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In JoVE (2)
- Engineering Biological-Based Vascular Grafts Using a Pulsatile Bioreactor
- Procedure for Lung Engineering
Other Publications (53)
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
- Cardiovascular Pathology : the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
- EMBO Reports
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- Cell Transplantation
- Tissue Engineering
- Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
- Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR
- Cell Transplantation
- Annals of Plastic Surgery
- American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
- The Annals of Thoracic Surgery
- Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
- Cell Transplantation
- Cell Transplantation
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Tissue Engineering
- Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
- Neurocritical Care
- Annals of Biomedical Engineering
- Annals of Biomedical Engineering
- FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
- Annals of Biomedical Engineering
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- Cell Transplantation
- Cell Transplantation
- Cell Transplantation
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
- Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter
- Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
- Cell Transplantation
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
- Science Translational Medicine
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Cells, Tissues, Organs
- Nature Biotechnology
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
- Cells, Tissues, Organs
- Cells, Tissues, Organs
Articles by Laura E. Niklason in JoVE
Engineering Biological-Based Vascular Grafts Using a Pulsatile Bioreactor
Angela H. Huang1, Laura E. Niklason1,2
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 2Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine
Our group has developed a bioreactor culture system that mimics the physiological pulsatile stresses of the cardiovascular system to regenerate implantable small-diameter vascular grafts.
Procedure for Lung Engineering
Elizabeth A. Calle*1, Thomas H. Petersen*2, Laura E. Niklason1,3
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Yale University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Duke University, 3Department of Anesthesia, Yale University
We have developed a decellularized lung extracellular matrix and novel biomimetic bioreactor that can be used to generate functional lung tissue. By seeding cells into the matrix and culturing in the bioreactor, we generate tissue that demonstrates effective gas exchange when transplanted in vivo for short periods of time.
Other articles by Laura E. Niklason on PubMed
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12081903
Bioreactor design in tissue engineering is complex, and at the early stages of its development. Design of biologically effective, yet scalable, devices requires intimate collaboration between engineers and biologists to ensure that all aspects are considered fully. Growth conditions, harvesting time, scale-up, storage, and sterility issues all need to be considered and incorporated into the design of bioreactors. Each tissue-engineered product will likely require individualized bioreactor design. However, without a comprehensive understanding of each of these components, bioreactor design and tissue growth to manufacture product will remain at a relatively rudimentary and limited level. Increased fundamental understanding of the issues can have a dramatic impact on the ability to generate tissue-engineered product safely, economically, and in the numbers that are required to fully address the patient populations in need.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12081905
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Dec, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12543713
The field of tissue engineering has seen tremendous expansion in the last decade. In the last several years, tissue-engineering strategies to treat diseases of skin, cartilage, bone, bladder, blood vessel, tendon, and other tissues have been described. However, tissue-engineering approaches to treat diseases of the lymphatic system are currently nonexistent. We propose that acellular tissues, either native or engineered, could be exploited as a platform for the study of lymphatic biology, and for lymphatic tissue engineering. While speculative, this type of experimental model system could prove powerful for dissecting molecular and cellular events surrounding tumor invasion of lymphatics, as well as lymphangiogenesis. Scaffolds seeded with genetically engineered lymphatic cells could also be implanted to repopulate lymphatic vasculature. In the future, the lymphatic system will surely be added to the list of tissues and organs that prove amenable to tissue-engineering therapies.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Pig Latissimus Dorsi Myocutaneous Flaps After Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12560698
Exogenous administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) improves long-term viability of myocutaneous flaps. However, endogenous expression of this substance in flaps following ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been reported previously. Endogenous production of VEGF was measured in myocutaneous pig latissimus dorsi flaps after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Latissimus dorsi myocutaneous flaps (15 x 10 cm) were simultaneously elevated bilaterally in six Yorkshire-type male pigs (25 kg). Before elevation, three flap zones (5 x 10 cm) were marked according to their distance from the vascular pedicle. After isolation of the vascular pedicle, ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced in one flap by occlusion of the thoracodorsal artery and vein for 4 hours, followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. The contralateral flap served as a control. Perfusion in each zone was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry at baseline, during ischemia, and during reperfusion. At the end of the protocol, skin and muscle biopsies of each flap zone and adjacent tissues were obtained for later determination of VEGF protein levels. VEGF concentrations were quantified using the Quantikine human VEGF immunoassay. Skin perfusion was similar among all flap zones before surgery. Flow fell in all flaps immediately after flap elevation. After 4 hours of ischemia, blood flow in the ischemic flaps was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with nonischemic control flaps. After 2 hours of reperfusion, flow in ischemic flap skin recovered to levels similar to those in control flaps. VEGF protein concentrations in muscle tissue exceeded concentrations in skin and decreased from zones 2 to 3 in control and ischemic flaps. No significant differences in VEGF concentrations between ischemic and control muscle zones were observed. However, the concentration of VEGF in all muscle zones was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than muscle adjacent to the flap. Concentrations in skin zones 1 and 2 were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in ischemic flaps than in control flaps, but levels in zone 3 (most ischemic flaps) showed no significant difference.
Cardiovascular Pathology : the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology. Mar-Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12684159
Small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts are in large demand for coronary and peripheral bypass procedures. Although synthetic grafts have been developed, tissue-based vascular grafts that can better mimic native vessels will likely yield superior results. The success of a tissue-based graft depends on its ability to meet several requirements. First, a graft must possess a confluent, adherent and quiescent endothelium to resist thrombosis in vivo. The mechanical behavior of the graft must mimic the mechanical properties of a native vessel. Hence, a graft must have a highly organized collagen matrix to impart tissue strength. Finally, a graft must contain an elastin network to provide compliance and recoil.
