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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Ling Shen in JoVE
Isolation and Primary Culture of Rat Hepatic Cells
Ling Shen1, Allix Hillebrand2, David Q.-H. Wang3, Min Liu1
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2American University in Washington, D.C., 3Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Primary hepatocytes provide a valuable tool to evaluate biochemical, molecular, and metabolic functions in a physiologically relevant experimental system. We describe a reliable protocol for rat in situ liver perfusion, which consistently generates viable hepatocytes up to 1.0 × 108 cells per preparation with cell viability between 88 ~ 96%.
Other articles by Ling Shen on PubMed
Nature. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21833088
Multiple sclerosis is a common disease of the central nervous system in which the interplay between inflammatory and neurodegenerative processes typically results in intermittent neurological disturbance followed by progressive accumulation of disability. Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are primarily responsible for the substantially increased frequency of the disease seen in the relatives of affected individuals, and systematic attempts to identify linkage in multiplex families have confirmed that variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) exerts the greatest individual effect on risk. Modestly powered genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have enabled more than 20 additional risk loci to be identified and have shown that multiple variants exerting modest individual effects have a key role in disease susceptibility. Most of the genetic architecture underlying susceptibility to the disease remains to be defined and is anticipated to require the analysis of sample sizes that are beyond the numbers currently available to individual research groups. In a collaborative GWAS involving 9,772 cases of European descent collected by 23 research groups working in 15 different countries, we have replicated almost all of the previously suggested associations and identified at least a further 29 novel susceptibility loci. Within the MHC we have refined the identity of the HLA-DRB1 risk alleles and confirmed that variation in the HLA-A gene underlies the independent protective effect attributable to the class I region. Immunologically relevant genes are significantly overrepresented among those mapping close to the identified loci and particularly implicate T-helper-cell differentiation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis.
The Journal of Antibiotics. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22027913
Virus Inhibition Activity of Effector Memory CD8(+) T Cells Determines Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Load in Vaccinated Monkeys After Vaccine Breakthrough Infection
Journal of Virology. May, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22419810
The goal of an effective AIDS vaccine is to generate immunity that will prevent human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Despite limited progress toward this goal, renewed optimism has followed the recent success of the RV144 vaccine trial in Thailand. However, the lack of complete protection in this trial suggests that breakthroughs, where infection occurs despite adequate vaccination, will be a reality for many vaccine candidates. We previously reported that neutralizing antibodies elicited by DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) boost vaccination with simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac239 (SIVmac239) Gag-Pol and Env provided protection against pathogenic SIVsmE660 acquisition after repeated mucosal challenge. Here, we report that SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells elicited by that vaccine lowered both peak and set-point viral loads in macaques that became infected despite vaccination. These SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells showed strong virus-inhibitory activity (VIA) and displayed an effector memory (EM) phenotype. VIA correlated with high levels of CD107a mobilization and perforin expression in SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Remarkably, both the frequency and the number of Gag CM9-specific public clonotypes were strongly correlated with VIA mediated by EM CD8(+) T cells. The ability to elicit such virus-specific EM CD8(+) T cells might contribute substantially to an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine, even after breakthrough infection.
Insulin Increases Central Apolipoprotein E Levels As Revealed by an Improved Technique for Collection of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Rats
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22691999
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides an invaluable analytical window to the central nervous system (CNS) because it reflects the dynamically changing complement of CNS constituents. We describe an improved method for sampling CSF in rats that is easy to perform. It has a 96% success rate of CSF collection and consistently yields large volumes (150-200 μl) of CSF. The blood contamination rate is also low (6%) as determined by both visual inspection and the lack of molecular detection of apolipoprotein B, a plasma-derived protein, which is absent in the CNS. This improved method of CSF sampling can have broad applicability in physiological and pharmacological evaluation for diverse CNS targets. We used this technique to provide proof of principle by examining the effect of intraperitoneal insulin on the level of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the CSF. Insulin (0.5 and 1 U/kg) led to a significant increase of insulin in both plasma and CSF at 2 h after intraperitoneal administration and decreased blood glucose for at least 2h. ApoE concentrations in CSF, but not in plasma, were also significantly increased, and its time-course was inversely correlated with the alterations in blood glucose over 2 h. These results provide a pharmacological validation of the novel CSF sampling and validation procedure for sampling rat CSF.