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In JoVE (1)
- Production of Transgenic Xenopus laevis by Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration and Nuclear Transplantation
Other Publications (15)
- The EMBO Journal
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Genes & Development
- Developmental Biology
- Biology of the Cell / Under the Auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization
- Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
- Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library
- BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- The EMBO Journal
- Developmental Cell
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Articles by Kristen Kroll in JoVE
Production of Transgenic Xenopus laevis by Restriction Enzyme Mediated Integration and Nuclear Transplantation
Enrique Amaya1, Kristen Kroll2
1The Healing Foundation Centre, Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, 2Department of Developmental Biology, Washington University School of Medicine
This video protocol demonstrates a method for generating transgenic Xenopus laevis by introduction of transgenes into sperm nuclei followed by nuclear transplantation into unfertilized eggs.
Other articles by Kristen Kroll on PubMed
Regulation of Smad Signaling Through a Differential Recruitment of Coactivators and Corepressors by ZEB Proteins
The EMBO Journal. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12743039
Balancing signals derived from the TGFbeta family is crucial for regulating cell proliferation and differentiation, and in establishing the embryonic axis during development. TGFbeta/BMP signaling leads to the activation and nuclear translocation of Smad proteins, which activate transcription of specific target genes by recruiting P/CAF and p300. The two members of the ZEB family of zinc finger factors (ZEB-1/deltaEF1 and ZEB-2/SIP1) regulate TGFbeta/BMP signaling in opposite ways: ZEB-1/deltaEF1 synergizes with Smad-mediated transcriptional activation, while ZEB-2/SIP1 represses it. Here we report that these antagonistic effects by the ZEB proteins arise from the differential recruitment of transcriptional coactivators (p300 and P/CAF) and corepressors (CtBP) to the Smads. Thus, while ZEB-1/deltaEF1 binds to p300 and promotes the formation of a p300-Smad transcriptional complex, ZEB-2/SIP1 acts as a repressor by recruiting CtBP. This model of regulation by ZEB proteins also functions in vivo, where they have opposing effects on the regulation of TGFbeta family-dependent genes during Xenopus development.
The SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Protein Brg1 is Required for Vertebrate Neurogenesis and Mediates Transactivation of Ngn and NeuroD
Development (Cambridge, England). Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15576411
Chromatin remodeling complexes play crucial roles in transcription and are implicated in processes including cell proliferation, differentiation and embryonic patterning. Brg1 is the catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex and shows neural-enriched expression. Although early lethality of Brg1-null mice reflects its importance in embryogenesis, this phenotype precluded further study of specific Brg1-dependent developmental processes. Here, we have identified a requirement of Brg1 for both Xenopus primary neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation of mammalian P19 embryonic carcinoma cells. In Xenopus, loss of Brg1 function did not affect neural induction or neural cell fate determination. However, the Sox2-positive, proliferating neural progenitor cell population was expanded, and expression of a terminally differentiated neuronal marker, N-tubulin, was diminished upon loss of Brg1 activity, suggesting that Brg1 is required for neuronal differentiation. The ability of the bHLH transcription factors Ngnr1 and NeuroD to drive neuronal differentiation was also abolished by loss of Brg1 function, indicating that Brg1 is essential for the proneural activities of Ngnr1 and NeuroD. Consistent with this, dominant-negative interference with Brg1 function in P19 cells suppressed neuronal differentiation promoted by NeuroD2, showing the requirement of Brg1 for neuronal differentiation is conserved in mammalian cells. Finally, we discovered that Brg1 physically associates with both Ngnr1 and NeuroD and that interference with Brg1 function blocks Neurogenin3- and NeuroD2-mediated reporter gene transactivation. Together, our results demonstrate that Brg1 (and by inference the SWI/SNF complex) is required for neuronal differentiation by mediating the transcriptional activities of proneural bHLH proteins.