EMBO Reports. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12776184
There is a pressing need to develop methods to engineer small-calibre arteries for bypass surgery. We hypothesized that the rate-limiting step that has thwarted previous attempts to engineer such vessels from non-neonatal tissues is the limited proliferative capacity of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), which are the main cellular component of these vessels. Ectopic expression of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit (hTERT) has been shown recently to extend the lifespan of certain human cells. We therefore introduced hTERT into human SMCs and found that the resulting cells proliferated far beyond their normal lifespan but retained characteristics of normal control SMCs. Importantly, using these non-neonatal SMCs, we were able to engineer mechanically robust human vessels, a crucial step towards creating arteries of clinical value for bypass surgery.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14517889
Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is commonly used as a scaffold for tissue engineering. Recent studies utilized PGA as a scaffold for vascular tissue engineering using bovine and porcine smooth muscle cells (SMCs). In engineered vessels, the SMCs displayed high rates of mitosis and dedifferentiation in areas where PGA fragments were present. We hypothesized that PGA breakdown products, sequestered within a SMC vessel at the conclusion of culture, led to increased proliferation and dedifferentiation of vascular SMCs. To test this hypothesis, the current study assessed possible means by which PGA breakdown products could lead to changes in SMC phenotype. SMCs grown in high concentrations of PGA breakdown products showed, by Western blotting, decreased expression of calponin, a marker for SMC differentiation. The same was true for SMCs grown in glycolic acid (GA), which also showed decreased expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a marker for SMC proliferation. In contrast, cells grown in varying amounts of NaCl or HCl showed little change in differentiation. We conclude that, independent of acidity or osmolality, plausible products of PGA degradation appear to induce dedifferentiation of porcine SMCs in vitro. Because of dedifferentiation and decreased mitosis, commercially available PGA may not represent an optimal scaffold for vascular tissue engineering.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14517890
Techniques have been developed to culture bovine or porcine vascular cells on polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds to form engineered vessels. Previously, it was shown that smooth muscle cells (SMCs) that were in close proximity to PGA remnants after 8 weeks of culture had lower expression of SMC markers of differentiation and were more mitotic compared with SMCs that were distant from polymer residuals. Modifications of PGA were explored as a means to minimize residual polymer fragments after culture. To hasten degradation, polymer was treated with heat, NaOH, or gamma-irradiation. Differential scanning calorimetry, mass and tensile strength degradation, and inherent viscosity were used to assess polymer characteristics. When polymer was maintained in aqueous conditions, tensile strength of treated PGA degraded to zero within 3 weeks for each treatment. Engineered vessel constructs cultured on NaOH and gamma-treated polymer displayed smooth muscle alpha-actin throughout the vessel wall. Scaffold treatment impacted graft morphology, cellular differentiation, and mechanical integrity.
Cell Transplantation. 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14579934
More than 570,000 coronary artery bypass grafts are implanted each year, creating an important demand for small-diameter vascular grafts. For patients who lack adequate internal mammary artery or saphenous vein, tissue-engineered arteries may prove useful. However, the time needed to tissue engineer arteries (7 weeks or more) is too long for many patients. Decellularized cadaveric human arteries are another possible source of vascular conduit, but limited availability and the potential for disease transmission limit their widespread use. In contrast, decellularized tissue-engineered arteries could serve as grafts for immediate implantation, as scaffolds onto which patients' cells could be seeded, or as carriers for genetically engineered cells to aid cell transplantation. The goal of this study was to quantify the effects of decellularization on vascular matrix and mechanical properties. Specifically, we compared cellular elimination, extracellular matrix retention, and mechanical characteristics of porcine carotid arteries before and after treatment with three decellularization methods. In addition, for the first time, tissue-engineered arteries were decellularized. Decellularized native arteries were also used as a scaffold onto which vascular cells were seeded. These studies identified a decellularization method for native and engineered arteries that maximized cellular elimination, without greatly compromising mechanical integrity. We showed that engineered tissues could be decellularized, and demonstrated the feasibility of reseeding decellularized vessels with vascular cells.
Tissue Engineering. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14670116
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western society. More than 1 million arterial bypass procedures are performed annually in the United States, where either autologous veins or synthetic grafts are used to replace arteries in the coronary or peripheral circulation. Tissue engineering of blood vessels from autologous cells has the potential to produce biological grafts for use in bypass surgery. Ex vivo development of vascular grafts also provides an ideal target of site-specific gene therapy to optimize the physiology of the developing conduit, and for the possible delivery of other therapeutic genes to a vascular bed of interest. In this article, we demonstrate that by using a novel retroviral gene delivery system, a target gene of interest can be specifically delivered to the endothelial cells of a developing engineered vessel. Further, we demonstrate that this technique results in stable incorporation of the delivered gene into the target endothelial cells for more than 30 days. These data demonstrate the utility of the retroviral gene delivery approach for optimizing the biologic phenotype of engineered vessels. This also provides the framework for testing an array of genes that may improve the function of engineered blood vessels after surgical implantation.
Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 17021436
The purpose was to summarize the findings of the proangiogenic clinical trials using protein and gene therapy, with analysis of the problems and an interpretation of the results.
Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology : JVIR. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15064334
Interventional radiologists often treat patients who are at risk of becoming acutely septic while in the radiology department. Identifying those most at risk and initiating treatment plans before the acute situation are fundamental to this difficult group of patients. Treatment plans for life-threatening infection are based on controlling the source of infection and administering appropriate systemic antimicrobial therapy as well as volume and cardiopulmonary support. The purpose of this review is to provide a framework for the diagnosis and treatment of sepsis in the interventional radiology patient.
Cell Transplantation. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15129755
Adult stem cells derived from bone marrow, connective tissue, and solid organs can exhibit a range of differentiation potentials. Some controversy exists regarding the classification of mesenchymal stem cells as bona fide stem cells, which is in part derived from the limited ability to propagate true clonal populations of precursor cells. We isolated putative mesenchymal stem cells from the connective tissue of an adult rat (rMSC), and generated clonal populations via three rounds of dilutional cloning. The replicative potential of the clonal rMSC line far exceeded Hayflick's limit of 50-70 population doublings. The high capacity for self-renewal in vitro correlated with telomerase activity, as demonstrated by telomerase repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay. Exposure to nonspecific differentiation culture medium revealed multilineage differentiation potential of rMSC clones. Immunostaining confirmed the appearance of mesodermal phenotypes, including adipocytes possessing lipid-rich vacuoles, chondrocytes depositing pericellular type II collagen, and skeletal myoblasts expressing MyoD1. Importantly, the spectrum of differentiation capability was sustained through repeated passaging. Furthermore, serum-free conditions that led to high-efficiency smooth muscle differentiation were identified. rMSCs plated on collagen IV-coated surfaces and exposed to transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) differentiated into a homogeneous population expressing alpha-actin and calponin. Hence, clonogenic analysis confirmed the presence of a putative MSC population derived from the connective tissue of rat skeletal muscle. The ability to differentiate into a smooth muscle cell (SMC) phenotype, combined with a high proliferative capacity, make such a connective tissue-derived MSC population ideal for applications in vascular tissue construction.
