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In JoVE (2)
- Isolation and Expansion of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor Cells Using the Neurosphere Assay
- Identification and Isolation of Slow-Dividing Cells in Human Glioblastoma Using Carboxy Fluorescein Succinimidyl Ester (CFSE)
Other Publications (7)
Articles by Loic P. Deleyrolle in JoVE
Isolation and Expansion of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme Tumor Cells Using the Neurosphere Assay
Hassan Azari1,2, Sebastien Millette1, Saeed Ansari1, Maryam Rahman1, Loic P. Deleyrolle1, Brent A. Reynolds1
1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Florida, 2Department of Anatomical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
This video protocol demonstrates the isolation and expansion of stem like cells from surgically resected human glioblastoma mutliforme (GBM) tumor tissue using the neurosphere assay culture method.
Identification and Isolation of Slow-Dividing Cells in Human Glioblastoma Using Carboxy Fluorescein Succinimidyl Ester (CFSE)
Loic P. Deleyrolle1, Mark R. Rohaus1, Jeff M. Fortin1, Brent A. Reynolds1, Hassan Azari1,2
1Department of Neurosurgery, The University of Florida, 2Department of Anatomical Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
This video protocol demonstrates the application of the fluorescent dye carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) for the identification and separation of different sub-populations of cells in human glioblastoma based on frequency of cell division.
Other articles by Loic P. Deleyrolle on PubMed
Isolation, Expansion, and Differentiation of Adult Mammalian Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells Using the Neurosphere Assay
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19378198
During development and continuing into adulthood, stem cells function as a reservoir of undifferentiated cell types, whose role is to support cell genesis in several tissues and organs. In the adult, they play an essential homeostatic role by replacing differentiated cells that are lost due to physiological turnover, injury, or disease. The discovery of such cells in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS), an organ traditionally thought to have little or no regenerative capacity, has opened the door to the possibility of designing innovative regenerative therapeutics, an unexpected concept in neurobiology 15 years ago. In 1992, to detect precursor cells in the adult brain, we employed a serum-free culture system whereby the majority of primary differentiated CNS cells did not survive but a small population of EGF-responsive cells were maintained in an undifferentiated state and proliferated to form clusters, called neurospheres (Reynolds and Weiss, Science 255:1707-1710, 1992). These neurospheres could be (a) dissociated to form numerous secondary spheres or (b) induced to differentiate, generating the three major cell types of the CNS. This chapter outlines the adult mammalian NSC culture methodology and provides technical details of the neurosphere assay to achieve reproducible cultures.
Progress in Brain Research. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19660648
The discovery of stem cells in the adult central nervous system implied the potential for endogenous repair and exogenous cell-based therapeutics. The development of experimental protocols, like the neurosphere assay and the neural-colony forming cell assay, enable the accurate and meaningful investigation of neural stem cell properties and allow the exploration of mechanisms related to the role of neural stem cells in aging and cancer.
Determination of Somatic and Cancer Stem Cell Self-renewing Symmetric Division Rate Using Sphere Assays
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21246056
Representing a renewable source for cell replacement, neural stem cells have received substantial attention in recent years. The neurosphere assay represents a method to detect the presence of neural stem cells, however owing to a deficiency of specific and definitive markers to identify them, their quantification and the rate they expand is still indefinite. Here we propose a mathematical interpretation of the neurosphere assay allowing actual measurement of neural stem cell symmetric division frequency. The algorithm of the modeling demonstrates a direct correlation between the overall cell fold expansion over time measured in the sphere assay and the rate stem cells expand via symmetric division. The model offers a methodology to evaluate specifically the effect of diseases and treatments on neural stem cell activity and function. Not only providing new insights in the evaluation of the kinetic features of neural stem cells, our modeling further contemplates cancer biology as cancer stem-like cells have been suggested to maintain tumor growth as somatic stem cells maintain tissue homeostasis. Indeed, tumor stem cell's resistance to therapy makes these cells a necessary target for effective treatment. The neurosphere assay mathematical model presented here allows the assessment of the rate malignant stem-like cells expand via symmetric division and the evaluation of the effects of therapeutics on the self-renewal and proliferative activity of this clinically relevant population that drive tumor growth and recurrence.
