Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- Transfection and Mutagenesis of Target Genes in Mosquito Cells by Locked Nucleic Acid-modified Oligonucleotides
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Kong Wai Cheung in JoVE
Transfection and Mutagenesis of Target Genes in Mosquito Cells by Locked Nucleic Acid-modified Oligonucleotides
Nazzy Pakpour1, Kong Wai Cheung1, Lattha Souvannaseng1, Jean-Paul Concordet2, Shirley Luckhart1
1Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of California, Davis, 2Département Génétique et Développement, Institut Cochin, Université Paris Descartes
Oligonucleotides can be used to site specifically substitute a single nucleotide of transfected target genes in both Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles stephensi cells.
Other articles by Kong Wai Cheung on PubMed
PLoS Pathogens. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19343212
Malaria is caused by infection with intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus Plasmodium that are transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. Although a variety of anti-parasite effector genes have been identified in anopheline mosquitoes, little is known about the signaling pathways that regulate these responses during parasite development. Here we demonstrate that the MEK-ERK signaling pathway in Anopheles is controlled by ingested human TGF-beta1 and finely tunes mosquito innate immunity to parasite infection. Specifically, MEK-ERK signaling was dose-dependently induced in response to TGF-beta1 in immortalized cells in vitro and in the A. stephensi midgut epithelium in vivo. At the highest treatment dose of TGF-beta1, inhibition of ERK phosphorylation increased TGF-beta1-induced expression of the anti-parasite effector gene nitric oxide synthase (NOS), suggesting that increasing levels of ERK activation negatively feed back on induced NOS expression. At infection levels similar to those found in nature, inhibition of ERK activation reduced P. falciparum oocyst loads and infection prevalence in A. stephensi and enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated control of P. falciparum development. Taken together, our data demonstrate that malaria parasite development in the mosquito is regulated by a conserved MAPK signaling pathway that mediates the effects of an ingested cytokine.
Both Hemolytic Anemia and Malaria Parasite-specific Factors Increase Susceptibility to Nontyphoidal Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium Infection in Mice
Infection and Immunity. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20100860
Severe pediatric malaria is an important risk factor for developing disseminated infections with nontyphoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS). While recent animal studies on this subject are lacking, early work suggests that an increased risk for developing systemic NTS infection during malaria is caused by hemolytic anemia, which leads to reduced macrophage microbicidal activity. Here we established a model for oral Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium challenge in mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. Initial characterization of this model showed that 5 days after coinoculation, P. yoelii nigeriensis infection increased the recovery of S. Typhimurium from liver and spleen by approximately 1,000-fold. The increased bacterial burden could be only partially recapitulated by antibody-mediated hemolysis, which increased the recovery of S. Typhimurium from liver and spleen by 10-fold. These data suggested that both hemolysis and P. yoelii nigeriensis-specific factors contributed to the increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium. The mechanism by which hemolysis impaired resistance to S. Typhimurium was further investigated. In vitro, S. Typhimurium was recovered 24 h after infection of hemophagocytic macrophages in 2-fold-higher numbers than after infection of mock-treated macrophages, making it unlikely that reduced macrophage microbicidal activity was solely responsible for hemolysis-induced immunosuppression during malaria. Infection with P. yoelii nigeriensis, but not antibody-mediated hemolysis, reduced serum levels of interleukin-12p70 (IL-12p70) in response to S. Typhimurium challenge. Collectively, studies establishing a mouse model for this coinfection suggest that multiple distinct malaria-induced immune defects contribute to increased susceptibility to S. Typhimurium.
Reactive Oxygen Species-dependent Cell Signaling Regulates the Mosquito Immune Response to Plasmodium Falciparum
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21126166
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in direct killing of pathogens, increased tissue damage, and regulation of immune signaling pathways in mammalian cells. Available research suggests that analogous phenomena affect the establishment of Plasmodium infection in Anopheles mosquitoes. We have previously shown that provision of human insulin in a blood meal leads to increased ROS levels in Anopheles stephensi. Here, we demonstrate that provision of human insulin significantly increased parasite development in the same mosquito host in a manner that was not consistent with ROS-induced parasite killing or parasite escape through damaged tissue. Rather, our studies demonstrate that ROS are important mediators of both the mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling branches of the mosquito insulin signaling cascade. Further, ROS alone can directly activate these signaling pathways and this activation is growth factor specific. Our data, therefore, highlight a novel role for ROS as signaling mediators in the mosquito innate immune response to Plasmodium parasites.