Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (26)
- Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England : 2000)
- Neuroscience Letters
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- Molecular Microbiology
- Brain Research
- Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Cardiac Failure
- International Journal of Cardiology
- Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Lymphatic Research and Biology
- Lymphatic Research and Biology
- Experimental Eye Research
- PloS One
- PloS One
- Molecular Microbiology
- Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- PloS One
- Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
- Nature Protocols
- Nature Protocols
- Molecular Vision
- Nature Communications
- Acta Dermato-venereologica
Articles by Kenta Nakamura in JoVE
A System for Culturing Iris Pigment Epithelial Cells to Study Lens Regeneration in Newt
Rital B. Bhavsar*1, Kenta Nakamura*1, Panagiotis A. Tsonis1,2
1Department of Biology, University of Dayton, 2Center for Tissue Regeneration and Engineering, University of Dayton
In newt, the lens regenerates always from the dorsal iris by transdifferentiation of the iris pigmented epithelial cells (IPEs). Here we describe a procedure to culture dorsal and ventral newt IPE cells and their implantation to the newt eye. The implanted cells are then studied by tissue sectioning and immunohistochemistry.
Other articles by Kenta Nakamura on PubMed
Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs (London, England : 2000). Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14582455
The effects of apolipoprotein (Apo) AI mimetic peptide synthesized from D- and L-amino acids on atherosclerotic lesion formation were investigated in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-deficient mice on a Western diet and in apoE null mice. In addition, their effects on the inflammatory changes induced in LDL-receptor mice fed a Western diet following influenza A infection were studied. When apolipoprotein AI mimetic peptides synthesized from either D- or L-amino acids were administered to LDL-receptor null mice, only peptides synthesized from D-amino acids were stable in the circulation and enhanced the ability of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) to protect LDL against oxidation. Administration of the peptide D-4F to LDL-receptor null mice and apoE null mice decreased lesion size. Additionally, in LDL receptor null mice after influenza infection, D-4F treatment increased plasma HDL levels and paraoxonase activity, and inhibited increased in LDL-cholesterol and peak levels of interleukin-6 post-infection. Injection of female mice with male macrophages, and subsequent measurement of the male 'sry' gene, revealed a marked increase in macrophage traffic into the aortic arch after infection that was prevented by administration of D-4F. This indicates that: (i) oral D-4F has powerful anti-atherosclerotic properties, and (ii) the loss of the anti-inflammatory properties of HDL after influenza infection in mice is associated with increased arterial macrophage traffic that can be prevented by administration of D-4F.
Intraocular Implantation of DNA-transfected Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells: a New Approach for Analyzing Molecular Functions in the Newt Retinal Regeneration
Neuroscience Letters. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15351443
Adult newts can regenerate their entire retinas, even after surgical removal of the neural retina (retinectomy), through transdifferentiation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells. To develop a new experimental system for analyzing molecular functions during retinal regeneration of adult newts, we attempted to deliver a foreign gene into RPE cells of retina-less eye-cups in vitro. Here we used pCS2mt-GFP as a reporter construct, and selected Polyfect as a transfection reagent. DNA-transfection appeared to be restricted to the RPE cells of retina-less eye-cups and its efficiency was 0.1-0.2%. We tried to implant RPE-choroid tissue containing DNA-transfected RPE cells into the eye of a host animal. The tissue was placed into the posterior eye-chamber immediately after retinectomy so that the implanted RPE tissue was facing the cornea (i.e., normal orientation). The implant and host RPE regenerated one continuous hybrid neural retina. Ocular sections after 60 days of implantation showed that a small number of cells in the regenerating retina were intensely stained with an anti-GFP antibody. Some of those cells were believed to be retinal cells such as ganglion cells, amacrine cells and photoreceptors. The GFP-positive cells in the hybrid regenerating retina could represent clones derived from a single RPE cell. These results indicate that this experimental system could become useful in the study of adult newt retinal regeneration.
