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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (29)
- Pest Management Science
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Mycological Research
- Mycological Research
- Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
- Mycological Research
- Mycological Research
- International Journal of Molecular Medicine
- Nitric Oxide : Biology and Chemistry / Official Journal of the Nitric Oxide Society
- Life Sciences
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Life Sciences
- Clinical Science (London, England : 1979)
- Life Sciences
- Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
- Mycological Research
- Plant Physiology
- BMC Cell Biology
- Orvosi Hetilap
- Critical Care (London, England)
- Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
- Molecular Ecology
- PloS One
- Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
- Shock (Augusta, Ga.)
- Acta Physiologica Hungarica
- Free Radical Research
- Molecular Plant Pathology
Articles by Levente Kiss in JoVE
Stem Cell Transplantation in an in vitro Simulated Ischemia/Reperfusion Model
Attila Cselenyák, Zsolt Benko, Mónika Szepes, Levente Kiss, Zsombor Lacza
Institute of Human Physiology and Clinical Experimental Research, Semmelweis University
We demonstrate how to set up an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion model and how to evaluate the effect of stem cell therapy on postischemic cardiac cells.
Other articles by Levente Kiss on PubMed
Pest Management Science. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12701710
There are approximately 40 fungal species that have so far been reported as natural antagonists of powdery mildews or have been tested as their potential biocontrol agents. This review summarizes the published data on their identification, taxonomy, ecology, modes of action and biocontrol efficacy. The results obtained with the two products already registered, AQ10 Biofungicide and Sporodex, are also discussed.
Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase Promotes Cardiac Remodeling, Contractile Failure, and Translocation of Apoptosis-inducing Factor in a Murine Experimental Model of Aortic Banding and Heart Failure
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15523000
Oxidant stress-induced activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) plays a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. We have now investigated the role of PARP in the process of cardiac remodeling and heart failure in a mouse model of heart failure induced by transverse aortic constriction (banding). The catalytic activity of PARP was inhibited by the potent isoindolinone-based PARP inhibitor INO-1001 or by PARP-1 genetic deficiency. PARP inhibition prevented the pressure overload-induced decrease in cardiac contractile function, despite the pressure gradient between both carotid arteries being comparable in the two experimental groups. The development of hypertrophy, the formation of collagen in the hearts, and the mitochondrial-to-nuclear translocation of the cell death factor apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were attenuated by PARP inhibition. The ability of the inhibitor to block the catalytic activity of PARP was confirmed by immunohistochemical detection of poly(ADP-ribose), the product of the enzyme in the heart. Plasma levels of INO-1001, as measured at the end of the experiments, were in the concentration range sufficient to block the oxidant-mediated activation of PARP in murine cardiac myocytes in vitro. Myocardial hypertrophy and AIF translocation was also reduced in PARP-1-deficient mice undergoing aortic banding, compared with their wild-type counterparts. Overall, the current results demonstrate the importance of poly(ADP-ribos)ylation in the pathogenesis of banding-induced heart failure.
Ampelomyces Mycoparasites from Apple Powdery Mildew Identified As a Distinct Group Based on Single-stranded Conformation Polymorphism Analysis of the RDNA ITS Region
Mycological Research. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15912930
Pycnidial fungi belonging to the genus Ampelomyces are the most common natural antagonists of powdery mildews worldwide. During a study of the interactions between apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and Ampelomyces mycoparasites, 52 new Ampelomyces isolates were obtained from P. leucotricha and, in addition, 13 new isolates from other species of the Erysiphaceae in four European countries. Their genetic diversity was screened using single-stranded conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). For comparison, 24 isolates obtained from genetic resource collections or other sources were included in this study. Based on the ITS-SSCP patterns, the isolates were placed in eight groups. The isolates belonged to two types based on their growth in culture. The faster-growing and the slower-growing isolates were included in different SSCP groups. A phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences of representatives of these groups confirmed the results obtained with the SSCP method, and showed that the faster-growing isolates do not belong to Ampelomyces as suggested by earlier studies. All the isolates from P. leucotricha fell into a distinct SSCP group of genetically homogeneous isolates. This suggests that Ampelomyces mycoparasites which occur in apple powdery mildew are slightly different from the other Ampelomyces groups which contain mycoparasites from various powdery mildew species. This may be because the main growth period of Ampelomyces mycoparasites in apple powdery mildew is isolated in time from that of Ampelomyces isolates that occur in other species of the Erysiphaceae. P. leucotricha starts its life-cycle early in the season, usually in March-April, while most powdery mildews are active in the same environments only late in the year.
