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In JoVE (1)
- Cryo-Elektron Tomografi ve Otomatik Sub-tomogram Ortalaması kullanarak HIV Zarf Glikoproteinler Moleküler Yapılarının Belirlenmesi
Other Publications (10)
- Pediatric Research
- The EMBO Journal
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- Molecular Biology of the Cell
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- PLoS Pathogens
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Bacteriology
- Journal of Structural Biology
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Articles by Lisa M. Hartnell in JoVE
Cryo-Elektron Tomografi ve Otomatik Sub-tomogram Ortalaması kullanarak HIV Zarf Glikoproteinler Moleküler Yapılarının Belirlenmesi
Joel R. Meyerson1,2, Tommi A. White1, Donald Bliss3, Amy Moran3, Alberto Bartesaghi1, Mario J. Borgnia1, M. Jason V. de la Cruz1, David Schauder1, Lisa M. Hartnell1, Rachna Nandwani1,4, Moez Dawood5, Brianna Kim6, Jun Hong Kim7, John Sununu8, Lisa Yang9, Siddhant Bhatia10, Carolyn Subramaniam1, Darrell E. Hurt11, Laurent Gaudreault12, Sriram Subramaniam1
1Laboratory of Cell Biology, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 2The Medical Research Council Mitochondrial Biology Unit, University of Cambridge, 3National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, 4Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5William Fremd High School, 6University of Virginia, 7Duke University, 8Yale University, 9University of Notre Dame, 10Washington University in St. Louis, 11Bioinformatics and Computational Biosciences Branch, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 12Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology
Protokol zarı proteinleri kullanarak kriyo-elektron tomografisi ve 3D görüntü işleme yapıları belirlemek için yüksek verimli bir yaklaşımı açıklar. Numune hazırlama, veri toplama, veri işleme ve yorumlama kapsar ve yaklaşım, HIV-1 zarf glikoprotein bir temsilcisi hedef üretim ile son bulur. Bu hesaplama prosedürleri, araştırmacılar ve öğrenciler uzaktan çalışma ve veri işleme ve yapısal analiz için katkıda bulunmayı sağlayan bir şekilde dizayn edilmiştir.
Other articles by Lisa M. Hartnell on PubMed
Nonsense Mutations in ADTB3A Cause Complete Deficiency of the Beta3A Subunit of Adaptor Complex-3 and Severe Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome Type 2
Pediatric Research. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11809908
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an autosomal recessive disease consisting of oculocutaneous albinism and a storage pool deficiency resulting from absent platelet dense bodies. The disorder is genetically heterogeneous. The majority of patients, including members of a large genetic isolate in northwest Puerto Rico, have mutations in HPS1. Another gene, ADTB3A, was shown to cause HPS-2 in two brothers having compound heterozygous mutations that allowed for residual production of the gene product, the beta3A subunit of adaptor complex-3 (AP-3). This heterotetrameric complex serves as a coat protein-mediating formation of intracellular vesicles, e.g. the melanosome and platelet dense body, from membranes of the trans-Golgi network. We determined the genomic organization of the human ADTB3A gene, with intron/exon boundaries, and describe a third patient with beta3A deficiency. This 5-y-old boy has two nonsense mutations, C1578T (R-->X) and G2028T (E-->X), which produce no ADTB3A mRNA and no beta3A protein. The associated mu3 subunit of AP-3 is also entirely absent. In fibroblasts, the cell biologic concomitant of this deficiency is robust and aberrant trafficking through the plasma membrane of LAMP-3, an integral lysosomal membrane protein normally carried directly to the lysosome. The clinical concomitant is a severe, G-CSF-responsive neutropenia in addition to oculocutaneous albinism and platelet storage pool deficiency. Our findings expand the molecular, cellular, and clinical spectrum of HPS-2 and call for an increased index of suspicion for this diagnosis among patients with features of albinism, bleeding, and neutropenia.
The Hermansky-Pudlak Syndrome 1 (HPS1) and HPS2 Genes Independently Contribute to the Production and Function of Platelet Dense Granules, Melanosomes, and Lysosomes
Blood. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11861280
Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is an inherited hemorrhagic disease affecting the related subcellular organelles platelet dense granules, lysosomes, and melanosomes. The mouse genes for HPS, pale ear and pearl, orthologous to the human HPS1 and HPS2 (ADTB3A) genes, encode a novel protein of unknown function and the beta(3)A subunit of the AP-3 adaptor complex, respectively. To test for in vivo interactions between these genes in the production and function of intracellular organelles, mice doubly homozygous for the 2 mutant genes were produced by appropriate breeding. Cooperation between the 2 genes in melanosome production was evident in increased hypopigmentation of the coat together with dramatic quantitative and qualitative alterations of melanosomes of the retinal pigment epithelium and choroid of double mutant mice. Lysosomal and platelet dense granule abnormalities, including hyposecretion of lysosomal enzymes from kidneys and depression of serotonin concentrations of platelet dense granules were likewise more severe in double than single mutants. Also, lysosomal enzyme concentrations were significantly increased in lungs of double mutant mice. Interaction between the 2 genes was specific in that effects on organelles were confined to melanosomes, lysosomes, and platelet dense granules. Together, the evidence indicates these 2 HPS genes function largely independently at the whole organism level to affect the production and function of all 3 organelles. Further, the increased lysosomal enzyme levels in lung of double mutant mice suggest a cause of a major clinical problem of HPS, lung fibrosis. Finally, doubly mutant HPS mice are a useful laboratory model for analysis of severe HPS phenotypes.
