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In JoVE (1)
- A Model of Disturbed Flow-Induced Atherosclerosis in Mouse Carotid Artery by Partial Ligation and a Simple Method of RNA Isolation from Carotid Endothelium
Other Publications (10)
- American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
- Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- Clinical Science (London, England : 1979)
- Circulation Research
- Journal of Hypertension
Articles by Klaudia Budzyn in JoVE
A Model of Disturbed Flow-Induced Atherosclerosis in Mouse Carotid Artery by Partial Ligation and a Simple Method of RNA Isolation from Carotid Endothelium
Douglas Nam1, Chih-Wen Ni2, Amir Rezvan1, Jin Suo2, Klaudia Budzyn1, Alexander Llanos1, David G. Harrison1, Don P. Giddens2, Hanjoong Jo1,2,3
1Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Emory University, 2Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Tech and Emory University, 3Department of Bioinspired Science, Ewha Womans University
This describes a partial carotid ligation surgery, which causes disturbed flow conditions and subsequent atherosclerosis development (in two weeks) with intraplaque neo-vascularization (in four weeks) in the mouse common carotid artery. We also describe a novel method of RNA isolation from the carotid intima, providing high purity endothelial RNA.
Other articles by Klaudia Budzyn on PubMed
American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15130878
We tested the hypothesis that endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)-derived NO modulates rho-kinase-mediated vascular contraction. Because 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl (HMG)-CoA-reductase inhibition can both upregulate eNOS expression and inhibit rhoA/rho-kinase function, a second hypothesis tested was that statin treatment modulates rho-kinase-mediated contraction and that this can occur independently of eNOS. Contractile responses to the receptor-dependent agonists serotonin and phenylephrine but not to the receptor-independent agent KCl were greater in aortic rings from eNOS-null (eNOS(-/-)) vs. wild-type (eNOS(+/+)) mice. Similarly enhanced responses were seen in eNOS(+/+) rings after acute NOS inhibition. The rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 abolished or profoundly attenuated responses to receptor agonists in both eNOS(+/+) and eNOS(-/-) rings, but responses in eNOS(+/+) were more sensitive to Y-27632. Mevastatin treatment (20 mg/kg sc per day, 14 days) reduced responses to serotonin and phenylephrine in female mice of both strains. KCl-induced contractions were slightly smaller in eNOS(+/+)-derived aortic rings only. Levels of plasma cholesterol, and aortic expression of rhoA and rho-kinase, did not differ between groups. Thus eNOS-derived NO suppresses rhoA/rho-kinase-mediated vascular contraction. Moreover, a similar suppressive effect on rho-kinase-mediated vasoconstriction by statin therapy occurs independently of effects on eNOS or plasma cholesterol.
Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15256679
Premenopausal women are less susceptible to cardiovascular diseases than men or postmenopausal women. Such disease states are often associated with increased vascular RhoA/Rho-kinase activity and decreased activity of nitric oxide (NO). This study tested whether female gender is associated with lower Rho-kinase activity or higher NO activity in cerebral arteries in vivo and whether estrogen contributes to any such gender differences.
Opposing Roles of Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in Vasoconstriction: Effects of Rho-kinase and Hypertension
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15743931
Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) can activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), leading to production of the vasodilator NO. In contrast, vascular smooth muscle (VSM) PI3K may partially mediate vascular contraction, particularly during hypertension. We tested whether endothelial and VSM PI3K may have opposing functional roles in regulating vascular contraction. Secondly, we tested whether the procontractile protein rho-kinase can suppress endothelial PI3K/eNOS activity in intact arteries, thus contributing to vasoconstriction by G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) agonists. We studied contractile responses to the GPCR agonist phenylephrine, and the receptor-independent vasoconstrictor KCl, in aortic rings from Sprague-Dawley rats. In endothelium-intact rings, the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (0.1 microM) markedly augmented responses to phenylephrine (P < 0.05) by approximately 50% but not to KCl. However, in endothelium-denuded or N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (100 microM)-treated rings, wortmannin reduced responses to phenylephrine and KCl (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the rhokinase inhibitor Y-27632 (R-[+]-trans-N-[4-pyridyl]-4-[1-aminoethyl]-cycloheaxanecarboxamide; 1 microM) abolished responses to phenylephrine, and this effect was partially reversed by wortmannin or L-NAME. The ability of wortmannin to oppose the effect of rho-kinase inhibition on contractions to phenylephrine was L-NAME-sensitive. In aortas from angiotensin II-induced hypertensive rats, relaxation to acetylcholine (10 microM) was impaired (P < 0.05), and vasoconstriction by phenylephrine was markedly enhanced and not further augmented by wortmannin. These data suggest that endothelial PI3K-induced NO production can modulate GPCR agonist-induced vascular contraction and that this effect is impaired in hypertension in association with endothelial dysfunction. In addition, endothelial rho-kinase may act to suppress PI3K activity and, hence, attenuate NO-mediated relaxation and augment GPCR-dependent contraction.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16376997
The small GTPase Rho and its downstream effector Rho-kinase contribute to agonist-induced vascular contraction via Ca2+ sensitization. Reasonably selective pharmacological inhibitors of these proteins have been developed and are now widely used experimentally to investigate the role of this signaling pathway in vascular function. Rho and Rho-kinase have attracted increasing clinical interest as a result of emerging evidence for their roles in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension, coronary and cerebral vasospasm, atherosclerosis and diabetes, and are now considered important future therapeutic targets. A major challenge lies in further developing selective inhibitors of this pathway beyond experimental use. Consideration should perhaps also be given to widening the application of existing clinical drugs now known to also interfere with Rho-Rho-kinase signaling.