Powdery Mildew As Invasive Plant Pathogens: New Epidemics Caused by Two North American Species in Europe
Mycological Research. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15912940
The Pathogenesis of Diabetic Complications: the Role of DNA Injury and Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Activation in Peroxynitrite-mediated Cytotoxicity
Memórias Do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15962096
Recent work has demonstrated that hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain triggers several pathways of injury [(protein kinase C (PKC), hexosamine and polyol pathway fluxes, advanced glycation end product formation (AGE)] involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications by inhibiting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress activates the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP). PARP activation, on one hand, depletes its substrate, NAD+, slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport and ATP formation. On the other hand, PARP activation results in inhibition of GAPDH by poly-ADP-ribosylation. These processes result in acute endothelial dysfunction in diabetic blood vessels, which importantly contributes to the development of various diabetic complications. Accordingly, hyperglycemia-induced activation of PKC and AGE formation are prevented by inhibition of PARP activity. Furthermore, inhibition of PARP protects against diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction in rodent models of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. PARP activation is also present in microvasculature of human diabetic subjects. The present review focuses on the role of PARP in diabetic complications and emphasizes the therapeutic potential of PARP inhibition in the prevention or reversal of diabetic complications.
Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of the Maple Powdery Mildew (Sawadaea, Erysiphaceae) Inferred from Nuclear RDNA Sequences
Mycological Research. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16175793
To understand the phylogenetic relationships and evolution of the powdery mildew genus Sawadaea (Ascomycota: Erysiphaceae), obligate parasitic fungi of maples, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 47 ITS and ten 28S rDNA sequences. Seven major clades of Sawadaea, each represented by powdery mildew specimens collected from a single or a small number of closely related sections of Acer (maples), were identified in this study, suggesting that a close evolutionary relationship exists between Acer (host) and Sawadaea (parasite). A 6-11-base insertion/deletion was found in the ITS1 region of Sawadaea, and the presence or absence of the indel was consistent within the respective clades. Because the outgroup genera Podosphaera and Cystotheca have no deletions in these sites, deletion of the sequences may have occurred during the divergence of the respective clades of Sawadaea. The seven clades of Sawadaea were divided into two geographical groups, viz. an East Asian and a global group, based on the countries of collection. Calculation of the evolutionary timing of Sawadaea using molecular clocks showed that the divergence of different species of Acer occurred many millions of years before the radiation of Sawadaea. Thus, the close evolutionary relationship between Sawadaea and Acer found in this study might not be due to a true coevolutionary process. Powdery mildew fungi belonging to Sawadaea may have jumped onto Acer spp. long after the radiation of the major sections of these trees, and then expanded their host ranges according to the phylogeny and geographical distribution of Acer.
A Morphologically Ill-founded Powdery Mildew Species, Pleochaeta Indica, is Recognized As a Phylogenetic Species Based on the Analysis of the Nuclear Ribosomal DNA Sequences
Mycological Research. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17070029
Morphological characteristics of a powdery mildew fungus found on Celtis australis in the Indian Himalayas coincided with those of Pleochaeta indica, described from this tree species in India, as well with those of P. shiraiana, known to infect C. australis and other plant species in Asia. This suggested that the original description of P. indica based on morphological patterns was not well founded and this taxon could be reduced to synonymy with P. shiraiana. However, phylogenetic analyses of the rDNA 28S and ITS sequences determined in some Indian Pleochaeta specimens from C. australis showed that this fungus is closely related, but not identical to P. shiraiana infecting C. sinensis in Japan which served as the basis of the original description of P. shiraiana. Molecular clock analysis of the ITS region and that of the 28S rDNA indicated that the split between the Japanese P. shiraiana infecting C. sinensis and Pleochaeta sp. infecting C. australis in India may have occurred 2.0-8.5 million years ago in the Pliocene and may have coincided with the formation of the Himalayan mountains and the global cooling of the Earth during the late Tertiary. Thus, P. indica is recognized in this study as a distinct phylogenetic species, although our morphological study showed that its description as a morphological species was not well founded. This is a striking example of a cryptic species which is genetically different from close relatives but cannot be distinguished from them based on morphology.
