Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (13)
Articles by Lawrence E. Heisler in JoVE
Competitive Genomic Screens of Barcoded Yeast Libraries
Andrew M. Smith*1,2, Tanja Durbic*2,3, Julia Oh*4, Malene Urbanus1,2, Michael Proctor5, Lawrence E. Heisler2,3, Guri Giaever2,6, Corey Nislow1,2,3
1Banting and Best Department of Medical Research and Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, University of Toronto, 3Donnelly Sequencing Centre, University of Toronto, 4Genetics and Molecular Biology Branch, National Human Genome Research Institute, NIH, 5Stanford Genome Technology Center, Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University, 6Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto
We have developed comprehensive, unbiased genome-wide screens to understand gene-drug and gene-environment interactions. Methods for screening these mutant collections are presented.
Other articles by Lawrence E. Heisler on PubMed
CpG Island Microarray Probe Sequences Derived from a Physical Library Are Representative of CpG Islands Annotated on the Human Genome
Nucleic Acids Research. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15911630
An effective tool for the global analysis of both DNA methylation status and protein-chromatin interactions is a microarray constructed with sequences containing regulatory elements. One type of array suited for this purpose takes advantage of the strong association between CpG Islands (CGIs) and gene regulatory regions. We have obtained 20,736 clones from a CGI Library and used these to construct CGI arrays. The utility of this library requires proper annotation and assessment of the clones, including CpG content, genomic origin and proximity to neighboring genes. Alignment of clone sequences to the human genome (UCSC hg17) identified 9595 distinct genomic loci; 64% were defined by a single clone while the remaining 36% were represented by multiple, redundant clones. Approximately 68% of the loci were located near a transcription start site. The distribution of these loci covered all 23 chromosomes, with 63% overlapping a bioinformatically identified CGI. The high representation of genomic CGI in this rich collection of clones supports the utilization of microarrays produced with this library for the study of global epigenetic mechanisms and protein-chromatin interactions. A browsable database is available on-line to facilitate exploration of the CGIs in this library and their association with annotated genes or promoter elements.
Nucleic Acids Research. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16840529
Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool for quantifying specific DNA target sequences. Although determination of relative quantity is widely accepted as a reliable means of measuring differences between samples, there are advantages to being able to determine the absolute copy numbers of a given target. One approach to absolute quantification relies on construction of an accurate standard curve using appropriate external standards of known concentration. We have validated the use of tissue genomic DNA as a universal external standard to facilitate quantification of any target sequence contained in the genome of a given species, addressing several key technical issues regarding its use. This approach was applied to validate mRNA expression of gene candidates identified from microarray data and to determine gene copies in transgenic mice. A simple method that can assist achieving absolute quantification of gene expression would broadly enhance the uses of real-time qPCR and in particular, augment the evaluation of global gene expression studies.
Yeast Barcoders: a Chemogenomic Application of a Universal Donor-strain Collection Carrying Bar-code Identifiers
Nature Methods. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18622398
The ability to perform complex bioassays in parallel enables experiments that are otherwise impossible because of throughput and cost constraints. For example, highly parallel chemical-genetic screens using pooled collections of thousands of defined Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene deletion strains are feasible because each strain is bar-coded with unique DNA sequences. It is, however, time-consuming and expensive to individually bar-code individual strains. To provide a simple and general method of barcoding yeast collections, we built a set of donor strains, called Barcoders, with unique bar codes that can be systematically transferred to any S. cerevisiae collection. We applied this technology by generating a collection of bar-coded 'decreased abundance by mRNA perturbation' (DAmP) loss-of-function strains comprising 87.1% of all essential yeast genes. These experiments validate both the Barcoders and the DAmP strain collection as useful tools for genome-wide chemical-genetic assays.