The Journal of Comparative Neurology. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16485283
Adult newts can regenerate their entire retina through transdifferentiation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). The objective of this study was to redescribe the retina regeneration process by means of modern biological techniques. We report two different antibodies (RPE-No.112 and MAB5428) that recognize the newt homolog of RPE65, which is involved in the visual cycle and exclusively label the RPE cell-layer in the adult newt eye. We analyzed the process of retinal regeneration by immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting and propose that this process should be divided into nine stages. We found that the RPE65 protein is present in the RPE-derived new retinal rudiment at 14 days postoperative (po) and in the regenerating retinas at the 3-4 cell stage (19 days po). These observations suggest that certain characteristics of RPE cells overlap with those of retinal stem/progenitor cells during the period of transdifferentiation. However, RPE65 protein was not detected in either retinal stem/progenitor cells in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of adult eyes or in neuroepithelium present during retina development, where it was first detected in differentiated RPE. Moreover, the gene expression of RPE65 was drastically downregulated in the early phase of transdifferentiation (by 10 days po), while those of Connexin43 and Pax-6, both expressed in regenerating retinas, were differently upregulated. These observations suggest that the RPE65 protein in the RPE-derived retinal rudiment may represent the remainder after protein degradation or discharge rather than newly synthesized protein.
The Exceptionally Tight Affinity of DnaA for ATP/ADP Requires a Unique Aspartic Acid Residue in the AAA+ Sensor 1 Motif
Molecular Microbiology. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17042785
Escherichia coli DnaA, an AAA+ superfamily protein, initiates chromosomal replication in an ATP-binding-dependent manner. Although DnaA has conserved Walker A/B motifs, it binds adenine nucleotides 10- to 100-fold more tightly than do many other AAA+ proteins. This study shows that the DnaA Asp-269 residue, located in the sensor 1 motif, plays a specific role in supporting high-affinity ATP/ADP binding. The affinity of the DnaA D269A mutant for ATP/ADP is at least 10- to 100-fold reduced compared with that of the wild-type and DnaA R270A proteins. In contrast, the abilities of DnaA D269A to bind a typical DnaA box, unwind oriC duplex in the presence of elevated concentrations of ATP, load DnaB onto DNA and support minichromosomal replication in a reconstituted system are retained. Whereas the acidic Asp residue is highly conserved among eubacterial DnaA homologues, the corresponding residue in many other AAA+ proteins is Asn/Thr and in some AAA+ proteins these neutral residues are essential for ATP hydrolysis but not ATP binding. As the intrinsic ATPase activity of DnaA is extremely weak, this study reveals a novel and specific function for the sensor 1 motif in tight ATP/ADP binding, one that depends on the alternate key residue Asp.
Brain Research. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17217933
Involvement of Notch signaling in retinal regeneration by transdifferentiation of pigment epithelium cells was investigated using the adult newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. During retinal regeneration, cells expressing Notch-1 first appeared in the regenerating retina one to two cells thick (stage E-3) originated from the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, and increased in number as the regenerating retina increased in thickness. Notch-1 expression was decreased in the central retina in association with cell differentiation and became restricted to the peripheral retina. Administration of a Notch signaling blocker DAPT resulted in the appearance of a cluster of neurons, earlier than in normal regeneration, along the regenerating retina 1-3 cells thick (stage E-3 to I-1). Immunoblot analysis suggested that DAPT could perturb the processing of Notch-1. Similar results were obtained in the newt embryonic retinal development. These results suggest that the Notch-1 signaling system may be reset to regulate neurogenesis during retinal regeneration. However, PCR analysis revealed that the adult newt RPE cells express Hes-1, neurogenin1 and sometimes Delta-1 Hes-1, neurogenin1 and sometimes Delta-1 all of which are differently regulated in association with retinal regeneration, implying that Notch signaling might also be involved early in the process of transdifferentiation.