Effects of 7-ketocholesterol on the Activity of Endothelial Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase and on Endothelium-dependent Relaxant Function
International Journal of Molecular Medicine. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17089016
Oxidative and nitrosative stress play an important role in the development of endothelial vascular dysfunction during early atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in endothelial cells. In patients with atherosclerosis the level of oxidized LDL in the plasma is elevated. In oxidized LDL various oxysterols have been identified, such as 7-ketocholesterol (7K). 7K has been shown to induce PARP activation in microglial cells. The aim of the current study was to clarify the effects of 7K on the activity of endothelial PARP and on the endothelium-dependent relaxant function of blood vessels. We treated human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells with 2-16 microg/ml 7K as well as vascular rings harvested from BALB/c mouse thoracic aorta with 90 microg/ml 7K for 2 h. A group of mice was treated with 7K subcutaneously for 1 week (10 mg/kg/day). We also conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments using pretreatment with buthionine sulphoximine (BSO), a glutathione-lowering agent. The activity of PARP was calculated by measurement of tritiated NAD incorporation. The activity of PARP increased significantly in 7K-treated HUVEC cells. After BSO pretreatment, this increase was higher. Isolated vascular rings demonstrated no change in endothelium-dependent relaxant function after 2 h of incubation with 7K, even after BSO pretreatment. In vivo treatment with 7K for 1 week had no effect on the relaxant function. Our experimental results suggest that although 7-ketocholesterol can activate PARP enzyme in endothelial cells, it is not sufficient on its own to cause impairment in the endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity.
Nitric Oxide : Biology and Chemistry / Official Journal of the Nitric Oxide Society. Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16051505
It is more than 10 years now that mitochondria are suspected to be sources of nitric oxide (NO). This hypothesis is intriguing since NO has multiple targets within the organelle and it is even suggested that mitochondria are the primary targets of NO in the cell. Most remarkably, nanomolar concentrations of NO can inhibit mitochondrial respiration, so even a small amount of NO in the mitochondrial matrix may regulate ATP synthesis. Therefore, the idea that mitochondria themselves are capable of NO production is an important concept in several physiological and pathological mechanisms. However, this field of research generates surprisingly few original papers and the published studies contain conflicting results. The reliability of the results is frequently questioned since they are seldom reproduced by independent investigators. Until 2003, all papers published in this field showed affirmative results but since then several studies directly challenged the existence of a mitochondrial nitric oxide synthase. The present review aims to summarize the most recent developments in mitochondrial NO production, highlights a few unsolved questions, and proposes new directions for future work in this research area.
Life Sciences. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17113604
Previous studies raised the possibility that nitric oxide synthase is present in heart mitochondria (mtNOS) and the existence of such an enzyme became generally accepted. However, original experimental evidence is rather scarce and positive identification of the enzyme is lacking. We aimed to detect an NOS protein in human and mouse heart mitochondria and to measure the level of NO released from the organelles. Western blotting with 7 different anti-NOS antibodies failed to detect a NOS-like protein in mitochondria. Immunoprecipitation or substrate-affinity purification of the samples concentrated NOS in control preparations but not in mitochondria. Release of NO from live respiring human mitochondria was below 2 ppb after 45 min of incubation. In a bioassay system, mitochondrial suspension failed to cause vasodilation of human mammary artery segments. These results indicate that mitochondria do not produce physiologically relevant quantities of NO in the heart and are unlikely to have any physiological importance as NO donors, nor do they contain a recognizable mtNOS enzyme.