Genes & Development. Jul, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16024661
Precise control of cell proliferation and differentiation is critical for organogenesis. Geminin (Gem) has been proposed to link cell cycle exit and differentiation as a prodifferentiation factor and plays a role in neural cell fate acquisition. Here, we identified the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling protein Brg1 as an interacting partner of Gem. Brg1 has been implicated in cell cycle withdrawal and cellular differentiation. Surprisingly, we discovered that Gem antagonizes Brg1 activity during neurogenesis to maintain the undifferentiated cell state. Down-regulation of Gem expression normally precedes neuronal differentiation, and gain- and loss-of-function experiments in Xenopus embryos and mouse P19 cells demonstrated that Gem was essential to prevent premature neurogenesis. Misexpression of Gem also suppressed ectopic neurogenesis driven by Ngn and NeuroD. Gem's activity to block differentiation depended upon its ability to bind Brg1 and could be mediated by Gem's inhibition of proneural basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-Brg1 interactions required for bHLH target gene activation. Our data demonstrate a novel mechanism of Gem activity, through regulation of SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling proteins, and indicate that Gem is an essential regulator of neurogenesis that can control the timing of neural progenitor differentiation and maintain the undifferentiated cell state.
Developmental Biology. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16337935
Vertebrate neural development has been extensively investigated. However, it is unknown for any vertebrate gene how the onset of neural-specific expression in early gastrula embryos is transcriptionally regulated. geminin expression is among the earliest markers of dorsal, prospective neurectoderm at early gastrulation in Xenopus laevis. Here, we identified two 5' sequence domains that are necessary and sufficient to drive neural-specific expression during gastrulation in transgenic Xenopus embryos. Each domain contained putative binding sites for the transcription factor Tcf, which can mediate Wnt signaling and for Vent homeodomain proteins, transcriptional repressors that mediate BMP signaling. Results from embryos transgenic for constructs with mutated Tcf or Vent sites demonstrated that signaling through the Tcf sites was required for dorsal-specific expression at early gastrulation, while signaling through the Vent sites restricted geminin expression to the prospective neurectoderm at mid-gastrulation. Consistent with these results, geminin 5' regulatory sequences and endogenous Xgem responded positively to Wnt signaling and negatively to BMP signaling. The two 5' sequence domains were also conserved among geminin orthologs. Together, these results demonstrate that signaling through Tcf and Vent binding sites regulates transcription of geminin in prospective neurectoderm during gastrulation.
Biology of the Cell / Under the Auspices of the European Cell Biology Organization. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16464175
Geminin (Gem) is a protein with roles in regulating both the fidelity of DNA replication and cell fate during embryonic development. The distribution of Gem is predominantly nuclear in cells undergoing the cell cycle. Previous studies have demonstrated that Gem performs multiple activities in the nucleus and that regulation of Gem activation requires nuclear import in at least one context. In the present study, we defined structural and mechanistic features underlying subcellular localization of Gem and tested whether regulation of the subcellular localization of Gem has an impact on its activity in cell fate specification during embryonic development.
Geminin's Double Life: Chromatin Connections That Regulate Transcription at the Transition from Proliferation to Differentiation
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16479171
During embryonic development, transitions between cellular programs regulating progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation must be precisely coordinated and temporally controlled to ensure that a proper number of cells are allocated to various structures. The novel coiled-coil protein Geminin was previously characterized as a dual function molecule with roles both in maintenance of genome integrity through regulation of DNA replication licensing and in control of neural cell fate during embryonic development. However, the mechanistic basis of Geminin's activities during embryogenesis and the connections to its cell cycle regulatory role were unknown. Recently, some of Geminin's activities in regulating transcription were shown to occur through interactions with Brg1, the catalytic subunit of the SWI/SNF chromatin-remodeling complex. During development of the nervous system, Geminin controls the transition from proliferating precursor to differentiated post-mitotic neuron by modulating interactions between SWI/SNF and bHLH transcription factors that are critical for neurogenesis. In other developmental contexts, Geminin mediates proliferative-differentiative transitions through interactions with Six3 nd Hox transcription factors and Polycomb Group proteins. Interactions of Geminin with Polycomb and SWI/SNF complex proteins link its transcriptional activities to modulation of chromatin structure. Here we incorporate recent findings regarding Geminin's regulatory roles in coordinating proliferation and differentiation during embryogenesis.
