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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (4)

Articles by Kimberly A. Choquette in JoVE

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation and Use of Samarium Diiodide (SmI2) in Organic Synthesis: The Mechanistic Role of HMPA and Ni(II) Salts in the Samarium Barbier Reaction

1Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University


JoVE 4323

A straightforward procedure for the preparation of samarium diiodide (SmI2) in THF is described. The role of two main additives namely hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) and Ni(acac)2 in Sm mediated reactions is demonstrated in the Sm-Barbier reaction.

Other articles by Kimberly A. Choquette on PubMed

Uncovering the Mechanistic Role of HMPA in the Samarium Barbier Reaction

The presence of HMPA is critical for the selective coupling of alkyl halides and ketones by SmI(2). Although previous rate studies have shown that HMPA dramatically accelerates the reduction of alkyl halides over ketones, the basis of this rate acceleration is unknown. In this communication, we report experimental and computational evidence that demonstrate that the selectivity observed in the samarium Barbier reaction is in part a result of activation of the alkyl halide bond by HMPA.

Catalytic Ni(II) in Reactions of SmI2: Sm(II)- or Ni(0)-based Chemistry?

The addition of catalytic amounts of Ni(II) salts provide enhanced reactivity and selectivity in numerous reactions of SmI(2), but the mechanistic basis for their effect is unknown. We report spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the mechanistic role of catalytic Ni(II) in the samarium Barbier reaction. The mechanistic studies presented herein show that the samarium Barbier reaction containing catalytic amounts of Ni(II) salts is driven solely by the reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(0) in a rate-limiting step. Once formed, Ni(0) inserts into the alkyl halide bond through oxidative addition to produce an organonickel species. During the reaction, the formation of colloidal Ni(0) occurs concomitantly with Ni(0) oxidative addition as an unproductive process. Overall, this study shows that a reaction thought to be driven by the unique features of SmI(2) is in fact a result of known Ni(0) chemistry.

Effect of Crown Ethers on the Ground and Excited State Reactivity of Samarium Diiodide in Acetonitrile

Electron transfer from the ground and excited states of Sm[15-crown-5](2)I(2) complex to a series of electron acceptors (benzaldehyde, acetophenone, benzophenone, nitrobenzene, benzyl bromide, benzyl chloride, 1-iodohexane, and 1,4-dinitrobenzene) was investigated in acetonitrile. Electron transfer from the ground state of the Sm(II)-crown system to aldehydes and ketones has a significant inner sphere component indicating that the oxophilic nature of Sm(II) prevails in the system even in the presence of bulky ligands such as 15-crown-5 ether. Activation parameters for the ground state electron transfer were determined, and the values were consistent with the proposed mechanistic models. Since crown ethers stabilize the photoexcited states of Sm(II), the photochemistry of Sm[15-crown-5](2)I(2) system in solution state has been investigated in detail. The results suggest that photoinduced electron transfer from Sm(II)-crown systems to a wide variety of substrates is feasible with rate constant values as high as 10(7) M(-1) s(-1). The results described herein imply that the present difficulty of manipulating the extremely reactive excited state of Sm(II) in solution phase can be overcome through stabilizing the excited state of the divalent metal ion by careful design of the ligand systems.

Study on the Coupling of Acyclic Esters with Alkenes--the Synthesis of 2-(2-hydroxyalkyl)cyclopropanols Via Cascade Cyclization Using Allylsamarium Bromide

The radical cyclization between aliphatic acyclic esters and alkenes was achieved unprecedentedly in the presence of allylsamarium bromide with HMPA and H(2)O as additives. The cascade radical cyclization-ring-opening-anionic cyclization allowed facile and efficient access to 2-(2-hydroxyalkyl)cyclopropanols from readily available materials.

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