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Other Publications (23)

Articles by Laura M. Sly in JoVE

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Depletion and Reconstitution of Macrophages in Mice

1Department of Graduate Studies, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia


JoVE 4105

Macrophages play a central role in homeostasis and pathology in many tissues. The protocol presented here describes methods for depleting macrophages in vivo, deriving polarized macrophages from bone marrow aspirates, and adoptively transferring macrophages into mice. These techniques allow determination of the role that polarized macrophages play in health and disease.

Other articles by Laura M. Sly on PubMed

The Role of SHIP in Macrophages

The SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase, SHIP, represses the proliferation, survival, and activation of hematopoietic cells, in large part by translocating to membranes following extracellular stimulation and hydrolysing the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-generated second messenger PI-3,4,5-P3 (PIP3) to PI-3,4-P2. SHIP-/- mice have, as a result, an increased number of monocyte/macrophages because their progenitors display enhanced survival and proliferation, as well as more rapid differentiation. Interestingly, SHIP-/- mice do not display lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or CpG oligonucleotide-induced tolerance because this blunting of inflammatory mediator production is contingent upon LPS- and CpG-induced upregulation of SHIP in their macrophages and mast cells. This upregulation is mediated via the production of autocrine-acting TGFbeta which is induced via the MyD88-dependent pathway. The increased levels of SHIP then inhibit both MyD88-dependent and independent signaling. Intriguingly, SHIP-/- peritoneal and alveolar macrophages produce less nitric oxide (NO) than wild-type macrophages because they have constitutively high arginase I levels and this enzyme competes with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for the substrate L-arginine. It is likely that, in the face of chronically elevated PIP3 levels in their myeloid progenitors, SHIP-/- mice display a skewed development away from M1 (killer) macrophages towards M2 (healing) macrophages. This suggests that SHIP plays a critical role in programming macrophages.

SHIP Prevents Lipopolysaccharide from Triggering an Antiviral Response in Mice

Gram-negative bacterial infections, unlike viral infections, do not typically protect against subsequent viral infections. This is puzzling given that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and double-stranded (ds) RNA both activate the TIR domain-containing adaptor-inducing interferon beta (TRIF) pathway and, thus, are both capable of eliciting an antiviral response by stimulating type I interferon (IFN) production. We demonstrate herein that SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase (SHIP) protein levels are dramatically increased in murine macrophages via the MyD88-dependent pathway, by up-regulating autocrine-acting transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta). The increased SHIP then mediates, via inhibition of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, cytosine-phosphate-guanosine (CPG)- and LPS-induced tolerance and cross-tolerance and restrains IFN-beta production induced by a subsequent exposure to LPS or dsRNA. Intriguingly, we found, using isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors, that LPS- or cytosine-phosphate-guanosine-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) is positively regulated by p110alpha, -gamma, and -delta but negatively regulated by p110beta. This may explain some of the controversy concerning the role of PI3K in Toll-like receptor-induced cytokine production. Consistent with our in vitro findings, SHIP(-/-) mice overproduce IFN-beta in response to LPS, and this leads to antiviral hypothermia. Thus, up-regulation of SHIP in response to Gram-negative bacterial infections probably explains the inability of such infections to protect against subsequent viral infections.

SHIP Represses the Generation of IL-3-induced M2 Macrophages by Inhibiting IL-4 Production from Basophils