Hydrogen Sulfide Attenuates Myocardial Ischemia-reperfusion Injury by Preservation of Mitochondrial Function
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17878306
The recent discovery that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) is an endogenously produced gaseous second messenger capable of modulating many physiological processes, much like nitric oxide, prompted us to investigate the potential of H(2)S as a cardioprotective agent. In the current study, we demonstrate that the delivery of H(2)S at the time of reperfusion limits infarct size and preserves left ventricular (LV) function in an in vivo model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI-R). This observed cytoprotection is associated with an inhibition of myocardial inflammation and a preservation of both mitochondrial structure and function after I-R injury. Additionally, we show that modulation of endogenously produced H(2)S by cardiac-specific overexpression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (alpha-MHC-CGL-Tg mouse) significantly limits the extent of injury. These findings demonstrate that H(2)S may be of value in cytoprotection during the evolution of myocardial infarction and that either administration of H(2)S or the modulation of endogenous production may be of clinical benefit in ischemic disorders.
Life Sciences. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18078960
In critically ill patients various conditions may lead to the activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). By promoting cellular energetic dysfunction, and by enhancing pro-inflammatory gene expression, PARP activation significantly contributes to the pathogenesis of shock. PARP activation is usually triggered by DNA strand breakage, which is typically the result of the overproduction of various reactive oxidant species. One of the pathophysiological conditions associated with PARP activation is hyperglycemia, where the reactive species are produced from the mitochondria and other cellular sources. In the present study we tested whether endotoxin-induced PARP activation and pro-inflammatory mediator production can be modified by insulin therapy. Rats subjected to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) with or without insulin co-treatment were studied. LPS-induced PARP activation in circulating lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production was measured by ELISA. The direct effect of insulin on the PARP activity of mononuclear leukocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in elevated glucose conditions was tested in vitro. LPS-induced significant hyperglycemic response activated PARP in circulating lymphocytes and induced TNF-alpha production. Insulin treatment prevented LPS-induced hyperglycemic response, blocked PARP activation and blunted LPS-induced TNF-alpha response. Insulin treatment caused a slight reduction in the PARP activity of mononuclear cells and HUVECs in vitro. We demonstrate that insulin treatment blocks LPS-induced PARP activation in vivo. We propose that this effect is mainly indirect, and occurs due to the prevention of stress induced hyperglycemia, with a direct cellular effect of insulin playing a potential minor supplemental role. The current findings may have significant implications in the context of the emerging concept of tight glycemic control and insulin treatment for critically ill patients.
Protective Effect of Hydrogen Sulfide in a Murine Model of Acute Lung Injury Induced by Combined Burn and Smoke Inhalation
Clinical Science (London, England : 1979). Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18315525
Acute lung injury results in a severe inflammatory response, which leads to priming and activation of leucocytes, release of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species, destruction of pulmonary endothelium, extravasation of protein-rich fluid into the interstitium and formation of oedema. Recently, H2S (hydrogen sulfide) has been shown to decrease the synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduce leucocyte adherence to the endothelium and subsequent diapedesis of these cells from the microvasculature in in vivo studies, and to protect cells in culture from oxidative injury. In the present study, we hypothesized that a parenteral formulation of H2S would reduce the lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation in a novel murine model. H(2)S post-treatment significantly decreased mortality and increased median survival in mice. H2S also inhibited IL (interleukin)-1beta levels and significantly increased the concentration of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in lung tissue. Additionally, H2S administration attenuated protein oxidation following injury and improved the histological condition of the lung. In conclusion, these results suggest that H2S exerts protective effects in acute lung injury, at least in part through the activation of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant pathways.
Hydrogen Sulfide Decreases Adenosine Triphosphate Levels in Aortic Rings and Leads to Vasorelaxation Via Metabolic Inhibition
Life Sciences. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18790700
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) at low concentrations serves as a physiological endogenous vasodilator molecule, while at higher concentrations it can trigger cytotoxic effects. The aim of our study was to elucidate the potential mechanisms responsible for the effects of H(2)S on vascular tone.