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17705577
Substantial advances have accrued over the last decade in the identification of the processes that contribute to lymphatic vascular development in health and disease. Identification of distinct regulatory milestones, from a variety of genetic models, has led to a stepwise chronology of lymphatic development. Several molecular species have been identified as important tissue biomarkers of lymphatic development and function. At present, vascular endothelial growth-factor receptor (VEGFR)-3/VEGF-C/VEGF-D signaling has proven useful in the identification of clinical lymphatic metastatic potential and the assessment of cancer prognosis. Similar biomarkers, to be utilized as surrogates for the assessment of inherited and acquired diseases of the lymphatic circulation, are actively sought, and will represent a signal advance in biomedical investigation.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18216012
Initiation of chromosomal replication and its cell cycle-coordinated regulation bear crucial and fundamental mechanisms in most cellular organisms. Escherichia coli DnaA protein forms a homomultimeric complex with the replication origin (oriC). ATP-DnaA multimers unwind the duplex within the oriC unwinding element (DUE). In this study, structural analyses suggested that several residues exposed in the central pore of the putative structure of DnaA multimers could be important for unwinding. Using mutation analyses, we found that, of these candidate residues, DnaA Val-211 and Arg-245 are prerequisites for initiation in vivo and in vitro. Whereas DnaA V211A and R245A proteins retained normal affinities for ATP/ADP and DNA and activity for the ATP-specific conformational change of the initiation complex in vitro, oriC complexes of these mutant proteins were inactive in DUE unwinding and in binding to the single-stranded DUE. Unlike oriC complexes including ADP-DnaA or the mutant DnaA, ATP-DnaA-oriC complexes specifically bound the upper strand of single-stranded DUE. Specific T-rich sequences within the strand were required for binding. The corresponding conserved residues of the DnaA ortholog in Thermotoga maritima, an ancient eubacterium, were also required for DUE unwinding, consistent with the idea that the mechanism and regulation for DUE unwinding can be evolutionarily conserved. These findings provide novel insights into mechanisms for pore-mediated origin unwinding, ATP/ADP-dependent regulation, and helicase loading of the initiation complex.
Journal of Cardiac Failure. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18514937
Although the fourth heart sound (S4) is thought to be associated with a stiff left ventricle, this association has never been proven. Recently, single-beat estimation of the end-diastolic pressure volume relationship (EDPVR) has been characterized (P = alphaV(beta)), allowing the estimation of EDPVR in larger groups of patients. We hypothesized that the S(4) is associated with an upward- and leftward-shifted EDPVR, indicative of elevated end-diastolic stiffness.
The Role of the Lymphatic Circulation in the Natural History and Expression of Cardiovascular Disease
International Journal of Cardiology. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18559287
The lymphatic vasculature is essential to fluid, protein and cellular transport, and to immune responsiveness. The last decade has witnessed a virtual renaissance of investigation into the function of the lymphatic microvasculature, prompting re-consideration of its role in the genesis and progression of cardiovascular pathology. The lymphatic microvasculature of the heart and vascular wall likely participate in atherogenesis, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, and cardiac transplantation. Intensive exploration of lymphatic mechanisms of cardiovascular disease is likely to lead to enhanced insights and novel therapeutic approaches.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18848527
To examine underlying mechanisms of urodele lens regeneration we have employed a proteomic analysis of 650 proteins involved in several signaling pathways. We compared expression of these proteins between the regeneration-competent dorsal iris and the regeneration-incompetent ventral iris in the newt. After a series of screenings we selected several proteins to evaluate their expression quantitatively on immunoblots. We then used these selected proteins to compare their expression between the dorsal iris of the newt and the iris of the axolotl, another urodele, which does not regenerate the lens. In the newt we find that most proteins are expressed in both dorsal and ventral iris, even though there is differential regulation. Moreover, several of these proteins are expressed in the axolotl iris as well and for some of them their expression is consistent with the regeneration potential.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18977760
