in body temperature (T(b)) is thought to contribute to enhanced longevity because lower T(b) reduces oxidative metabolism and oxidative stress. It is as yet unclear how DR decreases T(b).
Season Primes the Brain in an Arctic Hibernator to Facilitate Entrance into Torpor Mediated by Adenosine A(1) Receptors
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21795527
Torpor in hibernating mammals defines the nadir in mammalian metabolic demand and body temperature that accommodates seasonal periods of reduced energy availability. The mechanism of metabolic suppression during torpor onset is unknown, although the CNS is a key regulator of torpor. Seasonal hibernators, such as the arctic ground squirrel (AGS), display torpor only during the winter, hibernation season. The seasonal character of hibernation thus provides a clue to its regulation. In the present study, we delivered adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists into the lateral ventricle of AGSs at different times of the year while monitoring the rate of O(2) consumption and core body temperature as indicators of torpor. The A(1) antagonist cyclopentyltheophylline reversed spontaneous entrance into torpor. The adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-cyclohexyladenosine (CHA) induced torpor in six of six AGSs tested during the mid-hibernation season, two of six AGSs tested early in the hibernation season, and none of the six AGSs tested during the summer, off-season. CHA-induced torpor within the hibernation season was specific to A(1)AR activation; the A(3)AR agonist 2-Cl-IB MECA failed to induce torpor, and the A(2a)R antagonist MSX-3 failed to reverse spontaneous onset of torpor. CHA-induced torpor was similar to spontaneous entrance into torpor. These results show that metabolic suppression during torpor onset is regulated within the CNS via A(1)AR activation and requires a seasonal switch in the sensitivity of purinergic signaling.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22326449
Mammals that hibernate experience extreme metabolic states and body temperatures as they transition between euthermia, a state resembling typical warm blooded mammals, and prolonged torpor, a state of suspended animation where the brain receives as low as 10% of normal cerebral blood flow. Transitions into and out of torpor are more physiologically challenging than the extreme metabolic suppression and cold body temperatures of torpor per se. Mammals that hibernate show unprecedented capacities to tolerate cerebral ischemia, a decrease in blood flow to the brain caused by stroke, cardiac arrest or brain trauma. While cerebral ischemia often leads to death or disability in humans and most other mammals, hibernating mammals suffer no ill effects when blood flow to the brain is dramatically decreased during torpor or experimentally induced during euthermia. These animals, as adults, also display rapid and pronounced synaptic flexibility where synapses retract during torpor and rapidly re-emerge upon arousal. A variety of coordinated adaptations contribute to tolerance of cerebral ischemia in these animals. In this review we discuss adaptations in heterothermic mammals that may suggest novel therapeutic targets and strategies to protect the human brain against cerebral ischemic damage and neurodegenerative disease.