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- تأمين تدفق الأحماض النووية الخلوي ومضان في الموقع التهجين (LNA تدفق FISH) : طريقة لاكتشاف الحمض النووي الريبي البكتيرية الصغيرة
Other Publications (10)
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Articles by Kelly L. Robertson in JoVE
تأمين تدفق الأحماض النووية الخلوي ومضان في الموقع التهجين (LNA تدفق FISH) : طريقة لاكتشاف الحمض النووي الريبي البكتيرية الصغيرة
Kelly L. Robertson, Gary J. Vora
Center for Bio/Molecular Science and Engineering, Naval Research Laboratory
وصفت رواية عالية الإنتاجية الأسلوب الذي يتيح اكتشاف والكميات النسبية للRNA الصغيرة والتعبير مرنا من الخلايا البكتيرية واحد باستخدام مسابر مؤمن الحمض النووي وتدفق الخلوي ومضان
Other articles by Kelly L. Robertson on PubMed
Biochemistry. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16681379
Fluorescent labeling of biological RNA is complicated by the narrow range of nucleoside triphosphates that can be used for biological synthesis (i.e., transcription) as well as the inability to site-specifically incorporate them into long RNA transcripts. Noncovalent strategies for labeling RNA rely on attaching fluorescent dyes to hybridization probes which deliver the dye to a specific region of the RNA through Watson-Crick base pairing. This report demonstrates the use of high-affinity peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes in labeling mRNA transcripts with thiazole orange donor and Alexa-594 acceptor fluorophores. The PNA probes were targeted to sequences flanking splice sites in a pre-mRNA such that before splicing the PNAs were separated by >300 nucleotides (nts) whereas after splicing the separation decreased to
Organic Letters. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18338898
A new fluorogenic cyanine dye was synthesized and found to have low fluorescence quantum yield in fluid solution and in the presence of double-stranded DNA but 80-fold enhanced fluorescence in viscous glycerol solution. An RNA aptamer selected for binding to the new dye exhibits K(d) = 87 nM and 60-fold fluorescence enhancement. The dye-aptamer pair is a fluoromodule that can be incorporated into fluorescent sensors and labels.
LNA Flow-FISH: a Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in Situ Hybridization Method to Detect Messenger RNA Using Locked Nucleic Acid Probes
Analytical Biochemistry. Jul, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19393610
We present a novel method using flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH) to detect specific messenger RNA (mRNA) in suspended cells using locked nucleic acid (LNA)-modified oligonucleotide probes. beta-Actin mRNA was targeted in whole A549 epithelial cells by hybridization with a biotinylated, LNA-modified probe. The LNA bound to beta-actin was then stained using phycoerythrin-conjugated streptavidin and detected by flow cytometry. Shifts in fluorescence signal intensity between the beta-actin LNA probe and a biotinylated, nonspecific control LNA were used to determine optimal conditions for this type of flow-FISH. Multiple conditions for permeabilization and hybridization were tested, and it was found that conditions using 3 microg/ml of proteinase K for permeabilization and 90 min hybridization at 60 degrees C with buffer containing 50% formamide allow cells containing the LNA-bound mRNA to be detected and differentiated from the control LNA with high confidence (< 14% overlap between curves). This combined method, called LNA flow-FISH, can be used for detection and quantification of other RNA species as well as for telomerase measurement and detection.
