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In JoVE (1)
- Dissection and Culture of Chick Statoacoustic Ganglion and Spinal Cord Explants in Collagen Gels for Neurite Outgrowth Assays
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Kristen N. Fantetti in JoVE
Dissection and Culture of Chick Statoacoustic Ganglion and Spinal Cord Explants in Collagen Gels for Neurite Outgrowth Assays
Kristen N. Fantetti, Donna M. Fekete
Department of Biological Sciences, Purdue University
We demonstrate how to dissect and culture chick E4 statoacoustic ganglion and E6 spinal cord explants. Explants are cultured under serum-free conditions in 3D collagen gels for 24 hours. Neurite responsiveness is tested with growth factor-supplemented medium and with protein-coated beads.
Other articles by Kristen N. Fantetti on PubMed
Non-cell-autonomous Planar Cell Polarity Propagation in the Auditory Sensory Epithelium of Vertebrates
Developmental Biology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21255565
Sensory epithelia of the inner ear require a coordinated alignment of hair cell stereociliary bundles as an essential element of mechanoreceptive function. Hair cell bundle alignment is mediated by core planar cell polarity (PCP) proteins, such as Vangl2, that localize asymmetrically to the circumference of the cell near its apical surface. During early phases of cell orientation in the chicken basilar papilla (BP), Vangl2 is present at supporting cell junctions that lie orthogonal to the polarity axis. Several days later, there is a striking shift in the Vangl2 pattern associated with hair cells that reorient towards the distal (apical) end of the organ. How the localization of PCP proteins transmits planar polarity information across the developing sensory epithelium remains unclear. To address this question, the normal asymmetric localization of Vangl2 was disrupted by overexpressing Vangl2 in clusters of cells. The BP was infected with replication-competent retrovirus encoding Vangl2 prior to hair cell differentiation. Virus-infected cells showed normal development of individual stereociliary bundles, indicating that asymmetry was established at the cellular level. Yet, bundles were misoriented in ears infected with Vangl2 virus but not Wnt5a virus. Notably, Vangl2 misexpression did not randomize bundle orientations but rather generated larger variations around a normal mean angle. Cell clusters with excess Vangl2 could induce non-autonomous polarity disruptions in wild-type neighboring cells. Furthermore, there appears to be a directional bias in the propagation of bundle misorientation that is towards the abneural edge of the epithelium. Finally, regional bundle reorientation was inhibited by Vangl2 overexpression. In conclusion, ectopic Vangl2 protein causes inaccurate local propagation of polarity information, and Vangl2 acts in a non-cell-autonomous fashion in the sensory system of vertebrates.
Hearing Research. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21530628
The peripheral growth cones of statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurons are presumed to sense molecular cues to navigate to their sensory targets during development. Based on previously reported expression data for Frizzled receptors, Wnt ligands, and Wnt inhibitors, we hypothesized that some members of the Wnt morphogen family may function as repulsive cues for SAG neurites. The responses of SAG neurons to mammalian Wnts -1, -4, -5a, -6, and -7b, and the Wnt inhibitors sFRP -1, -2, and -3, were tested in vitro by growing SAG explants from embryonic day 4 (E4) chicken embryos for two days in 3D collagen gels. Average neurite length and density were quantified to determine effects on neurite outgrowth. SAG neurites were strongly repelled by human Sema3E, demonstrating SAG neurons are responsive under these assay conditions. In contrast, SAG neurons showed no changes in neurite outgrowth when cultured in the presence of Wnts and Wnt inhibitors. As an alternative approach, Wnt4 and Wnt5a were also tested in vivo by injecting retroviruses encoding these genes into the chicken otocyst on E3. On E6, no differences were evident in the peripheral projections of SAG axons terminating in infected sensory organs as compared to uninfected organs on the contralateral side of the same embryo. For all Wnt sources, bioactivity was confirmed on E6 chick spinal cord explants by observing enhanced axon outgrowth, as reported previously in the mouse. These results suggest that the tested Wnts do not play a role in guiding peripheral axons in the chicken inner ear.
Members of the BMP, Shh and FGF Morphogen Families Promote Chicken Statoacoustic Ganglion Neurite Outgrowth and Neuron Survival in Vitro
Developmental Neurobiology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22006861
Mechanosensory hair cells of the chicken inner ear are innervated by the peripheral processes of statoacoustic ganglion (SAG) neurons. Members of several morphogen families are expressed within and surrounding the chick inner ear during stages of SAG axon outgrowth and pathfinding. Based on their localized expression patterns, we hypothesized that BMPs, FGFs and Shh may function as guidance cues for growing axons and/or may function as trophic factors once axons have reached their targets. To test this hypothesis, three-dimensional collagen cultures were used to grow embryonic day 4 (E4) chick SAG explants for 24 hours in the presence of purified proteins or beads soaked in proteins. The density of neurite outgrowth was quantified to determine effects on neurite outgrowth. Explants displayed enhanced neurite outgrowth when cultured in the presence of purified BMP4, BMP7, a low concentration of Shh, FGF8, FGF10, or FGF19. In contrast, SAG neurons appeared unresponsive to FGF2. Collagen gel cultures were labeled with TUNEL and immunostained with anti-phospho-histone H3 to determine effects on neuron survival and proliferation, respectively. Treatments that increased neurite outgrowth also yielded significantly fewer apoptotic cells, with no effect on cell proliferation. When presented as focal sources, BMP4, Shh, and FGFs -8, -10, and -19 promoted asymmetric outgrowth from the ganglion in the direction of the beads. BMP7-soaked beads did not induce this response. These results suggest that a subset of morphogens enhance both survival and axon outgrowth of otic neurons. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2011.