Alpha7 Cholinergic-agonist Prevents Systemic Inflammation and Improves Survival During Resuscitation
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19602049
Severe haemorrhage is a common cause of death despite the recent advances in critical care. Conventional resuscitation fluids are designed to re-establish tissue perfusion, but they fail to prevent inflammatory responses during resuscitation. Our previous studies indicated that the vagus nerve can modulate systemic inflammation via the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (alpha7nAchR). Here, we report that the alpha7nAChR-agonist, GTS, restrains systemic inflammation and improves survival during resuscitation. Resuscitation with GTS rescued all the animals from lethal haemorrhage in a concentration-dependent manner. Unlike conventional resuscitation fluids, GTS inhibited the production of characteristic inflammatory and cardiodepressant factors including tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and high mobility group B protein-1 (HMGB1). Resuscitation with GTS was particularly effective in restraining systemic TNF responses and inhibiting its production in the spleen. At the molecular level, GTS inhibited p65RelA but not RelB NF-kappaB during resuscitation. Unlike non-specific nicotinic agonists, GTS inhibited serum protein TNF levels in both normal and splenectomized, haemorrhagic animals. Resuscitation with GTS inhibited poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and systemic HMGB1 levels. Our studies suggest that GTS provides significant advantages as compared with non-specific nicotinic agonists, and it could be a promising anti-inflammatory supplement to improve survival during resuscitation.
Characterization of a Plasmopara Species on Ambrosia Artemisiifolia, and Notes on P. Halstedii, Based on Morphology and Multiple Gene Phylogenies
Mycological Research. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19619650
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is an invasive and highly allergenic plant species, on which two species, Plasmopara halstedii and Plasmopara angustiterminalis, have been recognized to cause downy mildew disease. In this study, morphological and molecular patterns of seven Plasmopara specimens collected from A. artemisiifolia in Canada, Hungary, and USA were compared with those of P. halstedii and P. angustiterminalis from Helianthus and Xanthium, respectively. Analyses of partial sequences of three genes, namely those for the large subunit (28S) of rDNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COX2), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit I (ND1) of mtDNA, were carried out to examine the phylogenetic relationships among these specimens using both Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods. All the phylogenetic analyses revealed that the downy mildew pathogens infecting A. artemisiifolia in Hungary and North America clearly represent a lineage distinct from other Plasmopara taxa investigated. The shape of sporangia and the width of trunks and branches also allowed the separation of the specimens parasitic to A. artemisiifolia from P. halstedii on Helianthus annuus and P. angustiterminalis on Xanthium strumarium. Surprisingly, the Hungarian and the Canadian specimens were more closely related to each other than to those from the USA based on COX2 and ND1 mtDNA data, although the D1/D2/D3 sequences of 28S rDNA were identical in all these Plasmopara specimens. The regional distribution of the mtDNA haplotypes seen in this study suggests a transatlantic migration has occurred and would be interesting to follow up with a more detailed sampling. To investigate the diversity within P. halstedii sensu lato, infecting different host plant species, specimens from six asteraceous genera, Ambrosia, Flaveria, Helianthus, Siegesbeckia, Solidago, and Xanthium, were also included in molecular analyses. These represented six distinct lineages according to the host plant genera. These findings might serve as a basis for a taxonomical reassessment of the P. halstedii complex and also for the delimitation of several well-defined species within this complex.
Dual Roles of Reactive Oxygen Species and NADPH Oxidase RBOHD in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria Pathosystem
Plant Physiology. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19726575
Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) NADPH oxidases have been reported to suppress the spread of pathogen- and salicylic acid-induced cell death. Here, we present dual roles of RBOHD (for respiratory burst oxidase homolog D) in an Arabidopsis-Alternaria pathosystem, suggesting either initiation or prevention of cell death dependent on the distance from pathogen attack. Our data demonstrate that a rbohD knockout mutant exhibits increased spread of cell death at the macroscopic level upon inoculation with the fungus Alternaria brassicicola. However, the cellular patterns of reactive oxygen species accumulation and cell death are fundamentally different in the AtrbohD mutant compared with the wild type. Functional RBOHD causes marked extracellular hydrogen peroxide accumulation as well as cell death in distinct, single cells of A. brassicicola-infected wild-type plants. This single cell response is missing in the AtrbohD mutant, where infection triggers spreading-type necrosis preceded by less distinct chloroplastic hydrogen peroxide accumulation in large clusters of cells. While the salicylic acid analog benzothiadiazole induces the action of RBOHD and the development of cell death in infected tissues, the ethylene inhibitor aminoethoxyvinylglycine inhibits cell death, indicating that both salicylic acid and ethylene positively regulate RBOHD and cell death. Moreover, A. brassicicola-infected AtrbohD plants hyperaccumulate ethylene and free salicylic acid compared with the wild type, suggesting negative feedback regulation of salicylic acid and ethylene by RBOHD. We propose that functional RBOHD triggers death in cells that are damaged by fungal infection but simultaneously inhibits death in neighboring cells through the suppression of free salicylic acid and ethylene levels.