ATP-DnaA is the initiator of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli, and the activity of DnaA is regulated by the regulatory inactivation of the DnaA (RIDA) system. In this system, the Hda protein promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to produce inactive ADP-DnaA in a mechanism that is mediated by the DNA-loaded form of the replicase sliding clamp. In this study, we first revealed that hda translation uses an unusual initiation codon, CUG, located downstream of the annotated initiation codon. The CUG initiation codon could be used for restricting the Hda level, as this initiation codon has a low translation efficiency, and the cellular Hda level is only approximately 100 molecules per cell. Hda translated using the correct reading frame was purified and found to have a high RIDA activity in vitro. Moreover, we found that Hda has a high affinity for ADP but not for other nucleotides, including ATP. ADP-Hda was active in the RIDA system in vitro and stable in a monomeric state, whereas apo-Hda formed inactive homomultimers. Both ADP-Hda and apo-Hda could form complexes with the DNA-loaded clamp; however, only ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complexes were highly functional in the following interaction with DnaA. Formation of ADP-Hda was also observed in vivo, and mutant analysis suggested that ADP binding is crucial for cellular Hda activity. Thus, we propose that ADP is a crucial Hda ligand that promotes the activated conformation of the protein. ADP-dependent monomerization might enable the arginine finger of the Hda AAA+ domain to be accessible to ATP bound to the DnaA AAA+ domain.
Lymphatic Research and Biology. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19093791
The convergence of multiple disciplines upon the study of the lymphatic vasculature has invigorated a renaissance of research, using powerful investigative tools and an exponential growth of interest in this historically underappreciated system. Fundamental discoveries in lymphatic development have yielded relevant animal models for vexing clinical diseases that suffer from nonexistent of minimally effective treatments. Inherited and acquired lymphedema represent the current crux of research efforts to identify potential molecular therapies born from these early discoveries. The importance of the lymphatic system is, however, not limited to lymphedema but encompasses a diverse spectrum of human disease including inflammation and cancer metastasis. As the lymphatic vasculature continues to benefit from fruits of biomedical investigation, translation of mechanistic insights into targeted, rationally-conceived therapeutics will be become a reality.
Therapeutic Responses to Exogenous VEGF-C Administration in Experimental Lymphedema: Immunohistochemical and Molecular Characterization
Lymphatic Research and Biology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19302023
In a widely employed murine tail model of human acquired lymphedema, we have previously observed that, distal to the site of experimental lymphatic ablation, there is immunohistochemical evidence of a profound increase in cutaneous lymphatic vessel number and size that normalizes after VEGF-C administration.
Experimental Eye Research. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18662689
Musashi-1 (Msi1), an RNA-binding protein (RBP), has been postulated to play important roles in the maintenance of the stem-cell state, differentiation, and tumorigenesis. However, the expression and function of Msi1 in differentiated cells remain obscure. Here we show that Msi1 is expressed in mature photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, and is indispensable for the survival of photoreceptors. We found in the adult newt eye that Msi1 is expressed in all photoreceptors and RPE cells as well as in the retinal stem/progenitor cells in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). We found in the analyses of the newt normal and regenerating retinas that the expression profiles of the Msi1 transcripts and protein isoforms in the photoreceptors are different from those in the retinal stem/progenitor cells. Furthermore, we found that all photoreceptors and RPE cells of the adult mice also express Msi1, and that Msi1 knockout (Msi1-KO) results in degeneration of photoreceptors and a lack of a visual cycle protein RPE65 in the microvilli of RPE cells. Taken together, our current results demonstrate that the expression of Msi1 in mature photoreceptors and RPE cells is evolutionarily conserved, and that Msi1 bears essential functions for vision. Considering such an Msi1-KO phenotype in the retina, it is now reasonable to address whether defects of the Msi1 functions are responsible for inherited retinal diseases. Studying the regulation of Msi1 and the target RNAs of Msi1 in photoreceptors and RPE cells might contribute to fundamental and clinical studies of retinal degeneration.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19936228
Reprogramming adult human somatic cells to create human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cell colonies involves a dramatic morphological and organizational transition. These colonies are morphologically indistinguishable from those of pluripotent human embryonic stem (hES) cells. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are required in diverse developmental processes, but their role in pluripotent colony morphology and organization is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that G(i)-coupled GPCR signaling contributes to the characteristic morphology and organization of human pluripotent colonies.