A Tubular EHD1-containing Compartment Involved in the Recycling of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Molecules to the Plasma Membrane
The EMBO Journal. Jun, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12032069
The Eps15 homology (EH) domain-containing protein, EHD1, has recently been ascribed a role in the recycling of receptors internalized by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. A subset of plasma membrane proteins can undergo internalization by a clathrin-independent pathway regulated by the small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6). Here, we report that endogenous EHD proteins, as well as transgenic tagged EHD1, are associated with long, membrane-bound tubules containing Arf6. EHD1 appears to induce tubule formation, which requires nucleotide cycling on Arf6 and intact microtubules. Mutations in the N-terminal P-loop domain or deletion of the C-terminal EH domain of EHD1 prevent association of EHD1 with tubules or induction of tubule formation. The EHD1 tubules contain internalized major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) molecules that normally traffic through the Arf6 pathway. Recycling assays show that overexpression of EHD1 enhances MHC-I recycling. These observations suggest an additional function of EHD1 as a tubule-inducing factor in the Arf6 pathway for recycling of plasma membrane proteins internalized by clathrin-independent endocytosis.
The Journal of Cell Biology. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15078903
The cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR) mediates sorting of lysosomal hydrolase precursors from the TGN to endosomes. After releasing the hydrolase precursors into the endosomal lumen, the unoccupied receptor returns to the TGN for further rounds of sorting. Here, we show that the mammalian retromer complex participates in this retrieval pathway. The hVps35 subunit of retromer interacts with the cytosolic domain of the CI-MPR. This interaction probably occurs in an endosomal compartment, where most of the retromer is localized. In particular, retromer is associated with tubular-vesicular profiles that emanate from early endosomes or from intermediates in the maturation from early to late endosomes. Depletion of retromer by RNA interference increases the lysosomal turnover of the CI-MPR, decreases cellular levels of lysosomal hydrolases, and causes swelling of lysosomes. These observations indicate that retromer prevents the delivery of the CI-MPR to lysosomes, probably by sequestration into endosome-derived tubules from where the receptor returns to the TGN.
Mutations in a Highly Conserved Region of the Arf1p Activator GEA2 Block Anterograde Golgi Transport but Not COPI Recruitment to Membranes
Molecular Biology of the Cell. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15930122
We have identified an important functional region of the yeast Arf1 activator Gea2p upstream of the catalytic Sec7 domain and characterized a set of temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants with amino acid substitutions in this region. These gea2-ts mutants block or slow transport of proteins traversing the secretory pathway at exit from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the early Golgi, and accumulate both ER and early Golgi membranes. No defects in two types of retrograde trafficking/sorting assays were observed. We find that a substantial amount of COPI is associated with Golgi membranes in the gea2-ts mutants, even after prolonged incubation at the nonpermissive temperature. COPI in these mutants is released from Golgi membranes by brefeldin A, a drug that binds directly to Gea2p and blocks Arf1 activation. Our results demonstrate that COPI function in sorting of at least three retrograde cargo proteins within the Golgi is not perturbed in these mutants, but that forward transport is severely inhibited. Hence this region of Gea2p upstream of the Sec7 domain plays a role in anterograde transport that is independent of its role in recruiting COPI for retrograde transport, at least of a subset of Golgi-ER cargo.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17360429
Signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis is initiated by the binding of extracellular ligands to a specialized family of methyl-accepting chemoreceptor proteins. Chemoreceptors cluster at distinct regions of the cell and form stable ternary complexes with the histidine autokinase CheA and the adapter protein CheW. Here we report the direct visualization and spatial organization of chemoreceptor arrays in intact Escherichia coli cells by using cryo-electron tomography and biochemical techniques. In wild-type cells, ternary complexes are arranged as an extended lattice, which may or may not be ordered, with significant variations in the size and specific location among cells in the same population. In the absence of CheA and CheW, chemoreceptors do not form observable clusters and are diffusely localized to the cell pole. At disproportionately high receptor levels, membrane invaginations containing nonfunctional, axially interacting receptor assemblies are formed. However, functional chemoreceptor arrays can be reestablished by increasing cellular levels of CheA and CheW. Our results demonstrate that chemotaxis in E. coli requires the presence of chemoreceptor arrays and that the formation of these arrays requires the scaffolding interactions of the signaling molecules CheA and CheW.