Mesenchymal Stem Cells Rescue Cardiomyoblasts from Cell Death in an in Vitro Ischemia Model Via Direct Cell-to-cell Connections
BMC Cell Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20406471
Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are promising candidates for cell based therapies in myocardial infarction. However, the exact underlying cellular mechanisms are still not fully understood. Our aim was to explore the possible role of direct cell-to-cell interaction between ischemic H9c2 cardiomyoblasts and normal MSCs. Using an in vitro ischemia model of 150 minutes of oxygen glucose deprivation we investigated cell viability and cell interactions with confocal microscopy and flow cytometry.
Orvosi Hetilap. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20570795
The haematoma in the sheath of musculus rectus abdominis is a rare clinical entity. Its diagnosis is often difficult. Authors observed it in three patients who were on anticoagulant therapy. All subjects were female; two of them had decreased renal function. All three patients received thrombocyte aggregation inhibitor therapy as well. The anticoagulant treatment (low molecular weight heparin in two cases, warfarin in one case) caused excessive anticoagulant effect. The diagnosis, which could be suspected after the physical examination, was established in two cases by ultrasonography and in one case by computed tomography. Two patients were surgically treated while the third patient was healed with conservative treatment. To prevent the rectus sheath haematoma, authors suggest a particularly careful control of anticoagulant treatment in older females and in subjects with decreased renal function, especially if the patient takes thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors, too.
Recombinant Human Activated Protein C Attenuates Cardiovascular and Microcirculatory Dysfunction in Acute Lung Injury and Septic Shock
Critical Care (London, England). 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21110850
This prospective, randomized, controlled, experimental animal study looks at the effects of recombinant human activated protein C (rhAPC) on global hemodynamics and microcirculation in ovine acute lung injury (ALI) and septic shock, resulting from smoke inhalation injury.
Current Developments in the Therapeutic Potential of S-Nitrosoglutathione, an Endogenous NO-Donor Molecule
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21235457
Nitric oxide (NO) has a role in many physiological processes and its decreased concentration can lead to several pathophysiological events, therefore it is of considerable importance to find and to characterize suitable NO-donors for clinical use. S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) are promising candidates for such therapeutics because these molecules do not appear to induce tolerance and were shown to be effective in several disease models. One of the main endogenous nitrosothiols is S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which was tested as a therapeutic agent in 15 human investigations with good results. Despite the proven benefits of GSNO this molecule is not yet present in any pharmaceutical composition. The problem with the use of nitrosothiols is their fast and often unpredictable rate of decomposition in aqueous solutions. In this article we review current developments in the field which relate to the clinical applications of GSNO and other nitrosothiols in indications such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, embolization prevention or diabetic leg ulcers. The review focuses on the chemical and biological data which support the therapeutic use of GSNO and highlights areas where further research is needed.
Temporal Isolation Explains Host-related Genetic Differentiation in a Group of Widespread Mycoparasitic Fungi
Molecular Ecology. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21261766
Understanding the mechanisms responsible for divergence and specialization of pathogens on different hosts is of fundamental importance, especially in the context of the emergence of new diseases via host shifts. Temporal isolation has been reported in a few plants and parasites, but is probably one of the least studied speciation processes. We studied whether temporal isolation could be responsible for the maintenance of genetic differentiation among sympatric populations of Ampelomyces, widespread intracellular mycoparasites of powdery mildew fungi, themselves plant pathogens. The timing of transmission of Ampelomyces depends on the life cycles of the powdery mildew species they parasitize. Internal transcribed spacer sequences and microsatellite markers showed that Ampelomyces populations found in apple powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) were genetically highly differentiated from other Ampelomyces populations sampled from several other powdery mildew species across Europe, infecting plant hosts other than apple. While P. leucotricha starts its life cycle early in spring, and the main apple powdery mildew epidemics occur before summer, the fungal hosts of the other Ampelomyces cause epidemics mainly in summer and autumn. When two powdery mildew species were experimentally exposed to Ampelomyces strains naturally occurring in P. leucotricha in spring, and to strains naturally present in other mycohost species in autumn, cross-infections always occurred. Thus, the host-related genetic differentiation in Ampelomyces cannot be explained by narrow physiological specialization, because Ampelomyces were able to infect powdery mildew species they were unlikely to have encountered in nature, but instead appears to result from temporal isolation.