Brain : a Journal of Neurology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21515906
Individual tumour cells display diverse functional behaviours in terms of proliferation rate, cell-cell interactions, metastatic potential and sensitivity to therapy. Moreover, sequencing studies have demonstrated surprising levels of genetic diversity between individual patient tumours of the same type. Tumour heterogeneity presents a significant therapeutic challenge as diverse cell types within a tumour can respond differently to therapies, and inter-patient heterogeneity may prevent the development of general treatments for cancer. One strategy that may help overcome tumour heterogeneity is the identification of tumour sub-populations that drive specific disease pathologies for the development of therapies targeting these clinically relevant sub-populations. Here, we have identified a dye-retaining brain tumour population that displays all the hallmarks of a tumour-initiating sub-population. Using a limiting dilution transplantation assay in immunocompromised mice, label-retaining brain tumour cells display elevated tumour-initiation properties relative to the bulk population. Importantly, tumours generated from these label-retaining cells exhibit all the pathological features of the primary disease. Together, these findings confirm dye-retaining brain tumour cells exhibit tumour-initiation ability and are therefore viable targets for the development of therapeutics targeting this sub-population.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21618083
It has been thought for a long time that the adult brain is incapable of generating new neurons, or that neurons cannot be added to its complex circuitry. However, recent technology has resulted in an explosion of research demonstrating that neurogenesis, or the birth of new neurons from adult stem cells constitutively occurs in two specific regions of the mammalian brain; namely the subventricular zone and hippocampal dentate gyrus. Adult CNS stem cells exhibit three main characteristics: (1) they are "self-renewing," i.e., they possess a theoretically unlimited ability to produce progeny indistinguishable from themselves, (2) they are proliferative (undergoing mitosis) and (3) they are multipotent for the different neuroectodermal lineages of the CNS, including the different neuronal, and glial subtypes. CNS stem cells and all progenitor cell types are broadly termed "precursors." In this chapter, we describe methods to identify, isolate and experimentally manipulate stem cells of the adult brain. We outline how to prepare a precursor cell culture from naive brain tissue and how to test the "stemness" potential of different cell types present in that culture, which is achieved in a three-step paradigm. Following their isolation, stem/progenitor cells are expanded in neurosphere culture. Single cells obtained from these neurospheres are sorted for the expression of surface markers by flow cytometry. Finally, putative stem cells from cell sorting will be subjected to the so-called neural colony-forming cell assay, which allows discrimination between stem and progenitor cells. At the end of this chapter we will also describe how to identify neural stem cells in vivo.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21687800
Large-scale proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capabilities make neural stem cells (NSCs) a promising renewable source of cells for therapeutic applications. However, the practical application for neuronal cell replacement is limited by heterogeneity of NSC progeny, relatively low yield of neurons, predominance of astrocytes, poor survival of donor cells following transplantation and the potential for uncontrolled proliferation of precursor cells. To address these impediments, we have developed a method for the generation of highly enriched immature neurons from murine NSC progeny. Adaptation of the standard differentiation procedure in concert with flow cytometry selection, using scattered light and positive fluorescent light selection based on cell surface antibody binding, provided a near pure (97%) immature neuron population. Using the purified neurons, we screened a panel of growth factors and found that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) demonstrated a strong survival effect on the cells in vitro, and enhanced their functional maturity. This effect was maintained following transplantation into the adult mouse striatum where we observed a 2-fold increase in the survival of the implanted cells and a 3-fold increase in NeuN expression. Additionally, based on the neural-colony forming cell assay (N-CFCA), we noted a 64 fold reduction of the bona fide NSC frequency in neuronal cell population and that implanted donor cells showed no signs of excessive or uncontrolled proliferation. The ability to provide defined neural cell populations from renewable sources such as NSC may find application for cell replacement therapies in the central nervous system.
YB-1 Bridges Neural Stem Cells and Brain Tumor-initiating Cells Via Its Roles in Differentiation and Cell Growth
Cancer Research. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21730024
The Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) is upregulated in many human malignancies including glioblastoma (GBM). It is also essential for normal brain development, suggesting that YB-1 is part of a neural stem cell (NSC) network. Here, we show that YB-1 was highly expressed in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of mouse fetal brain tissues but not in terminally differentiated primary astrocytes. Conversely, YB-1 knockout mice had reduced Sox-2, nestin, and musashi-1 expression in the SVZ. Although primary murine neurospheres were rich in YB-1, its expression was lost during glial differentiation. Glial tumors often express NSC markers and tend to loose the cellular control that governs differentiation; therefore, we addressed whether YB-1 served a similar role in cancer cells. YB-1, Sox-2, musashi-1, Bmi-1, and nestin are coordinately expressed in SF188 cells and 9/9 GBM patient-derived primary brain tumor-initiating cells (BTIC). Silencing YB-1 with siRNA attenuated the expression of these NSC markers, reduced neurosphere growth, and triggered differentiation via coordinate loss of GSK3-β. Furthermore, differentiation of BTIC with 1% serum or bone morphogenetic protein-4 suppressed YB-1 protein expression. Likewise, YB-1 expression was lost during differentiation of normal human NSCs. Consistent with these observations, YB-1 expression increased with tumor grade (n = 49 cases). YB-1 was also coexpressed with Bmi-1 (Spearmans 0.80, P > 0.001) and Sox-2 (Spearmans 0.66, P > 0.001) based on the analysis of 282 cases of high-grade gliomas. These proteins were highly expressed in 10/15 (67%) of GBM patients that subsequently relapsed. In conclusion, YB-1 correlatively expresses with NSC markers where it functions to promote cell growth and inhibit differentiation.