Anti-inflammatory Pharmacotherapy with Ketoprofen Ameliorates Experimental Lymphatic Vascular Insufficiency in Mice
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20027220
Disruption of the lymphatic vasculature causes edema, inflammation, and end-tissue destruction. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of systemic anti-inflammatory therapy in this disease, we examined the impact of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), ketoprofen, and of a soluble TNF-alpha receptor (sTNF-R1) upon tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha activity in a mouse model of acquired lymphedema.
Novel Essential Residues of Hda for Interaction with DnaA in the Regulatory Inactivation of DnaA: Unique Roles for Hda AAA Box VI and VII Motifs
Molecular Microbiology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20132442
Escherichia coli ATP-DnaA initiates chromosomal replication. For preventing extra-initiations, a complex of ADP-Hda and the DNA-loaded replicase clamp promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, yielding inactive ADP-DnaA. However, the Hda-DnaA interaction mode remains unclear except that the Hda Box VII Arg finger (Arg-153) and DnaA sensor II Arg-334 within each AAA(+) domain are crucial for the DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. Here, we demonstrate that direct and functional interaction of ADP-Hda with DnaA requires the Hda residues Ser-152, Phe-118 and Asn-122 as well as Hda Arg-153 and DnaA Arg-334. Structural analyses suggest intermolecular interactions between Hda Ser-152 and DnaA Arg-334 and between Hda Phe-118 and the DnaA Walker B motif region, in addition to an intramolecular interaction between Hda Asn-122 and Arg-153. These interactions likely sustain a specific association of ADP-Hda and DnaA, promoting DnaA-ATP hydrolysis. Consistently, ATP-DnaA and ADP-DnaA interact with the ADP-Hda-DNA-clamp complex with similar affinities. Hda Phe-118 and Asn-122 are contained in the Box VI region, and their hydrophobic and electrostatic features are basically conserved in the corresponding residues of other AAA(+) proteins, suggesting a conserved role for Box VI. These findings indicate novel interaction mechanisms for Hda-DnaA as well as a potentially fundamental mechanism in AAA(+) protein interactions.
Possible Neuropsychiatric Reaction to High-dose Oseltamivir During Acute 2009 H1N1 Influenza A Infection
Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20192728
The safety of high-dose oseltamivir during treatment of 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection for critically ill patients is unknown. Here we report on a case patient with severe, delayed-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms after administration of high-dose oseltamivir. Clinicians should be vigilant to the possible increased risk of complications associated with high-dose oseltamivir therapy for 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20460584
The ability to reprogram in vivo a somatic cell after differentiation is quite limited. One of the most impressive examples of such a process is transdifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells (PECs) to lens cells during lens regeneration in newts. However, very little is known of the molecular events that allow newt cells to transdifferentiate. Histone B4 is an oocyte-type linker histone that replaces the somatic-type linker histone H1 during reprogramming mediated by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We found that B4 is expressed and required during transdifferentiation of PECs. Knocking down of B4 decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis, which resulted in considerable smaller lens. Furthermore, B4 knockdown altered gene expression of key genes of lens differentiation and nearly abolished expression of gamma-crystallin. These data are the first to show expression of oocyte-type linker histone in somatic cells and its requirement in newt lens transdifferentiation and suggest that transdifferentiation in newts might share common strategies with reprogramming after SCNT.