Microbiology (Reading, England). Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20447992
The discovery of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) has been mainly limited to laboratory model systems and human pathogenic bacteria. In this study, we begin to explore the ncRNA diversity in four recently sequenced environmental Vibrio species (Vibrio alginolyticus 40B, Vibrio communis 1DA3, Vibrio mimicus VM573 and Vibrio campbellii BAA-1116) by performing in silico searches using Infernal and Rfam for the identification of putative ncRNA-encoding genes. This search method resulted in the identification of 31-38 putative ncRNA genes per species and the total ncRNA catalogue spanned an assortment of regulatory mechanisms (riboswitches, cis-encoded ncRNAs, trans-encoded ncRNAs, modulators of protein activity, ribonucleoproteins, transcription termination ncRNAs and unknown). We chose to experimentally validate the identifications for V. campbellii BAA-1116 using a microarray-based expression profiling strategy. Transcript hybridization to tiled probes targeting annotated V. campbellii BAA-1116 intergenic regions revealed that 21 of the 38 predicted ncRNA genes were expressed in mid-exponential-phase cultures grown in nutrient-rich medium. The microarray findings were confirmed by testing a subset of three highly expressed (6S, tmRNA and TPP-2) and three moderately expressed (CsrB, GcvB and purine) ncRNAs via reverse transcription PCR. Our findings provide new information on the diversity of ncRNA in environmental vibrios while simultaneously promoting a more accurate annotation of genomic intergenic regions.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20584898
We previously showed the feasibility of using locked nucleic acid (LNA) for flow cytometric-fluorescence in situ hybridization (LNA flow-FISH) detection of a target cellular mRNA. Here we demonstrate how the method can be used to monitor viral RNA in infected cells. We compared the results of the LNA flow-FISH with other methods of quantifying virus replication, including the use of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) viral construct and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. We found that an LNA probe complementary to Sindbis virus RNA is able to track the increase in viral RNA over time in early infection. In addition, this method is comparable to the EGFP construct in sensitivity, with both peaking around 3 h and at the same level of infected cells. Finally, we observed that the LNA flow-FISH method responds to the decrease in levels of viral RNA caused by antiviral medication. This technique represents a straightforward way to monitor viral infection in cells and is easily applicable to any virus.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20658281
With a view toward developing a rugged microflow cytometer, a sheath flow system was micromachined in hard plastic (polymethylmethacrylate) for analysis of particles and cells using optical detection. Six optical fibers were incorporated into the interrogation region of the chip, in which hydrodynamic focusing narrowed the core stream to ~35 μm × 40 μm. The use of a relatively large channel at the inlet as well as in the interrogation region (375 μm × 125 μm) successfully minimized the risk of clogging. The device could withstand pressures greater than 100 psi without leaking. Assays using both coded microparticles and cells were demonstrated using the microflow cytometer. Multiplexed immunoassays detected nine different bacteria and toxins using a single mixture of coded microspheres. A549 cancer cells processed with locked nucleic acid probes were evaluated using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Blue Fluorescent Dye-protein Complexes Based on Fluorogenic Cyanine Dyes and Single Chain Antibody Fragments
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21180706
Fluoromodules are complexes formed upon the noncovalent binding of a fluorogenic dye to its cognate biomolecular partner, which significantly enhances the fluorescence quantum yield of the dye. Previously, several single-chain, variable fragment (scFv) antibodies were selected from a yeast cell surface-displayed library that activated fluorescence from a family of unsymmetrical cyanine dyes covering much of the visible and near-IR spectrum. The current work expands our repertoire of genetically encodable scFv-dye pairs by selecting and characterizing a group of scFvs that activate fluorogenic violet-absorbing, blue-fluorescing cyanine dyes, based on oxazole and thiazole heterocycles. The dye binds to both yeast cell surface-displayed and soluble scFvs with low nanomolar K(d) values. These dye-protein fluoromodules exhibit high quantum yields, approaching unity for the brightest system. The promiscuity of these scFvs with other fluorogenic cyanine dyes was also examined. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that the yeast cell surface-displayed scFvs can be used for multicolor imaging. The prevalence of 405 nm lasers on confocal imaging and flow cytometry systems make these new reagents potentially valuable for cell biological studies.