There is a great deal of interest in determining what regulates the generation of classically activated (M1) vs alternatively activated (M2) macrophages (Mphis) because of the opposing effects that these two Mphi subsets have on tumor progression. We show herein that IL-3 and, to a lesser extent, GM-CSF skew murine Mphi progenitors toward an M2 phenotype, especially in the absence of SHIP. Specifically, the addition of these cytokines, with or without M-CSF, to adherence- or lineage-depleted (Lin(-)) SHIP(-/-) bone marrow (BM) cells induces high levels of the M2 markers, arginase I, and Ym1 in the resulting mature Mphis. These in vitro-derived mature Mphis also display other M2 characteristics, including an inability to enhance anti-CD3-stimulated splenic T cell secretion of IFN-gamma and low IL-12 and high IL-10 production in response to LPS. Not surprisingly, given that IL-3 and GM-CSF utilize STAT5 to trigger many downstream signaling pathways, this M2 phenotype is suppressed when STAT5(-/-) BM cells are used. Unexpectedly, however, this M2 phenotype is also suppressed when STAT6(-/-) BM cells are used, suggesting that IL-4- or IL-13-induced signaling might be involved. Consistent with this, we found that IL-3 and GM-CSF stimulate the production of IL-4, especially from SHIP(-/-) Lin(-) BM cells, and that neutralizing anti-IL-4 Abs block IL-3-induced M2 skewing. Moreover, we found that basophil progenitors within the Lin(-) BM are responsible for this IL-3- and GM-CSF-induced IL-4 production, and that SHIP represses M2 skewing not by preventing skewing within Mphis themselves but by inhibiting IL-4 production from basophils.

SHIP Represses Th2 Skewing by Inhibiting IL-4 Production from Basophils

We report that SHIP(-/-) mice, compared to SHIP(+/+) mice, are Th2 skewed with elevated serum IgE and twice as many splenic CD4(+) Th2 cells that, when stimulated with anti-CD3, produce more IL-4 and less IFN-γ. Exploring the reason for this Th2 skewing, we found that freshly isolated SHIP(-/-) splenic and bone marrow basophils are present in elevated numbers and secrete far more IL-4 in response to IL-3 or to FcεRI stimulation than do WT basophils. These SHIP(-/-) basophils markedly skew wild-type macrophage colony stimulating factor-derived macrophages toward an M2 phenotype, stimulate OT-II CD4(+) Th cells to differentiate into Th2 cells, and trigger SHIP(+/+) B cells to become IgE-producing cells. All these effects are completely abrogated with neutralizing anti-IL-4 Ab. Exploring the cell signaling pathways responsible for hyperproduction of IL-4 by SHIP(-/-) basophils, we found that IL-3-induced activation of the PI3K pathway is significantly enhanced and that PI3K inhibitors, especially a p110α inhibitor, dramatically suppresses IL-4 production from these cells. In vivo studies, in which basophils were depleted from mast cell-deficient SHIP(+/+) and SHIP(-/-) mice, confirmed the central role that basophils play in the Th2 skewing of naive SHIP-deficient mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that SHIP is a potent negative regulator of IL-4 production from basophils and thus may be a novel therapeutic target for Th1- and Th2-related diseases.

SHIP-deficient Mice Develop Spontaneous Intestinal Inflammation and Arginase-dependent Fibrosis

Intestinal fibrosis is a serious complication of Crohn's disease (CD) that can lead to stricture formation, which requires surgery. Mechanisms underlying intestinal fibrosis remain elusive because of a lack of suitable mouse models. Herein, we describe a spontaneous mouse model of intestinal inflammation with fibrosis and the profibrotic role of arginase I. The Src homology 2 domain-containing inositol polyphosphate 5'-phosphatase-deficient (SHIP(-/-)) mice developed spontaneous discontinuous intestinal inflammation restricted to the distal ileum starting at the age of 4 weeks. Mice developed several key features resembling CD, including inflammation and fibrosis. Inflammation was characterized by abundant infiltrating Gr-1-positive immune cells, granuloma-like immune cell aggregates that contained multinucleated giant cells, and a mixed type 2 and type 17 helper T-cell cytokine profile. Fibrosis was characterized by a thickened ileal muscle layer, collagen deposition, and increased fibroblasts at the sites of collagen deposition. SHIP(-/-) ilea had increased arginase activity and arginase I expression that was inversely proportional to nitrotyrosine staining. SHIP(-/-) mice were treated with the arginase inhibitor S-(2-boronoethyl)-l-cysteine, and changes in the disease phenotype were measured. Arginase inhibition did not affect the number of immune cell infiltrates in the SHIP(-/-) mouse ilea; rather, it reduced collagen deposition and muscle hyperplasia. These findings suggest that arginase activity is a potential target to limit intestinal fibrosis in patients with CD.

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