MiRNAs in Newt Lens Regeneration: Specific Control of Proliferation and Evidence for MiRNA Networking
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20711456
Lens regeneration in adult newts occurs via transdifferentiation of the pigment epithelial cells (PECs) of the dorsal iris. The same source of cells from the ventral iris is not able to undergo this process. In an attempt to understand this restriction we have studied in the past expression patterns of miRNAs. Among several miRNAs we have found that mir-148 shows an up-regulation in the ventral iris, while members of the let-7 family showed down-regulation in dorsal iris during dedifferentiation.
Adapting Biodegradable Oligo(poly(ethylene Glycol) Fumarate) Hydrogels for Pigment Epithelial Cell Encapsulation and Lens Regeneration
Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19514850
This study investigated the encapsulation of newt iris pigment epithelial cells (PECs), which have the ability to regenerate a lens by trans-differentiation in vivo, within a biodegradable hydrogel of oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate. Hydrogel beads of initial diameter of 1 mm were fabricated by a molding technique. The swelling ratio and degradation rate of the hydrogel beads decreased with increasing crosslinking ratios. Confocal microscopy confirmed the cytocompatibility of crosslinking hydrogel formulations as evidenced by the viability of an encapsulated model cell line within a crosslinked hydrogel bead. Hydrogel beads encapsulating iris PECs were also implanted into lentectomized newts in vivo; histological evaluation of explants after 30 days revealed a regenerated lens, thus demonstrating that the presence of degrading hydrogel did not adversely affect lens regeneration. The results of this study suggest the potential of a method for lens regeneration involving oligo(poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate) hydrogels for iris PEC encapsulation and transplantation.
Nature Protocols. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21527917
Here we describe a protocol for gene loss of function during regeneration in newts, specifically applied to lens regeneration. Knockdown with the use of morpholinos can be achieved both in vitro and in vivo, depending on the experimental design. These methods achieve desirable levels of gene knockdown, and thus can be compared with methods developed for use in other animals, such as zebrafish. The technology has been applied to study molecular mechanisms during the process of lens regeneration by knocking down genes at specific stages and examining their effects on other genes and lens differentiation. The protocol can take a few days or up to 20 d to complete, depending on the duration of the experiment.
Nature Protocols. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21527918
The great regenerative abilities of newts provide the impetus for studies at the molecular level. However, efficient methods for gene regulation have historically been quite limited. Here we describe a protocol for transgenically expressing exogenous genes in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. This method is simple: a reaction mixture of I-SceI meganuclease and a plasmid DNA carrying a transgene cassette flanked by the enzyme recognition sites is directly injected into fertilized eggs. The protocol achieves a high efficiency of transgenesis, comparable to protocols used in other animal systems, and it provides a practical number of transgenic newts (∼20% of injected embryos) that survive beyond metamorphosis and that can be applied to regenerative studies. The entire protocol for obtaining transgenic adult newts takes 4-5 months.
A Complement Receptor C5a Antagonist Regulates Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition and Crystallin Expression After Lens Cataract Surgery in Mice
Molecular Vision. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21541266
To evaluate the effects of complement employing a mouse model for secondary cataract.
Nature Communications. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21750538
The extent to which adult newts retain regenerative capability remains one of the greatest unanswered questions in the regeneration field. Here we report a long-term lens regeneration project spanning 16 years that was undertaken to address this question. Over that time, the lens was removed 18 times from the same animals, and by the time of the last tissue collection, specimens were at least 30 years old. Regenerated lens tissues number 18 and number 17, from the last and the second to the last extraction, respectively, were analysed structurally and in terms of gene expression. Both exhibited structural properties identical to lenses from younger animals that had never experienced lens regeneration. Expression of mRNAs encoding key lens structural proteins or transcription factors was very similar to that of controls. Thus, contrary to the belief that regeneration becomes less efficient with time or repetition, repeated regeneration, even at old age, does not alter newt regenerative capacity.