PLoS Genetics. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18688276
To better understand off-target effects of widely prescribed psychoactive drugs, we performed a comprehensive series of chemogenomic screens using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Because the known human targets of these drugs do not exist in yeast, we could employ the yeast gene deletion collections and parallel fitness profiling to explore potential off-target effects in a genome-wide manner. Among 214 tested, documented psychoactive drugs, we identified 81 compounds that inhibited wild-type yeast growth and were thus selected for genome-wide fitness profiling. Many of these drugs had a propensity to affect multiple cellular functions. The sensitivity profiles of half of the analyzed drugs were enriched for core cellular processes such as secretion, protein folding, RNA processing, and chromatin structure. Interestingly, fluoxetine (Prozac) interfered with establishment of cell polarity, cyproheptadine (Periactin) targeted essential genes with chromatin-remodeling roles, while paroxetine (Paxil) interfered with essential RNA metabolism genes, suggesting potential secondary drug targets. We also found that the more recently developed atypical antipsychotic clozapine (Clozaril) had no fewer off-target effects in yeast than the typical antipsychotics haloperidol (Haldol) and pimozide (Orap). Our results suggest that model organism pharmacogenetic studies provide a rational foundation for understanding the off-target effects of clinically important psychoactive agents and suggest a rational means both for devising compound derivatives with fewer side effects and for tailoring drug treatment to individual patient genotypes.
Chemical-genetic Profiling of Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and -pyrimidines Reveals Target Pathways Conserved Between Yeast and Human Cells
PLoS Genetics. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19043571
Small molecules have been shown to be potent and selective probes to understand cell physiology. Here, we show that imidazo[1,2-a]pyridines and imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidines compose a class of compounds that target essential, conserved cellular processes. Using validated chemogenomic assays in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we discovered that two closely related compounds, an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine and -pyrimidine that differ by a single atom, have distinctly different mechanisms of action in vivo. 2-phenyl-3-nitroso-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine was toxic to yeast strains with defects in electron transport and mitochondrial functions and caused mitochondrial fragmentation, suggesting that compound 13 acts by disrupting mitochondria. By contrast, 2-phenyl-3-nitroso-imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidine acted as a DNA poison, causing damage to the nuclear DNA and inducing mutagenesis. We compared compound 15 to known chemotherapeutics and found resistance required intact DNA repair pathways. Thus, subtle changes in the structure of imidazo-pyridines and -pyrimidines dramatically alter both the intracellular targeting of these compounds and their effects in vivo. Of particular interest, these different modes of action were evident in experiments on human cells, suggesting that chemical-genetic profiles obtained in yeast are recapitulated in cultured cells, indicating that our observations in yeast can: (1) be leveraged to determine mechanism of action in mammalian cells and (2) suggest novel structure-activity relationships.
Genome Research. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19622793
Next-generation DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized diverse genomics applications, including de novo genome sequencing, SNP detection, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and transcriptome analysis. Here we apply deep sequencing to genome-scale fitness profiling to evaluate yeast strain collections in parallel. This method, Barcode analysis by Sequencing, or "Bar-seq," outperforms the current benchmark barcode microarray assay in terms of both dynamic range and throughput. When applied to a complex chemogenomic assay, Bar-seq quantitatively identifies drug targets, with performance superior to the benchmark microarray assay. We also show that Bar-seq is well-suited for a multiplex format. We completely re-sequenced and re-annotated the yeast deletion collection using deep sequencing, found that approximately 20% of the barcodes and common priming sequences varied from expectation, and used this revised list of barcode sequences to improve data quality. Together, this new assay and analysis routine provide a deep-sequencing-based toolkit for identifying gene-environment interactions on a genome-wide scale.
BMC Genomics. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19825181
Microarrays are an invaluable tool in many modern genomic studies. It is generally perceived that decreasing the size of microarray features leads to arrays with higher resolution (due to greater feature density), but this increase in resolution can compromise sensitivity.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20413493
We generated a high-resolution whole-genome sequence and individually deleted 5100 genes in Sigma1278b, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain closely related to reference strain S288c. Similar to the variation between human individuals, Sigma1278b and S288c average 3.2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase. A genome-wide comparison of deletion mutant phenotypes identified a subset of genes that were conditionally essential by strain, including 44 essential genes unique to Sigma1278b and 13 unique to S288c. Genetic analysis indicates the conditional phenotype was most often governed by complex genetic interactions, depending on multiple background-specific modifiers. Our comprehensive analysis suggests that the presence of a complex set of modifiers will often underlie the phenotypic differences between individuals.