Immunohistochemical Identification of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in Pig Latissimus Dorsi Musculocutaneous Flaps Following Ischemia-reperfusion Injury
Annals of Plastic Surgery. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15385779
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), a potent angiogenic, mitogenic and vascular permeability enhancing protein, appears to improve survival of ischemic flaps independent of its route of administration. The purpose of this study was to examine VEGF protein expression in biopsies of surgical flaps with immunohistochemical techniques. In 6 male Yorkshire-type pigs, 10 cm x 15 cm Latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps were elevated bilaterally. Flap zones I, II, and III were established according to their distance from the vascular pedicle. After isolation of the thoracodorsal artery and vein, one flap was randomly assigned to ischemia by temporary occlusion of the vascular pedicle. Ischemia (4 hours) was followed by 2 hours of reperfusion (ischemia group, n = 6). The contralateral (nonischemic) flap served as a control (control group, n =6). Skin and muscle biopsies of flaps were taken at the end of the protocol for immunohistochemical staining using a VEGF antihuman monoclonal antibody. Epidermis of flap skin did not demonstrate VEGF-positive staining, but the dermis and subcutaneous tissue did. Muscle components of biopsies demonstrated staining of interfascicular septa and staining of myocytes. A semi-quantitative scoring system with a scale of 0 to 3 was used for grading of immunohistochemical staining. In skin, areas adjacent to the flap showed an overall mean VEGF staining score of 0.7. All zones of ischemic flaps showed increased mean immunohistochemical staining for VEGF (scores = 1.2, 1.6, and 1.4 in zones I, II, and III, respectively). In muscle, however, only zone I showed increased VEGF immunohistochemical staining from 0.7 in adjacent areas to 1.7 in ischemic flaps. The results indicate only moderate endogenous up-regulation of VEGF in flaps, supporting the utilization of exogenous VEGF as an adjunct in microsurgical therapy.
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15550526
Immature skeletal muscle cells, or myoblasts, have been used in cellular cardiomyoplasty in attempts to regenerate cardiac muscle tissue by injection of cells into damaged myocardium. In some studies, muscle tissue within myoblast implant sites may be morphologically similar to cardiac muscle. We hypothesized that identifiable aspects of the cardiac milieu may contribute to growth and development of implanted myoblasts in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we designed a novel in vitro system to mimic some aspects of the electrical and biochemical environment of native myocardium. This system enabled us to separate the three-dimensional (3-D) electrical and biochemical signals that may be involved in myoblast proliferation and plasticity. Myoblasts were grown on 3-D polyglycolic acid mesh scaffolds under control conditions, in the presence of cardiac-like electrical current fluxes, or in the presence of culture medium that had been conditioned by mature cardiomyocytes. Cardiac-like electrical current fluxes caused increased myoblast number in 3-D culture, as determined by DNA assay. The increase in cell number was due to increased cellular proliferation and not differences in apoptosis, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen and TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling. Cardiomyocyte-conditioned medium also significantly increased myoblast proliferation. Expression of transcription factors governing differentiation along skeletal or cardiac lineages was evaluated by immunoblotting. Although these assays are qualitative, no changes in differentiation state along skeletal or cardiac lineages were observed in response to electrical current fluxes. Furthermore, from these experiments, conditioned medium did not appear to alter the differentiation state of skeletal myoblasts. Hence, cardiac milieu appears to stimulate proliferation but does not affect differentiation of skeletal myoblasts.
Biomaterials. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15722134
The development of a functional, adherent endothelium is one of the major factors limiting the successful development of tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs). The adhesion and function of endothelial cells (ECs) on smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are poorly understood. The goal of this research was to optimize conditions for the direct culture of endothelium on SMCs, and to develop an initial assessment of co-culture on EC function. The co-culture consisted of a culture substrate, a basal adhesion protein, a layer of porcine SMCs, a medial adhesion protein, and a layer of porcine ECs. Conditions that led to successful co-culture were: a polystyrene culture substrate, a quiescent state for SMCs, subconfluent density for SMC seeding and confluent density for EC seeding, and fibronectin (FN) for the basal adhesion protein. EC adhesion was not enhanced by addition of FN, collagen I, collagen IV or laminin (LN) to the medial layer. 3-D image reconstruction by confocal microscopy indicated that SMCs did not migrate over ECs and the cells were present in two distinct layers. Co-cultures could be consistently maintained for as long as 10 days. After exposure to 5 dyne/cm(2) for 7.5 h, ECs remained adherent to SMCs. PECAM staining indicated junction formation between ECs, but at a lower level than that observed with EC monocultures. Co-culturing ECs with SMCs did not change the growth rate of ECs, but EC DiI-Ac-LDL uptake was increased. Thus, a confluent and adherent layer of endothelium can be directly cultured on quiescent SMCs.
The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15734434
Although bovine thrombin is commonly used in the operating room, there is evidence that exposure to bovine thrombin can result in the development of autoimmune antibodies, usually against factor V, which can lead to a profound coagulopathy. It is thought that impurities in bovine thrombin preparations are responsible for the adverse reactions in patients. Here we describe a case in which exposure to a relatively pure bovine thrombin preparation resulted in the development of an antihuman factor V antibody-associated coagulopathy. This report calls into question the safety of even relatively pure bovine thrombin.
Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia = Journal Canadien D'anesthésie. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15814750
To describe the successful treatment of acute, life-threatening anemia with the oxygen therapeutic agent, hemoglobin (Hb) raffimer.
Lancet. Jun 18-24, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15964449
Tissue engineering has made considerable progress in the past decade, but advances have stopped short of clinical application for most tissues. We postulated that an obstacle in engineering human tissues is the limited replicative capacity of adult somatic cells. To test this hypothesis, the effectiveness of telomerase expression to extend cellular lifespan was assessed in a model of human vascular tissue engineering. Telomerase expression in vascular cells isolated from elderly patients enabled the successful culture of engineered autologous blood vessels. Engineered vessels may one day provide a source of bypass conduit for patients with atherosclerotic disease.
Cell Transplantation. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16180655
In many cases, the mechanical strengths of tissue-engineered arteries do not match the mechanical strengths of native arteries. Ultimate arterial strength is primarily dictated by collagen in the extracellular matrix, but collagen in engineered arteries is not as dense, as organized, or as mature as collagen in native arteries. One step in the maturation process of collagen is the formation of hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) cross-links between and within collagen molecules. HP cross-link formation, which is triggered by the copper-activated enzyme lysyl oxidase, greatly increases collagen fibril stability and enhances tissue strength. Increased cross-link formation, in addition to increased collagen production, may yield a stronger engineered tissue. In this article, the effect of increasing culture medium copper ion concentration on engineered arterial tissue composition and mechanics was investigated. Engineered vessels grown in low copper ion concentrations for the first 4 weeks of culture, followed by higher copper ion concentrations for the last 3 weeks of culture, had significantly elevated levels of cross-link formation compared to those grown in low copper ion concentrations. In contrast, vessels grown in high copper ion concentrations throughout culture failed to develop higher collagen cross-link densities than those grown in low copper ion concentrations. Although the additional cross-linking of collagen in engineered vessels may provide collagen fibril stability and resistance to proteolysis, it failed to enhance global tissue strength.