Nuclear and Chloroplast Microsatellites Show Multiple Introductions in the Worldwide Invasion History of Common Ragweed, Ambrosia Artemisiifolia
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21423697
Ambrosia artemisiifolia is a North American native that has become one of the most problematic invasive plants in Europe and Asia. We studied its worldwide population genetic structure, using both nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers and an unprecedented large population sampling. Our goals were (i) to identify the sources of the invasive populations; (ii) to assess whether all invasive populations were founded by multiple introductions, as previously found in France; (iii) to examine how the introductions have affected the amount and structure of genetic variation in Europe; (iv) to document how the colonization of Europe proceeded; (v) to check whether populations exhibit significant heterozygote deficiencies, as previously observed.
Human Internal Thoracic Artery Grafts Exhibit Severe Morphological and Functional Damage and Spasmic Vasomotion Due to Oxidative Stress
Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21709636
The internal thoracic artery (ITA) is the first choice for myocardial revascularization, but atherosclerotic lesions and perioperative vasospasm may still limit its functionality. Oxidative stress via the peroxynitrite - poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cascade plays an important role in the pathogenesis of impaired vascular tone via endothelial injury. We aimed to investigate and describe the histology, PARP activation and functionality of ITA grafts and to assess the possible beneficial effect of PARP-inhibition.
Shock (Augusta, Ga.). Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20577150
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome is associated with excessive production of nitric oxide (NO·) and superoxide (O2), forming peroxynitrite, which in turn, acts as a terminal mediator of cellular injury by producing cell necrosis and apoptosis. We examined the effect of the peroxynitrite decomposition catalyst, WW-85, in a sheep model of acute lung injury and septic shock. Eighteen sheep were operatively prepared and randomly allocated to the sham, control, or WW-85 group (n = 6 each). After a tracheotomy, acute lung injury was produced in the control and WW-85 groups by insufflation of four sets of 12 breaths of cotton smoke. Then, a 30-mL suspension of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria (containing 2 - 5 × 10¹¹ colony-forming units) was instilled into the lungs according to an established protocol. The sham group received only the vehicle (30 mL saline). The sheep were studied in awake state for 24 h and ventilated with 100% oxygen. WW-85 was administered 1 h after injury as bolus infusion (0.1 mg/kg), followed by a continuous infusion of 0.02 mg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹ until the end of the 24-h experimental period. Compared with injured but untreated controls, WW-85-treated animals had significantly improved gas exchange, reductions in airway obstruction, shunt formation, lung myeloperoxidase concentrations, lung malondialdehyde concentrations, lung 3-nitrotyrosine concentrations, and plasma nitrate-to-nitrite levels. Animals treated with WW-85 exhibited less microvascular leakage and improvements in pulmonary function. These results provide evidence that blockade of the nitric oxide-peroxynitrite pathway improves disturbances from septic shock, as demonstrated in a clinically relevant ovine experimental model.
The Role of Mitochondria in Direct Cell-to-cell Connection Dependent Rescue of Postischemic Cardiomyoblasts
Mitochondrion. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21983690
In this in vitro study we induced ischemic injury on H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts using the oxygen-glucose deprivation model (OGD). We monitored if the addition of healthy or mitochondria-depleted cells can save OGD treated cells from post-ischemic injury. We were able to significantly improve the surviving cell number of oxidatively damaged H9c2 cells by the addition of healthy cells to the culture. On the contrary, cells with disturbed mitochondria did not increase the number of surviving cells. High-resolution confocal time-lapse imaging also proved that mitochondria are drifting from cell-to-cell through tunneling membrane bridges, however, they do not get into the cytoplasm of the other cell. We conclude that addition of healthy cells to severly injured post-ischemic cardiomyoblasts can rescue them from death during the first 24h after reoxigenation. Grafted cells must maintain their mitochondria in an actively respiring state, and although cell contact is required for the mechanism, neither cell fusion nor organelle transfer occurs. This novel mechanism opens a new possiblity for cell-based cardiac repair in ischemic heart disease.