Nucleic Acids Research. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20460461
Next-generation sequencing has proven an extremely effective technology for molecular counting applications where the number of sequence reads provides a digital readout for RNA-seq, ChIP-seq, Tn-seq and other applications. The extremely large number of sequence reads that can be obtained per run permits the analysis of increasingly complex samples. For lower complexity samples, however, a point of diminishing returns is reached when the number of counts per sequence results in oversampling with no increase in data quality. A solution to making next-generation sequencing as efficient and affordable as possible involves assaying multiple samples in a single run. Here, we report the successful 96-plexing of complex pools of DNA barcoded yeast mutants and show that such 'Bar-seq' assessment of these samples is comparable with data provided by barcode microarrays, the current benchmark for this application. The cost reduction and increased throughput permitted by highly multiplexed sequencing will greatly expand the scope of chemogenomics assays and, equally importantly, the approach is suitable for other sequence counting applications that could benefit from massive parallelization.
BMC Genomics. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21548937
Genome-wide screening in human and mouse cells using RNA interference and open reading frame over-expression libraries is rapidly becoming a viable experimental approach for many research labs. There are a variety of gene expression modulation libraries commercially available, however, detailed and validated protocols as well as the reagents necessary for deconvolving genome-scale gene screens using these libraries are lacking. As a solution, we designed a comprehensive platform for highly multiplexed functional genetic screens in human, mouse and yeast cells using popular, commercially available gene modulation libraries. The Gene Modulation Array Platform (GMAP) is a single microarray-based detection solution for deconvolution of loss and gain-of-function pooled screens.
Nature Biotechnology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21572441
Dosage suppression is a genetic interaction in which overproduction of one gene rescues a mutant phenotype of another gene. Although dosage suppression is known to map functional connections among genes, the extent to which it might illuminate global cellular functions is unclear. Here we analyze a network of interactions linking dosage suppressors to 437 essential genes in yeast. For 424 genes, we curated interactions from the literature. Analyses revealed that many dosage suppression interactions occur between functionally related genes and that the majority do not overlap with other types of genetic or physical interactions. To confirm the generality of these network properties, we experimentally identified dosage suppressors for 29 genes from pooled populations of temperature-sensitive mutant cells transformed with a high-copy molecular-barcoded open reading frame library, MoBY-ORF 2.0. We classified 87% of the 1,640 total interactions into four general types of suppression mechanisms, which provided insight into their relative frequencies. This work suggests that integrating the results of dosage suppression studies with other interaction networks could generate insights into the functional wiring diagram of a cell.
Chemistry & Biology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22035796
Preselection of compounds that are more likely to induce a phenotype can increase the efficiency and reduce the costs for model organism screening. To identify such molecules, we screened ~81,000 compounds in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified ~7500 that inhibit cell growth. Screening these growth-inhibitory molecules across a diverse panel of model organisms resulted in an increased phenotypic hit-rate. These data were used to build a model to predict compounds that inhibit yeast growth. Empirical and in silico application of the model enriched the discovery of bioactive compounds in diverse model organisms. To demonstrate the potential of these molecules as lead chemical probes, we used chemogenomic profiling in yeast and identified specific inhibitors of lanosterol synthase and of stearoyl-CoA 9-desaturase. As community resources, the ~7500 growth-inhibitory molecules have been made commercially available and the computational model and filter used are provided.
PLoS Genetics. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22102822
In nature, stressful environments often occur in combination or close succession, and thus the ability to prepare for impending stress likely provides a significant fitness advantage. Organisms exposed to a mild dose of stress can become tolerant to what would otherwise be a lethal dose of subsequent stress; however, the mechanism of this acquired stress tolerance is poorly understood. To explore this, we exposed the yeast gene-deletion libraries, which interrogate all essential and non-essential genes, to successive stress treatments and identified genes necessary for acquiring subsequent stress resistance. Cells were exposed to one of three different mild stress pretreatments (salt, DTT, or heat shock) and then challenged with a severe dose of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)). Surprisingly, there was little overlap in the genes required for acquisition of H(2)O(2) tolerance after different mild-stress pretreatments, revealing distinct mechanisms of surviving H(2)O(2) in each case. Integrative network analysis of these results with respect to protein-protein interactions, synthetic-genetic interactions, and functional annotations identified many processes not previously linked to H(2)O(2) tolerance. We tested and present several models that explain the lack of overlap in genes required for H(2)O(2) tolerance after each of the three pretreatments. Together, this work shows that acquired tolerance to the same severe stress occurs by different mechanisms depending on prior cellular experiences, underscoring the context-dependent nature of stress tolerance.