Cell Transplantation. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16454361
In many cases, the mechanical strengths of tissue-engineered arteries do not match the mechanical strengths of native arteries. Ultimate arterial strength is primarily dictated by collagen in the extracellular matrix. but collagen in engineered arteries is not as dense, as organized, or as mature as collagen in native arteries. One step in the maturation process of collagen is the formation of hydroxylysyl pyridinoline (HP) cross-links between and within collagen molecules. HP cross-link formation, which is triggered by the copper-activated enzyme lysyl oxidase, greatly increases collagen fibril stability and enhances tissue strength. Increased cross-link formation, in addition to increased collagen production, may yield a stronger engineered tissue. In this article, the effect of increasing culture medium copper ion concentration on engineered arterial tissue composition and mechanics was investigated. Engineered vessels grown in low copper ion concentrations for the first 4 weeks of culture, followed by higher copper ion concentrations for the last 3 weeks of culture, had significantly elevated levels of cross-link formation compared to those grown in low copper ion concentrations. In contrast, vessels grown in high copper ion concentrations throughout culture failed to develop higher collagen cross-link densities than those grown in low copper ion concentrations. Although the additional cross-linking of collagen in engineered vessels may provide collagen fibril stability and resistance to proteolysis, it failed to enhance global tissue strength.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16477025
Tissue engineering holds the promise of replacing damaged or diseased tissues and organs. The use of autologous donor cells is often not feasible because of the limited replicative lifespan of cells, particularly those derived from elderly patients. Proliferative arrest can be overcome by the ectopic expression of telomerase via human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene transfection. To study the efficacy and safety of this potentially valuable technology, we used differentiated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and vascular tissue engineering as a model system. Although we previously demonstrated that vessels engineered with telomerase-expressing SMC had improved mechanics over those grown with control cells, it is critical to assess the phenotypic impact of telomerase expression in donor cells, because telomerase up-regulation is observed in >95% of human malignancies. To study the impact of telomerase in tissue engineering, expression of hTERT was retrovirally induced in SMC from eight elderly patients and one young donor. In hTERT SMC, significant lifespan extension beyond that of control was achieved without population doubling time acceleration. Karyotype changes were seen in both control and hTERT SMC but were not clonal nor representative of cancerous change. hTERT cells also failed to show evidence of neoplastic transformation in functional assays of tumorigenicity. In addition, the impact of donor age on cellular behavior, particularly the synthetic capability of SMC, was not affected by hTERT expression. Hence, this tissue engineering model system highlights the impact of donor age on cellular synthetic function that appears to be independent of lifespan extension by hTERT.
Tissue Engineering. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16548687
It is well established that, in multicellular systems, conventional cryopreservation results in damaging ice formation, both in the cells and in the surrounding extracellular matrix. As an alternative to conventional cryopreservation, we performed a feasibility study using vitrification (ice-free cryopreservation) to cryopreserve tissue-engineered blood vessels. Fresh, frozen, and vitrified tissue-engineered blood vessels were compared using histological methods, cellular viability, and mechanical properties. Cryosubstitution methods were used to determine the location of ice in conventionally cryopreserved engineered vessels. Ice formation was negligible (0.0 +/- 0.0% of vessel area) in the vitrified specimens, and extensive (68.3 +/- 4.5% of vessel area) in the extracellular matrix of frozen specimens. The metabolic assay and TUNEL staining results indicated that vitrified tissue had similar viability to fresh controls. The contractility results for vitrified samples were >82.7% of fresh controls and, in marked contrast, the results for frozen samples were only 10.7% of fresh controls (p < 0.001). Passive mechanical testing revealed enhanced tissue strength after both freezing and vitrification. Vitrification is a feasible storage method for tissue-engineered blood vessel constructs, and their successful storage brings these constructs one step closer to clinical utility.
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16781948
Human vascular tissue engineering has progressed substantially over the past decade. Issues remain as to the optimum culture scaffold and cell source that should be used for arterial regeneration. In addition, limitations in replicative life span of adult human cells as compared with young animal cells have made human vascular tissue engineering more challenging. Despite these obstacles, several strategies for generating replacement vessels have progressed to clinical trials.
Neurocritical Care. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17290093
Cerebral vasculopathy may play an important role in the development of delayed cerebral ischemia following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Platelet-derived growth factor AB (PDGF-AB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) released from blood clot may trigger vasculopathy in cerebral arteries. We compared arteriographic and histological response to injection of blood with PDGF-AB and VEGF in basilar artery over 3 days.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17566861
Collagen is the structural molecule that is most correlated with strength in blood vessels. In this study, we compared the properties of collagen in engineered and native blood vessels. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to image sections of engineered and native arteries. Band periodicities of engineered and native collagen fibrils indicated that spacing between collagen molecules was similar in engineered and native tissues. Engineered arteries, however, had thinner collagen fibrils and fibers than native arteries. Further, collagen fibrils were more loosely packed within collagen fibers in engineered arteries than in native arteries. The sensitivity of TEM analysis allowed measurement of the relative frequency of observation for alignment of collagen. These observations showed that collagen in both engineered and native arteries was aligned circumferentially, helically, and axially, but that engineered arteries had less circumferential collagen and more axial collagen than native arteries. Given that collagen is primarily responsible for dictating the ultimate mechanical properties of arterial tissue, future efforts should focus on using relative frequency of observation for alignment of collagen as a descriptive input for models of the mechanical properties of engineered or native tissues.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17206488
With the goal of mimicking the mechanical properties of a given native tissue, tissue engineers seek to culture replacement tissues with compositions similar to those of native tissues. In this report, differences between the mechanical properties of engineered arteries and native arteries were correlated with differences in tissue composition. Engineered arteries failed to match the strengths or compliances of native tissues. Lower strengths of engineered arteries resulted partially from inferior organization of collagen, but not from differences in collagen density. Furthermore, ultimate strengths of engineered vessels were significantly reduced by the presence of residual polyglycolic acid polymer fragments, which caused stress concentrations in the vessel wall. Lower compliances of engineered vessels resulted from minimal smooth muscle cell contractility and a lack of organized extracellular elastin. Organization of elastin and collagen in engineered arteries may have been partially hindered by high concentrations of sulfated glycosaminoglycans. Tissue engineers should continue to regulate cell phenotype and promote synthesis of proteins that are known to dominate the mechanical properties of the associated native tissue. However, we should also be aware of the potential negative impacts of polymer fragments and glycosaminoglycans on the mechanical properties of engineered tissues.
FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18199698
Using biodegradable scaffold and a biomimetic perfusion system, our lab has successfully engineered small-diameter vessel grafts using endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from vessels in various species. However, translating this technique into humans has presented tremendous obstacles due to species and age differences. SMCs from elderly persons have limited proliferative capacity and a reduction in collagen production, which impair the mechanical strength of engineered vessels. As an alternative cell source, adult human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were studied for their ability to differentiate into SMCs in culture plates as well as in a bioreactor system. In the former setting, immunofluorescence staining showed that MSCs, after induction for 14 days, expressed smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA) and calponin, early and mid-SMC phenotypic markers, respectively. In the latter setting, vessel walls were constructed with MSC-derived SMCs. Various factors (i.e., matrix proteins, soluble factors, and cyclic strain) in the engineering system were further investigated for their effects on hMSC cell proliferation and differentiation into SMCs. Based on a screening of multiple factors, the engineering system was optimized by dividing the vessel culture into proliferation and differentiation phases. The vessel walls engineered under the optimized conditions were examined histologically and molecularly, and found to be substantially similar to native vessels. In conclusion, bone marrow-derived hMSCs can serve as a new cell source of SMCs in vessel engineering. Optimization of the culture conditions to drive SMC differentiation and matrix production significantly improved the quality of the hMSC-derived engineered vessel wall.
Annals of Biomedical Engineering. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18720007
Mechanical models have potential to guide the development and use of engineered blood vessels as well as other engineered tissues. This paper presents a microstructurally motivated, pseudoelastic, mechanical model of the biaxial mechanics of engineered vessels in the physiologic pressure range. The model incorporates experimentally measured densities and alignments of engineered collagen. Specifically, these microstructural and associated mechanical inputs were measured directly from engineered blood vessels that were cultured over periods of 5-7.5 weeks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first successful application of either a phenomenological or a microstructurally motivated mechanical model to engineered vascular tissues. Model development revealed the need to use novel theoretical configurations to describe the strain history of engineered vessels. The constitutive equations developed herein suggested that collagen remodeled between 5 and 7.5 weeks during a 7.5-week culture period. This remodeling led to strain energies for collagen that differed with alignment, which likely resulted from undulations that varied with alignment. Finally, biaxial data emphasized that axial extensions increase stresses in engineered vessels in the physiologic pressure range, thereby providing a guideline for surgical use: engineered vessels should be implanted at appropriate axial extension to minimize adverse stress responses.
Influence of Culture Medium on Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation from Human Bone Marrow-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19115826
Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) represent an appealing source of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for engineering small-diameter vascular grafts due to the limited availability and replicative capacity of somatic SMCs. However, lack of standardization of hMSC culture conditions has limited some progress in hMSC research. Because, at the moment, a chemically defined, serum-free medium without growth factors is not capable of amplifying hMSCs in vitro, the usage of serum (either human serum or fetal bovine serum [FBS]) continues in hMSC research. The emergence of commercial hMSCs and hMSC media opened a series of questions regarding the compatibility of commercial and homemade hMSCs and hMSC media. In this study, two types of commonly used FBS-containing hMSC media-MSCGM (containing 10% FBS) and MesenPro (containing 2% FBS), along with our homemade medium (low-glucose Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium plus 10% selected lot FBS)-were compared in their ability to support SMC differentiation from hMSCs. The effects of FBS level, medium supplements (ascorbic acid, copper, etc.), and growth factors (transforming growth factor beta1) were also examined for their impact on SMC differentiation. It was discovered that MesenPro and transforming growth factor beta1 are the strongest SMC inducers from hMSCs. In contrast, hMSCs grown in homemade (10% Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium) and commercial MSCGM media remained undifferentiated. FBS concentration did not affect SMC differentiation when 10% FBS was compared with 2%. Finally, the mechanism underlying SMC differentiation from hMSCs grown in FBS-containing medium was explored by following the expression changes of serum response factor during the establishment of hMSC culture.
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19207043
Developing a tissue-engineered small-diameter (<6mm) vascular graft for reconstructive surgery has remained a challenge for the past several decades. This study was conducted to develop a decellularized umbilical artery and to evaluate its composition, endothelial cell compatibility, mechanical properties, and in vivo stability for potential use as a small-diameter vascular graft.
Cell Transplantation. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19500474
It has been shown that mechanical stimulation affects the physical properties of multiple types of engineered tissues. However, the optimum regimen for applying cyclic radial stretch to engineered arteries is not well understood. To this end, the effect of mechanical stretch on the development of engineered blood vessels was analyzed in constructs grown from porcine vascular smooth muscle cells. Cyclic radial distension was applied during vessel culture at three rates: 0 beats per minute (bpm), 90 bpm, and 165 bpm. At the end of the 7-week culture period, harvested vessels were analyzed with respect to physical characteristics. Importantly, mechanical stretch at 165 bpm resulted in a significant increase in rupture strength in engineered constructs over nonstretched controls. Stress-strain data and maximal elastic moduli from vessels grown at the three stretch rates indicate enhanced physical properties with increasing pulse rate. In order to investigate the role of collagen cross-linking in the improved mechanical characteristics, collagen cross-link density was quantified by HPLC. Vessels grown with mechanical stretch had somewhat more collagen and higher burst pressures than nonpulsed control vessels. Pulsation did not increase collagen cross-link density. Thus, increased wall thickness and somewhat elevated collagen concentrations, but not collagen cross-link density, appeared to be responsible for increased burst strength.
Cell Transplantation. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19500475
Engineering solid tissues, including cardiac muscle, requires the inclusion of a microvasculature. Prevascularization in vitro will likely be dependent upon coculturing parenchymal cells with vascular cells, on a matrix that is sufficiently porous to allow microvessel formation. In this study, we examined the behavior and function of endothelial cells on a highly porous elastomeric 3D poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) scaffold, to provide a flexible and biocompatible endothelial cell delivery system for developing cardiac engineered tissues with neovascularization potential. Both static and perfusion cell seeding methods were used, and the effects of surface treatment of the scaffold with various extracellular matrix components were examined. Endothelial cell adhesion and phenotype on the PGS scaffold under various flow conditions were also determined. Surface coating with laminin markedly improved the endothelial cell adhesion, survival, and proliferation. The anticoagulant phenotype of adhered endothelial cells was further regulated by the application of flow through regulation of nitric oxide expression. By providing a highly porous scaffolding that contains endothelium with anticoagulant properties, the endothelial cell-seeded PGS scaffold could provide a new basis for subsequent coculture studies with various cell types to develop complex engineered tissue constructs with vascularization capacity.
Biomaterials. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19664819
Current limitations of exogenous scaffolds or extracellular matrix based materials have underlined the need for alternative tissue-engineering solutions. Scaffolds may elicit adverse host responses and interfere with direct cell-cell interaction, as well as assembly and alignment of cell-produced ECM. Thus, fabrication techniques for production of scaffold-free engineered tissue constructs have recently emerged. Here we report on a fully biological self-assembly approach, which we implement through a rapid prototyping bioprinting method for scaffold-free small diameter vascular reconstruction. Various vascular cell types, including smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts, were aggregated into discrete units, either multicellular spheroids or cylinders of controllable diameter (300-500 microm). These were printed layer-by-layer concomitantly with agarose rods, used here as a molding template. The post-printing fusion of the discrete units resulted in single- and double-layered small diameter vascular tubes (OD ranging from 0.9 to 2.5mm). A unique aspect of the method is the ability to engineer vessels of distinct shapes and hierarchical trees that combine tubes of distinct diameters. The technique is quick and easily scalable.