The Cardioprotective Potential of Hydrogen Sulfide in Myocardial Ischemia/reperfusion Injury (review)
Acta Physiologica Hungarica. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22173019
Myocardial infarction is responsible for the majority of cardiovascular mortality and the pathogenesis of myocardial damage during and after the infarction involves reactive oxygen species. Serious efforts are under way to modulate the developing ischemia/reperfusion injury and recently the use of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emerged as a new possibility. H2S has been best known for decades as a pungent toxic gas in contaminated environmental atmosphere, but it has now been recognized as a novel gasotransmitter in the central nervous and cardiovascular systems, similarly to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO). This finding prompted the investigation of the potential of H2S as a cardioprotective agent and various in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that H2S may be of value in cytoprotection during the evolution of myocardial infarction. Although several questions remain to be elucidated about the properties of this new gasotransmitter, increased H2S levels may have therapeutic potential in clinical settings in which ischemia/reperfusion injury is encountered. This review article overviews the current understanding of the effects of this exciting molecule in the setting of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion.
Free Radical Research. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22149535
S-nitrosothiol (RSNO) solutions represent a valuable source of nitric oxide and could be used as topical vasodilators, but their fast decomposition rate poses a serious obstacle to their potentially widespread therapeutic use. Our aim was to characterize and quantify the effect of pH on S-nitrosothiol formation and decomposition in simple aqueous solutions of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), S-nitroso-N-acetylcysteine (SNAC) and S-nitroso-3-mercaptopropionic acid (SN3MPA). Furthermore, we investigated the effect of storage pH on the stability of GSNO incorporated in poly(ethylene glycol)/ poly(vinyl alcohol) matrices. S-nitrosothiol concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically and laser Doppler scanning method was used to assess dermal blood flow. GSH and NAC solutions reached a complete transformation to nitrosothiols when synthesized using acidic NaNO(2) solution. The initial concentration of all investigated RSNOs decreased more slowly with pH adjusted to mildly basic values (8.4-8.8) for the storage period. Polymer gels of PVA/PEG compositions at mildly basic storage pH further reduced the decomposition rate succeeding to contain 46.8% of the initial GSNO concentration for 25 days. This amount of topically administered GSNO was still capable of increasing the dermal blood flow over 200% in human subjects.
Characterization of Polygenic Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Tomato at Cytological, Biochemical and Gene Expression Level
Molecular Plant Pathology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21883866
Extensive research in the area of plant innate immunity has increased considerably our understanding of the molecular mechanisms associated with resistance controlled by a dominant resistance gene. In contrast, little is known about the molecular basis underlying the resistance conferred by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). In this study, using the interaction of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) with Oidium neolycopersici, we compared the cytological, biochemical and molecular mechanisms involved in both monogenic and polygenic resistances conferred by a dominant gene (Ol-1) and three QTLs (Ol-qtls), respectively. Our results showed that the three Ol-qtls jointly confer a very high level of broad-spectrum resistance and that the resistance is associated with both the hypersensitive response and papillae formation, with the hypersensitive response being prevalent. Both H(2)O(2) and callose accumulation, which are coupled with Ol-1-mediated resistance, are also associated with the resistance conferred by Ol-qtls. Further, we analysed the pathogen-induced transcript profiles of near-isogenic lines carrying the three Ol-qtls and the Ol-1 gene. Transcript profiles obtained by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis showed that, on fungal challenge, about 70% of the transcript-derived fragments are up-regulated in both susceptible and resistant genotypes. Most of the sequenced transcript-derived fragments showed homology to genes with functions in defence responses, suggesting that defence-responsive genes responsible for basal defence are involved in both monogenic and polygenic resistances conferred by Ol-1 and Ol-qtls, respectively. Although about 18% of the identified transcript-derived fragments are specific for either monogenic or polygenic resistance, their expression patterns need to be further verified by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.