Bioconjugate Chemistry. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21375348
Viruses are of particular interest as scaffolds for biotechnology applications given their wide range of shapes and sizes and the possibility to modify them with a variety of functional moieties to produce useful virus-based nanoparticles (VNPs). In order to develop functional VNPs for cell imaging and flow cytometry applications, we used the head of the T4 bacteriophage as a scaffold for bioconjugation of fluorescent dyes. Bacteriophage T4 is a double-stranded DNA virus with an elongated icosahedron head and a contractile tail. The head is ∼100 nm in length and ∼90 nm in width. The large surface area of the T4 head is an important advantage for the development of functional materials since it can accommodate significantly larger numbers of functional groups, such as fluorescent dyes, in comparison with other VNPs. In this study, Cy3 and Alexa Fluor 546 were chemically incorporated into tail-less T4 heads (T4 nanoparticles) for the first time, and the fluorescent properties of the dye-conjugated nanoparticles were characterized. The T4 nanoparticles were labeled with up to 19 000 dyes, and in particular, the use of Cy3 led to fluorescent enhancements of up to 90% compared to free Cy3. We also demonstrate that the dye-conjugated T4 nanoparticles are structurally stable and that they can be used as molecular probes for cell imaging and flow cytometry applications.
Locked Nucleic Acid and Flow Cytometry-fluorescence in Situ Hybridization for the Detection of Bacterial Small Noncoding RNAs
Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22057868
We describe the development and testing of a high-throughput method that enables the detection of small noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) from single bacterial cells using locked nucleic acid probes (LNA) and flow cytometry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (flow-FISH). The LNA flow-FISH method and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to monitor the expression of three ncRNAs (6S, CsrB, and TPP-2) in Vibrio campbellii ATCC BAA-1116 cultures during lag phase, mid-log phase, and stationary phase. Both LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR revealed that CsrB and TPP-2 were highly expressed during lag phase but markedly reduced in mid-log phase and stationary phase, whereas 6S demonstrated no to little expression during lag phase but increased thereafter. Importantly, while LNA flow-FISH and qRT-PCR demonstrated similar overall expression trends, only LNA flow-FISH, which enabled the detection of ncRNAs in individual cells as opposed to the lysate-based ensemble measurements generated by qRT-PCR, was able to capture the cell-to-cell heterogeneity in ncRNA expression. As such, this study demonstrates a new method that simultaneously enables the in situ detection of ncRNAs and the determination of gene expression heterogeneity within an isogenic bacterial population.
Biochemistry. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22257032
γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a two-substrate enzyme that plays a central role in glutathione metabolism and is a potential target for drug design. GGT catalyzes the cleavage of γ-glutamyl donor substrates and the transfer of the γ-glutamyl moiety to an amine of an acceptor substrate or water. Although structures of bacterial GGT have revealed details of the protein-ligand interactions at the donor site, the acceptor substrate site is relatively undefined. The recent identification of a species-specific acceptor site inhibitor, OU749, suggests that these inhibitors may be less toxic than glutamine analogues. Here we investigated the donor and acceptor substrate preferences of Bacillus anthracis GGT (CapD) and applied computational approaches in combination with kinetics to probe the structural basis of the enzyme's substrate and inhibitor binding specificities and compare them with human GGT. Site-directed mutagenesis studies showed that the R432A and R520S variants exhibited 6- and 95-fold decreases in hydrolase activity, respectively, and that their activity was not stimulated by the addition of the l-Cys acceptor substrate, suggesting an additional role in acceptor binding and/or catalysis of transpeptidation. Rat GGT (and presumably HuGGT) has strict stereospecificity for l-amino acid acceptor substrates, while CapD can utilize both l- and d-acceptor substrates comparably. Modeling and kinetic analysis suggest that R520 and R432 allow two alternate acceptor substrate binding modes for l- and d-acceptors. R432 is conserved in Francisella tularensis, Yersinia pestis, Burkholderia mallei, Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli, but not in human GGT. Docking and MD simulations point toward key residues that contribute to inhibitor and acceptor substrate binding, providing a guide to designing novel and specific GGT inhibitors.