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16452393
Rho-kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) have each been reported to mediate vasoconstriction via calcium sensitization. However, the relative contributions of these two kinases to vascular contraction, and whether their roles vary between large and small arteries, are largely unknown. We therefore assessed the relative roles of rho-kinase and PKC in mediating vasoconstriction in arteries from three segments of the aortic and mesenteric vasculature. We studied contractile responses of rat isolated thoracic aorta (diameter approximately 2 mm), superior mesenteric artery (SMA; approximately 1.5 mm), and second order branches of the superior mesenteric artery (BMA; approximately 300 mum). The roles of rho-kinase and PKC in mediating contractile responses to phenylephrine, 9,11-dideoxy-9,11-methanoepoxy prostaglandin F(2alpha) (U46619), and KCl were assessed by using the rho-kinase inhibitor R-[+]-trans-N-[4-pyridyl]-4-[1-aminoethyl]-cycloheaxanecarboxamide (Y-27632) (1 and 10 muM) and the PKC inhibitor 3-[1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl-1H-indol-3-yl]-3-(1-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl) maleimide (Ro 31-8220) (5 muM). Contractile responses of aorta and SMA were reduced by either 1 or 10 muM Y-27632 (P < 0.05), whereas responses of BMA were reduced by 10 muM (P < 0.05) but not 1 muM Y-27632. In contrast, Ro 31-8220 partly reduced contractile responses in aorta and SMA (P < 0.05), but it abolished responses of BMA (P < 0.05). Cotreatment with Y-27632 and Ro 31-8220 markedly attenuated contractile responses to phenylephrine and KCl in all vessels, but it had only a moderate inhibitory effect on responses to U46619 in aorta and SMA. Thus, contractile responses of the larger arteries can involve both rho-kinase and PKC to varying degrees. Conversely, contractile responses of small mesenteric resistance arteries seem to be mediated exclusively by PKC, with no apparent role for rho-kinase.
Current Opinion in Drug Discovery & Development. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17786858
Over the last decade, numerous advances have been made in characterizing the various roles of rho kinase in vascular function. In light of extensive evidence for the involvement of rho kinase in the development of several cardiovascular disorders, including hypertension and arterial spasm, this protein is now considered to be an important therapeutic target. Several rho kinase inhibitors are already in experimental use, and further novel and structurally diverse inhibitors have been described. This review focuses on recent developments in our understanding of how rho kinase contributes to vascular dysfunction, and thus the potential of rho kinase inhibitors as therapeutic agents for vascular diseases.
Partial Carotid Ligation is a Model of Acutely Induced Disturbed Flow, Leading to Rapid Endothelial Dysfunction and Atherosclerosis
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19684185
Atherosclerosis is closely associated with disturbed flow characterized by low and oscillatory shear stress, but studies directly linking disturbed flow to atherogenesis is lacking. The major reason for this has been a lack of an animal model in which disturbed flow can be acutely induced and cause atherosclerosis. Here, we characterize partial carotid ligation as a model of disturbed flow with characteristics of low and oscillatory wall shear stress. We also describe a method of isolating intimal RNA in sufficient quantity from mouse carotid arteries. Using this model and method, we found that partial ligation causes upregulation of proatherogenic genes, downregulation of antiatherogenic genes, endothelial dysfunction, and rapid atherosclerosis in 2 wk in a p47(phox)-dependent manner and advanced lesions by 4 wk. We found that partial ligation results in endothelial dysfunction, rapid atherosclerosis, and advanced lesion development in a physiologically relevant model of disturbed flow. It also allows for easy and rapid intimal RNA isolation. This novel model and method could be used for genome-wide studies to determine molecular mechanisms underlying flow-dependent regulation of vascular biology and diseases.
Clinical Science (London, England : 1979). Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20370718
The endothelium plays a crucial role in the control of vascular homoeostasis through maintaining the synthesis of the vasoprotective molecule NO* (nitric oxide). Endothelial dysfunction of cerebral blood vessels, manifested as diminished NO* bioavailability, is a common feature of several vascular-related diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, stroke, subarachnoid haemorrhage and Alzheimer's disease. Over the past several years an enormous amount of research has been devoted to understanding the mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction. As such, it has become apparent that, although the diseases associated with impaired NO* function are diverse, the underlying causes are similar. For example, compelling evidence indicates that oxidative stress might be an important mechanism of diminished NO* signalling in diverse models of cardiovascular 'high-risk' states and cerebrovascular disease. Although there are several sources of vascular ROS (reactive oxygen species), the enzyme NADPH oxidase is emerging as a strong candidate for the excessive ROS production that is thought to lead to vascular oxidative stress. The purpose of the present review is to outline some of the mechanisms thought to contribute to endothelial dysfunction in the cerebral vasculature during disease. More specifically, we will highlight current evidence for the involvement of ROS, inflammation, the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway and amyloid beta-peptides. In addition, we will discuss currently available therapies for improving endothelial function and highlight future therapeutic strategies.
Circulation Research. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20448215
Superoxide (O2(-) ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many human diseases including hypertension; however, commonly used antioxidants have proven ineffective in clinical trials. It is possible that these agents are not adequately delivered to the subcellular sites of superoxide production.