Ion-abrasion Scanning Electron Microscopy Reveals Surface-connected Tubular Conduits in HIV-infected Macrophages
PLoS Pathogens. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19779568
HIV-1-containing internal compartments are readily detected in images of thin sections from infected cells using conventional transmission electron microscopy, but the origin, connectivity, and 3D distribution of these compartments has remained controversial. Here, we report the 3D distribution of viruses in HIV-1-infected primary human macrophages using cryo-electron tomography and ion-abrasion scanning electron microscopy (IA-SEM), a recently developed approach for nanoscale 3D imaging of whole cells. Using IA-SEM, we show the presence of an extensive network of HIV-1-containing tubular compartments in infected macrophages, with diameters of approximately 150-200 nm, and lengths of up to approximately 5 microm that extend to the cell surface from vesicular compartments that contain assembling HIV-1 virions. These types of surface-connected tubular compartments are not observed in T cells infected with the 29/31 KE Gag-matrix mutant where the virus is targeted to multi-vesicular bodies and released into the extracellular medium. IA-SEM imaging also allows visualization of large sheet-like structures that extend outward from the surfaces of macrophages, which may bend and fold back to allow continual creation of viral compartments and virion-lined channels. This potential mechanism for efficient virus trafficking between the cell surface and interior may represent a subversion of pre-existing vesicular machinery for antigen capture, processing, sequestration, and presentation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20624966
The efficiency of HIV infection is greatly enhanced when the virus is delivered at conjugates between CD4+ T cells and virus-bearing antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages or dendritic cells via specialized structures known as virological synapses. Using ion abrasion SEM, electron tomography, and superresolution light microscopy, we have analyzed the spatial architecture of cell-cell contacts and distribution of HIV virions at virological synapses formed between mature dendritic cells and T cells. We demonstrate the striking envelopment of T cells by sheet-like membrane extensions derived from mature dendritic cells, resulting in a shielded region for formation of virological synapses. Within the synapse, filopodial extensions emanating from CD4+ T cells make contact with HIV virions sequestered deep within a 3D network of surface-accessible compartments in the dendritic cell. Viruses are detected at the membrane surfaces of both dendritic cells and T cells, but virions are not released passively at the synapse; instead, virus transfer requires the engagement of T-cell CD4 receptors. The relative seclusion of T cells from the extracellular milieu, the burial of the site of HIV transfer, and the receptor-dependent initiation of virion transfer by T cells highlight unique aspects of cell-cell HIV transmission.
Journal of Bacteriology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21148724
We present a cryo-electron tomographic analysis of the three-dimensional architecture of a strain of the Gram-negative bacterium Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus in which endogenous MreB2 was replaced with monomeric teal fluorescent protein (mTFP)-labeled MreB2. In contrast to wild-type Bdellovibrio cells that predominantly displayed a compact nucleoid region, cells expressing mTFP-labeled MreB2 displayed a twisted spiral organization of the nucleoid. The more open structure of the MreB2-mTFP nucleoids enabled clear in situ visualization of ribosomes decorating the periphery of the nucleoid. Ribosomes also bordered the edges of more compact nucleoids from both wild-type cells and mutant cells. Surprisingly, MreB2-mTFP localized to the interface between the spiral nucleoid and the cytoplasm, suggesting an intimate connection between nucleoid architecture and MreB arrangement. Further, in contrast to wild-type cells, where a single tight chemoreceptor cluster localizes close to the single polar flagellum, MreB2-mTFP cells often displayed extended chemoreceptor arrays present at one or both poles and displayed multiple or inaccurately positioned flagella. Our findings provide direct structural evidence for spiral organization of the bacterial nucleoid and suggest a possible role for MreB in regulation of nucleoid architecture and localization of the chemotaxis apparatus.
Journal of Structural Biology. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21907806
We report methodological advances that extend the current capabilities of ion-abrasion scanning electron microscopy (IA-SEM), also known as focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy, a newly emerging technology for high resolution imaging of large biological specimens in 3D. We establish protocols that enable the routine generation of 3D image stacks of entire plastic-embedded mammalian cells by IA-SEM at resolutions of ∼10-20nm at high contrast and with minimal artifacts from the focused ion beam. We build on these advances by describing a detailed approach for carrying out correlative live confocal microscopy and IA-SEM on the same cells. Finally, we demonstrate that by combining correlative imaging with newly developed tools for automated image processing, small 100nm-sized entities such as HIV-1 or gold beads can be localized in SEM image stacks of whole mammalian cells. We anticipate that these methods will add to the arsenal of tools available for investigating mechanisms underlying host-pathogen interactions, and more generally, the 3D subcellular architecture of mammalian cells and tissues.