Geminin in Embryonic Development: Coordinating Transcription and the Cell Cycle During Differentiation
Frontiers in Bioscience : a Journal and Virtual Library. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17127390
Geminin was initially characterized as a bifunctional protein with roles in regulating the fidelity of DNA replication and in controlling cell fate during embryonic nervous system formation. More recently, Geminin's roles have expanded, encompassing regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation during retinogenesis, control of Hox transcription factor function during vertebrate axial patterning, and regulation of the timing of neuronal differentiation. Geminin interacts with homeodomain-containing transcription factors and with protein complexes that regulate chromatin structure, including Polycomb complexes and the catalytic subunits of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, Brg1 and Brahma. Activities for Geminin in coordinating cellular events at the transition from proliferation to differentiation have recently emerged in multiple developmental contexts. This review will summarize Geminin's increasingly diverse roles as a developmental regulatory molecule.
BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17876773
In many animals, early development of the embryo is characterized by synchronous, biphasic cell divisions. These cell divisions are controlled by maternally inherited proteins and RNAs. A critical question in developmental biology is how the embryo transitions to a later pattern of asynchronous cell divisions and transfers the prior maternal control of development to the zygotic genome. The most-common model regarding how this transition from maternal to zygotic control is regulated posits that this is a consequence of the limitation of maternal gene products, due to their titration during early cell divisions. Here we discuss a recent article by Crest et al.1 that instead proposes that the balance of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 1 and Cyclin B (Cdk1-CycB) activity relative to that of the Drosophila checkpoint kinase Chk1 determines when asynchronous divisions begin.
A Phosphomimetic Mutation in the Sall1 Repression Motif Disrupts Recruitment of the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase Complex and Repression of Gbx2
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17895244
The multizinc finger transcription factor Sall1 is a critical developmental regulator that mediates repression through the recruitment of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex. Although a short conserved peptide motif in Sall1 is sufficient to recruit NuRD, its ability to regulate native Sall1 target genes in vivo has not been demonstrated. In this report, we demonstrate an in vivo role for the Sall1 repression motif and describe a novel direct target gene of Sall1, Gbx2, that is directly repressed in a NuRD-dependent fashion. The ability of Sall1 to repress Gbx2 was impaired in Xenopus embryos expressing mutant forms of Sall1 that are defective for NuRD binding. Finally, we demonstrate that protein kinase C phosphorylates serine 2 of the Sall1 repression motif and reveal that a phosphomimetic mutation of serine 2 disrupts the ability of Sall1 to repress Gbx2 in cell culture and Xenopus embryos. Together, these studies establish that Sall1 recruits NuRD via the Sall1 repression motif to mediate repression of a native target gene and suggest a model in which dynamic control of gene expression by Sall1 is modulated by serine phosphorylation of the Sall1 repression motif.
The EMBO Journal. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18007592
Proneural basic helix-loop-helix proteins are key regulators of neurogenesis but their 'proneural' function is not well understood, partly because primary targets have not been systematically defined. Here, we identified direct transcriptional targets of the bHLH proteins Neurogenin and NeuroD and found that primary roles of these transcription factors are to induce regulators of transcription, signal transduction, and cytoskeletal rearrangement for neuronal differentiation and migration. We determined targets induced in both Xenopus and mouse, which represent evolutionarily conserved core mediators of Neurogenin and NeuroD activities. We defined consensus sequences for Neurogenin and NeuroD binding and identified responsive enhancers in seven shared target genes. These enhancers commonly contained clustered, conserved consensus-binding sites and drove neural-restricted transgene expression in Xenopus embryos. We then used this enhancer signature in a genome-wide computational approach to predict additional Neurogenin/NeuroD target genes involved in neurogenesis. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Neurogenin and NeuroD preferentially recognize neurogenesis-related targets through an enhancer signature of clustered consensus-binding sites and regulate neurogenesis by activating a core set of transcription factors, which build a robust network controlling neurogenesis.