Cell Transplantation. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19878625
While advances in regenerative medicine and vascular tissue engineering have been substantial in recent years, important stumbling blocks remain. In particular, the limited life span of differentiated cells that are harvested from elderly human donors is an important limitation in many areas of regenerative medicine. Recently, a mutant of the human telomerase reverse transcriptase enzyme (TERT) was described, which is highly processive and elongates telomeres more rapidly than conventional telomerase. This mutant, called pot1-TERT, is a chimeric fusion between the DNA binding protein pot1 and TERT. Because pot1-TERT is highly processive, it is possible that transient delivery of this transgene to cells that are utilized in regenerative medicine applications may elongate telomeres and extend cellular life span while avoiding risks that are associated with retroviral or lentiviral vectors. In the present study, adenoviral delivery of pot1-TERT resulted in transient reconstitution of telomerase activity in human smooth muscle cells, as demonstrated by telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP). In addition, human engineered vessels that were cultured using pot1-TERT-expressing cells had greater collagen content and somewhat better performance in vivo than control grafts. Hence, transient delivery of pot1-TERT to elderly human cells may be useful for increasing cellular life span and improving the functional characteristics of resultant tissue-engineered constructs.
Enabling Tools for Engineering Collagenous Tissues Integrating Bioreactors, Intravital Imaging, and Biomechanical Modeling
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19955446
Many investigators have engineered diverse connective tissues having good mechanical properties, yet few tools enable a global understanding of the associated formation of collagen fibers, the primary determinant of connective tissue stiffness. Toward this end, we developed a biomechanical model for collagenous tissues grown on polymer scaffolds that accounts for the kinetics of polymer degradation as well as the synthesis and degradation of multiple families of collagen fibers in response to cyclic strains imparted in a bioreactor. The model predicted well both overall thickness and stress-stretch relationships for tubular engineered vessels cultured for 8 weeks, and suggested that a steady state had not yet been reached. To facilitate future refinements of the model, we also developed bioreactors that enable intravital nonlinear optical microscopic imaging. Using these tools, we found that collagen fiber alignment was driven strongly by nondegraded polymer fibers at early times during culture, with subsequent mechano-stimulated dispersal of fiber orientations as polymer fibers degraded. In summary, mathematical models of growth and remodeling of engineered tissues cultured on polymeric scaffolds can predict evolving tissue morphology and mechanics after long periods of culture, and related empirical observations promise to further our understanding of collagen matrix development in vitro.
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20055662
Endothelial cell (EC) seeding represents a promising approach to provide a nonthrombogenic surface on vascular grafts. In this study, we used a porcine EC/smooth muscle cell (SMC) coculture model that was previously developed to examine the efficacy of EC seeding. Expression of tissue factor (TF), a primary initiator in the coagulation cascade, and TF activity were used as indicators of thrombogenicity. Using immunostaining, primary cultures of porcine EC showed a low level of TF expression, but a highly heterogeneous distribution pattern with 14% of ECs expressing TF. Quiescent primary cultures of porcine SMCs displayed a high level of TF expression and a uniform pattern of staining. When we used a two-stage amidolytic assay, TF activity of ECs cultured alone was very low, whereas that of SMCs was high. ECs cocultured with SMCs initially showed low TF activity, but TF activity of cocultures increased significantly 7-8 days after EC seeding. The increased TF activity was not due to the activation of nuclear factor kappa-B on ECs and SMCs, as immunostaining for p65 indicated that nuclear factor kappa-B was localized in the cytoplasm in an inactive form in both ECs and SMCs. Rather, increased TF activity appeared to be due to the elevated reactive oxygen species levels and contraction of the coculture, thereby compromising the integrity of EC monolayer and exposing TF on SMCs. The incubation of cocultures with N-acetyl-cysteine (2 mM), an antioxidant, inhibited contraction, suggesting involvement of reactive oxygen species in regulating the contraction. The results obtained from this study provide useful information for understanding thrombosis in tissue-engineered vascular grafts.
Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20170423
Although the importance of fluid flow for proper vascular development and function in vivo is well recognized, microvascular formation in response to flow has not been well evaluated in a three-dimensional (3D) environment in vitro. In this study, we developed a novel 3D in vitro perfusion system that allows direct investigation of the effects of shear stress on the development of microvasculature in vitro. This system utilizes a 3D collagen gel for suspension of vascular cells and mesenchymal stem cells, through which flow is directly perfused. We characterized the flow conditions and demonstrate the impact of flow on the development of microvasculature using a coculture of endothelial cells and mesenchymal stem cells. With the unique ability to apply bulk flow through the collagen gels, and to estimate shear stress within the constructs, this perfusion system provides a flexible platform for developing a controllable biomimetic environment that can be adapted for a variety of investigations of microvascularization.
Dietary Restriction Mitigates Cocaine-induced Alterations of Olfactory Bulb Cellular Plasticity and Gene Expression, and Behavior
Journal of Neurochemistry. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20456017
Because the olfactory system plays a major role in food consumption, and because 'food addiction' and associated morbidities have reached epidemic proportions, we tested the hypothesis that dietary energy restriction can modify adverse effects of cocaine on behavior and olfactory cellular and molecular plasticity. Mice maintained on an alternate day fasting (ADF) diet exhibited increased baseline locomotion and increased cocaine-sensitized locomotion during cocaine conditioning, despite no change in cocaine conditioned place preference, compared with mice fed ad libitum. Levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the olfactory bulb (OB) were suppressed in mice on the ADF diet compared with mice on the control diet, independent of acute or chronic cocaine treatment. The expression of several enzymes involved in dopamine metabolism including tyrosine hydroxylase, monoamine oxidases A and B, and catechol-O-methyltransferase were significantly reduced in OBs of mice on the ADF diet. Both acute and chronic administration of cocaine suppressed the production of new OB cells, and this effect of cocaine was attenuated in mice on the ADF diet. Cocaine administration to mice on the control diet resulted in up-regulation of OB genes involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, synaptic plasticity, cellular stress responses, and calcium- and cAMP-mediated signaling, whereas multiple olfactory receptor genes were down-regulated by cocaine treatment. ADF abolished many of the effects of cocaine on OB gene expression. Our findings reveal that dietary energy intake modifies the neural substrates underlying some of the behavioral and physiological responses to repeated cocaine treatment, and also suggest novel roles for the olfactory system in addiction. The data further suggest that modification of dietary energy intake could provide a novel potential approach to addiction treatments.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20576850
Because adult lung tissue has limited regeneration capacity, lung transplantation is the primary therapy for severely damaged lungs. To explore whether lung tissue can be regenerated in vitro, we treated lungs from adult rats using a procedure that removes cellular components but leaves behind a scaffold of extracellular matrix that retains the hierarchical branching structures of airways and vasculature. We then used a bioreactor to culture pulmonary epithelium and vascular endothelium on the acellular lung matrix. The seeded epithelium displayed remarkable hierarchical organization within the matrix, and the seeded endothelial cells efficiently repopulated the vascular compartment. In vitro, the mechanical characteristics of the engineered lungs were similar to those of native lung tissue, and when implanted into rats in vivo for short time intervals (45 to 120 minutes) the engineered lungs participated in gas exchange. Although representing only an initial step toward the ultimate goal of generating fully functional lungs in vitro, these results suggest that repopulation of lung matrix is a viable strategy for lung regeneration.
Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19419244
Decellularization of native tissues is a promising technique with numerous applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. However, there are various limitations of currently available decellularization methods, such as alteration of extracellular matrix mechanics and restricted use on certain tissues. This study was conducted to explore the effect of serum on the decellularization of various types of tissues. Fetal bovine serum-containing cell culture medium endothelial growth media-2 removed DNA but not cellular beta-actin from human umbilical artery after detergent treatment, without compromising the tissue mechanical strength assessed by burst pressure. In addition, the effect of serum-containing endothelial growth media-2 on DNA removal was replicated in other types of tissues such as tissue-engineered vessels and myocardium. Other types of serum, including human serum, were also shown to remove DNA from detergent-pretreated tissues. In conclusion, we describe a novel utilization of serum that may have broad applications in tissue decellularization.
Journal of Vascular Surgery : Official Publication, the Society for Vascular Surgery [and] International Society for Cardiovascular Surgery, North American Chapter. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22056286
BACKGROUND: Arterial bypass graft implantation remains the primary therapy for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease; however, there is no available synthetic small diameter vascular graft. METHODS: Tissue-engineered vessels were grown from human smooth muscle cells that were seeded on a biodegradable scaffold using a biomimetic perfusion system. The human tissue-engineered vessels (hTEV) were decellularized by a two-step process using a combination of detergents and hypertonic solutions. The mechanical characteristics were assessed by suture retention strength and burst pressure. The decellularized hTEV were implanted as aortic interpositional grafts in nude rats to evaluate in vivo performance as an arterial graft over a 6-week period. RESULTS: The human tissue-engineered structure formed a vessel composed of smooth muscle cells and the extracellular matrix proteins, including collagen. After decellularization, the collagen matrix remained intact while the cellular components were removed. The mechanical strength of the hTEV after decellularization was similar to human vein in vitro, with a burst pressure of 1,567 ± 384 mm Hg (n = 3) versus 1,680 ± 307 mm Hg for human saphenous vein. The hTEVs had a high patency rate (four of five grafts) without evidence of rupture or aneurysm over a 6-week period as an aortic interpositional graft in a nude rat model. Histologic analysis showed a thin neointima with a confluent endothelium and a subendothelial layer of smooth muscle cells on the explanted tissue-engineered vessels. Transmission electron microscopy on the explanted tissue demonstrated elastin formation in the neointima and intact residual collagen fibers from the tissue-engineered vessel. CONCLUSIONS: The hTEV had a high patency rate and remained mechanically stable as an aortic interpositional graft in a nude rat. The vessel supported the growth of a neointima with endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The host remodeling suggested the engineered matrix had a positive effect to create a regenerated vascular graft.
Inhibition of MicroRNA-29 Enhances Elastin Levels in Cells Haploinsufficient for Elastin and in Bioengineered Vessels
Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22095981
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to determine whether antagonizing microRNA (miR)-29 enhances elastin (ELN) levels in cells and tissues lacking ELN. METHODS AND RESULTS: miR-29 mimics reduced ELN levels in fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, whereas miR-29 inhibition increased ELN levels. Antagonism of miR-29 also increased ELN levels in cells from patients haploinsufficient for ELN and in bioengineered human vessels. CONCLUSIONS: miR-29 antagonism may promote increased ELN levels during conditions of ELN deficiencies.
Cell Transplantation. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21092411
In this article we describe the design and validation of a bioreactor for the in vitro culture of whole rodent lung tissue. Many current systems only enable large segments of lung tissue to be studied ex vivo for up to a few hours in the laboratory. This limitation restricts the study of pulmonary biology in controlled laboratory settings, and also impacts the ability to reliably culture engineered lung tissues in the laboratory. Therefore, we designed, built, and validated a bioreactor intended to provide sufficient nutrient supply and mechanical stimulation to support cell survival and differentiation in cultured lung tissue. We also studied the effects of perfusion and ventilation on pulmonary cell survival and maintenance of cell differentiation state. The final bioreactor design described herein is capable of supporting the culture of whole native lung tissue for up to 1 week in the laboratory, and offers promise in the study of pulmonary biology and the development of engineered lung tissues in the laboratory.
Tissue Engineering. Part A. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21143045
Functional connective tissues have been developed using tissue engineering approach by seeding cells on biodegradable scaffolds such as polyglycolic acid (PGA). However, a major drawback of tissue engineering approaches that utilize synthetic polymers is the persistence of polymer remnants in engineered tissues at the end of culture. Such polymer fragments may significantly degrade tissue mechanics and stimulate local inflammatory responses in vivo. In this study, several polymeric materials with a range of degradation profiles were developed and evaluated for their potential applications in construction of collagen matrix-rich tissues, particularly tissue-engineered blood vessels. The degradation characteristics of these polymers were compared as were their characteristics vis-à-vis cell adhesion and proliferation, collagen synthesis, and ability to support growth of engineered vessels. Under aqueous conditions at 37°C, Polymer I (comprising 84% glycolide and 16% trimethylene carbonate [TMC]) had a similar degradation profile to PGA, Polymer II (comprising 84% glycolide, 14% TMC, and 2% polyethylene succinate) degradedly more slowly, but Polymer III (comprising 87% glycolide, 7% TMC, and 6% polyethylene glycol) had a more extensive degradation as compared to PGA. All polymers supported cell proliferation, but Polymer III improved collagen production and engineered vessel mechanics as compared with PGA. In addition, more slowly degrading polymers were associated with poorer final vessel mechanics. These results suggest that polymers that degrade more quickly during tissue culture actually result in improved engineered tissue mechanics, by virtue of decreased disruption of collagenous extracellular matrix.