Developmental Cell. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18331720
Snail family transcriptional repressors regulate epithelial mesenchymal transitions during physiological and pathological processes. A conserved SNAG repression domain present in all vertebrate Snail proteins is necessary for repressor complex assembly. Here, we identify the Ajuba family of LIM proteins as functional corepressors of the Snail family via an interaction with the SNAG domain. Ajuba LIM proteins interact with Snail in the nucleus on endogenous E-cadherin promoters and contribute to Snail-dependent repression of E-cadherin. Using Xenopus neural crest as a model of in vivo Snail- or Slug-induced EMT, we demonstrate that Ajuba LIM proteins contribute to neural crest development as Snail/Slug corepressors and are required for in vivo Snail/Slug function. Because Ajuba LIM proteins are also components of adherens junctions and contribute to their assembly or stability, their functional interaction with Snail proteins in the nucleus suggests that Ajuba LIM proteins are important regulators of epithelia dynamics communicating surface events with nuclear responses.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19030816
Development (Cambridge, England). Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21098561
Transient maintenance of a pluripotent embryonic cell population followed by the onset of multi-lineage commitment is a fundamental aspect of development. However, molecular regulation of this transition is not well characterized in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that the nuclear protein Geminin is required to restrain commitment and spatially restrict mesoderm, endoderm and non-neural ectoderm to their proper locations in the Xenopus embryo. We used microarray analyses to demonstrate that Geminin overexpression represses many genes associated with cell commitment and differentiation, while elevating expression levels of genes that maintain pluripotent early and immature neurectodermal cell states. We characterized the relationship of Geminin to cell signaling and found that Geminin broadly represses Activin-, FGF- and BMP-mediated cell commitment. Conversely, Geminin knockdown enhances commitment responses to growth factor signaling and causes ectopic mesodermal, endodermal and epidermal fate commitment in the embryo. We also characterized the functional relationship of Geminin with transcription factors that had similar activities and found that Geminin represses commitment independent of Oct 4 ortholog (Oct25/60) activities, but depends upon intact Polycomb repressor function. Consistent with this, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays directed at mesodermal genes demonstrate that Geminin promotes Polycomb binding and Polycomb-mediated repressive histone modifications, while inhibiting modifications associated with gene activation. This work defines Geminin as an essential regulator of the embryonic transition from pluripotency through early multi-lineage commitment, and demonstrates that functional cooperativity between Geminin and Polycomb contributes to this process.
A Novel KRAB Domain-containing Zinc Finger Transcription Factor ZNF431 Directly Represses Patched1 Transcription
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21177534
Krüppel-like zinc finger transcription factors compose the largest transcription factor family in the mammalian genome. However, the functions for the majority of these transcription factors as well as their in vivo downstream targets are not clear. We have functionally characterized a novel KRAB domain zinc finger transcription factor ZNF431 using both in vitro and in vivo assays. ZNF431 is a nuclear transcriptional repressor whose repressive activity depends on its association with HDAC1 and -2. Using the limb mesenchymal cell line MPLB, we identified Patched1 as a direct transcriptional target of ZNF431. Promoter analyses revealed three ZNF431 binding sites that bind to ZNF431 both in vitro and in vivo as revealed by gel-shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation, respectively. Mutations of these three sites abolished ZNF431 repression in transient transfection assays. Moreover, overexpressing ZNF431 in MPLB cells or in Xenopus and mouse embryos strongly repressed Patched1 expression. On the other hand, shRNA knockdown of ZNF431 in MPLB cells elevated Patched1 expression. Finally, hedgehog signaling readout was reduced in ZNF431 overexpression but elevated in ZNF431 knockdown MPLB cells. Our results indicate that ZNF431 directly represses Patched1 expression and likely functions to repress the hedgehog response in cells.
Geminin Promotes Neural Fate Acquisition of Embryonic Stem Cells by Maintaining Chromatin in an Accessible and Hyperacetylated State
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21300881
Formation of the complex vertebrate nervous system begins when pluripotent cells of the early embryo are directed to acquire a neural fate. Although cell intrinsic controls play an important role in this process, the molecular nature of this regulation is not well defined. Here we assessed the role for Geminin, a nuclear protein expressed in embryonic cells, during neural fate acquisition from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Whereas Geminin knockdown does not affect the ability of ES cells to maintain or exit pluripotency, we found that it significantly impairs their ability to acquire a neural fate. Conversely, Geminin overexpression promotes neural gene expression, even in the presence of growth factor signaling that antagonizes neural transcriptional responses. These data demonstrate that Geminin's activity contributes to mammalian neural cell fate acquisition. We investigated the mechanistic basis of this phenomenon and found that Geminin maintains a hyperacetylated and open chromatin conformation at neural genes. Interestingly, recombinant Geminin protein also rapidly alters chromatin acetylation and accessibility even when Geminin is combined with nuclear extract and chromatin in vitro. Together, these data support a role for Geminin as a cell intrinsic regulator of neural fate acquisition that promotes expression of neural genes by regulating chromatin accessibility and histone acetylation.