Science Translational Medicine. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21289273
Autologous or synthetic vascular grafts are used routinely for providing access in hemodialysis or for arterial bypass in patients with cardiovascular disease. However, some patients either lack suitable autologous tissue or cannot receive synthetic grafts. Such patients could benefit from a vascular graft produced by tissue engineering. Here, we engineer vascular grafts using human allogeneic or canine smooth muscle cells grown on a tubular polyglycolic acid scaffold. Cellular material was removed with detergents to render the grafts nonimmunogenic. Mechanical properties of the human vascular grafts were similar to native human blood vessels, and the grafts could withstand long-term storage at 4 °C. Human engineered grafts were tested in a baboon model of arteriovenous access for hemodialysis. Canine grafts were tested in a dog model of peripheral and coronary artery bypass. Grafts demonstrated excellent patency and resisted dilatation, calcification, and intimal hyperplasia. Such tissue-engineered vascular grafts may provide a readily available option for patients without suitable autologous tissue or for those who are not candidates for synthetic grafts.
Use of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells As Alternative Source of Smooth Muscle Cells in Vessel Engineering
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21431526
Adult stem cell-derived smooth muscle cells (SMC) may be a promising source of cells for applications in regenerative medicine, including cardiovascular tissue engineering. Primary SMC from native vessels may have limited proliferative capacity and reduced collagen production when sourced from elderly donors, who are the patients in need of vascular grafts due to coronary disease or peripheral arterial disease. Our recent work showed that the ability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate into SMC was modulated by various growth factors, matrix proteins, and mechanical forces. In addition, the components of the culture medium play a very important role in SMC differentiation from hMSCs. In this chapter, we will summarize our experience with the impact of various factors on SMC differentiation from hMSCs. Based upon our findings regarding growth factors, cyclic strain and matrix proteins, a two-phase vessel regeneration culture protocol including a 4-week proliferation phase and a 4-week differentiation phase was developed to optimize proliferation and SMC differentiation of hMSCs consecutively.
Cells, Tissues, Organs. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21502745
The utility of decellularized native tissues for tissue engineering has been widely demonstrated. Here, we examine the production of decellularized lung scaffolds from native rodent lung using two different techniques, principally defined by use of either the detergent 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS) or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). All viable cellular material is removed, including at least 99% of DNA. Histochemical staining and mechanical testing indicate that collagen and elastin are retained in the decellularized matrices with CHAPS-based decellularization, while SDS-based decellularization leads to loss of collagen and decline in mechanical strength. Quantitative assays confirm that most collagen is retained with CHAPS treatment but that about 80% of collagen is lost with SDS treatment. In contrast, for both detergent methods, at least 60% of elastin content is lost along with about 95% of native proteoglycan content. Mechanical testing of the decellularized scaffolds indicates that they are mechanically similar to native lung using CHAPS decellularization, including retained tensile strength and elastic behavior, demonstrating the importance of collagen and elastin in lung mechanics. With SDS decellularization, the mechanical integrity of scaffolds is significantly diminished with some loss of elastic function as well. Finally, a simple theoretical model of peripheral lung matrix mechanics is consonant with our experimental findings. This work demonstrates the feasibility of producing a decellularized lung scaffold that can be used to study lung matrix biology and mechanics, independent of the effects of cellular components.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21571635
Arterial tissue-engineering techniques that have been reported previously typically involve long waiting times of several months while cells from the recipient are cultured to create the engineered vessel. In this study, we developed a different approach to arterial tissue engineering that can substantially reduce the waiting time for a graft. Tissue-engineered vessels (TEVs) were grown from banked porcine smooth muscle cells that were allogeneic to the intended recipient, using a biomimetic perfusion system. The engineered vessels were then decellularized, leaving behind the mechanically robust extracellular matrix of the graft wall. The acellular grafts were then seeded with cells that were derived from the intended recipient--either endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) or endothelial cell (EC)--on the graft lumen. TEV were then implanted as end-to-side grafts in the porcine carotid artery, which is a rigorous testbed due to its tendency for graft occlusion. The EPC- and EC-seeded TEV all remained patent for 30 d in this study, whereas the contralateral control vein grafts were patent in only 3/8 implants. Going along with the improved patency, the cell-seeded TEV demonstrated less neointimal hyperplasia and fewer proliferating cells than did the vein grafts. Proteins in the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling pathway tended to be decreased in TEV compared with vein grafts, implicating this pathway in the TEV's resistance to occlusion from intimal hyperplasia. These results indicate that a readily available, decellularized tissue-engineered vessel can be seeded with autologous endothelial progenitor cells to provide a biological vascular graft that resists both clotting and intimal hyperplasia. In addition, these results show that engineered connective tissues can be grown from banked cells, rendered acellular, and then used for tissue regeneration in vivo.
An Early Study on the Mechanisms That Allow Tissue-engineered Vascular Grafts to Resist Intimal Hyperplasia
Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21748530
Intimal hyperplasia is one of the prominent failure mechanisms for arteriovenous fistulas and arteriovenous access grafts. Human tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) were implanted as arteriovenous grafts in a novel baboon model. Ultrasound was used to monitor flow rates and vascular diameters throughout the study. Intimal hyperplasia in the outflow vein of TEVGs was assessed at the anastomosis and at juxta-anastomotic regions via histological analysis, and was compared to intimal hyperplasia with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) grafts in the baboon model and in literature reports from other animal models. Less venous intimal hyperplasia was observed in histological sections with arteriovenous TEVGs than with arteriovenous PTFE grafts. TEVGs were associated with a mild, noninflammatory intimal hyperplasia. The extent of intimal tissue that formed with TEVG placement correlated with the rate of blood flow through tissue engineered vascular grafts at 2 weeks postimplant. Outflow vein dilatation was observed with increased flow rate. Both mid-graft flow rates and outflow vein diameters reached a plateau by week 4, which suggested that venous remodeling and intimal hyperplasia largely occurred within the first 4 weeks of implant in the baboon model. Given their compliant and noninflammatory nature, TEVGs appear resistant to triggers for venous intimal hyperplasia that are common for PTFE arteriovenous grafts, including (1) abundant proinflammatory macrophage populations that are associated with PTFE grafts and (2) compliance mismatch between PTFE grafts and the outflow vein. Our findings suggest that arteriovenous TEVGs develop only a mild form of venous intimal hyperplasia, which results from the typical hemodynamic changes that are associated with arteriovenous settings.
Cells, Tissues, Organs. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22041291
Despite substantial progress in the field of vascular tissue engineering over the past decades, transition to human models has been rather challenging. The limited replicative life spans of human adult vascular cells, and their slow rate of collagenous matrix production in vitro, have posed important hurdles in the development of mechanically robust and biologically functional engineered grafts. With the more recent advances in the field of stem cells, investigators now have access to a plethora of new cell source alternatives for vascular engineering. In this paper, we review various alternative cell sources made available more recently for blood vessel engineering and also present some recent data on the derivation of smooth muscle cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.