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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Loredana Manfra in JoVE
Long-term Lethal Toxicity Test with the Crustacean Artemia franciscana
Loredana Manfra1, Federica Savorelli2, Marco Pisapia1, Erika Magaletti1, Anna Maria Cicero1
1Department of Environmental Quality Monitoring, Institute for Environmental Protection and Research, 2Regional Agency for Environmental Protection in Emilia-Romagna
This study concerns the development and standardization of a valuable methodological protocol to determine long-term (14 days) lethal toxicity exerted by chemical substances, industrial wastewater or sewage and liquid environmental samples on the saltwater crustacean, Artemia franciscana.
Other articles by Loredana Manfra on PubMed
Application of Nano-FIA-Direct-EI-MS to Determine Diethylene Glycol in Produced Formation Water Discharges and Seawater Samples
Chemosphere. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17499336
Diethylene glycol (DEG) is extensively used on offshore gas platforms to prevent the hydrate formation during the gas-water separation process and to inhibit corrosion events. This chemical might enter in the marine environment via the produced formation water (PFW) discharge. In this study, a new approach was applied to the investigation of the DEG content in PFW discharges and seawater samples from four gas installation platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy). The method includes an off-line solid-phase extraction/pre-concentration technique, followed by a nanoscale flow injection/direct-electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometric analysis. Direct-EI is a novel and miniaturized interface for directly coupling a liquid chromatograph with an electron ionization mass spectrometer. The capability to acquire EI spectra, and to operate in selected ion monitoring mode during actual sample analyses, allowed a precise quantification of DEG with a method limit of detection of 31microg/l. In addition, a careful evaluation of the matrix effect showed that, as opposed to electrospray ionization, the response of the Direct-EI interface was not affected by sample interferences.
Sediment Concentrations of Trace Metals in the Berre Lagoon (France): an Assessment of Contamination
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Apr, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17928937
This paper reports the concentrations of eight trace metals (Cr, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, As, Cd, and Hg) in the surficial sediments of the Berre lagoon. This is a typical Mediterranean lagoon, seriously affected by human activities since the 1930s, when it became one of the most important industrial sites in France. The overall range of concentrations is 38-428 mg kg(-1) for chromium, 50-151 mg kg(-1) for zinc, 11-48 mg kg(-1) for copper, 18-82 mg kg(-1) for lead, 18-56 mg kg(-1) for nickel, 4-10 mg kg(-1) for arsenic, 0.2-1.6 mg kg(-1) for cadmium, and 0.15-0.40 mg kg(-1) for mercury. The spatial distribution of concentrations largely mirrors the localization of major impact sources, with the most affected area restricted to a radius of a few kilometers from point sources, due to the environmental conditions of the outfall zone (fine sediments, low hydrodynamic regime, confinement), which favor the in situ accumulation of pollutants. The extent of contamination from trace metals in the lagoon sediments is evaluated through a three-pronged approach: (i) by comparison with other areas (see Table 3 for an up-to-date review of trace metal concentrations in lagoon systems and coastal regions of the world ocean); (ii) by evaluating the metal enrichment in the sediments through the calculation of concentration factors (CF) for each trace metal and by combining the CFs to estimate a Metal Pollution Index (MPI) taking into account the differences in toxicity of trace metals; and (iii) by defining a potential level of biological risk by the use of quality criteria such as the Threshold Effect Level (TEL) and Effects Range-Low (ER-L) benchmarks. On the basis of the calculated CFs, sediments appear as particularly enriched with Pb and Cd throughout the lagoon and with Cr and Zn at some sites. Although no site can be classified as "unpolluted" when looking at the calculated MPIs, two regions--the Vaïne pond and the southwestern area--have been identified as critical points of contamination. Trace metal inputs to the lagoon need to be kept under strict control in the future, with particular regard to Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cu that, on the basis of TEL and ER-L benchmarks, already appear associated with a potential biological risk.
Toxicity Evaluation of Diethylene Glycol and Its Combined Effects with Produced Waters of Off-shore Gas Platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy): Bioassays with Marine/estuarine Species
Marine Environmental Research. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22245535
Diethylene glycol (DEG) is commonly used to dehydrate natural gas in off-shore extraction plants and to prevent formation of gas hydrates. It may be released into the sea accidentally or in discharged produced waters (PWs). PWs samples from off-shore gas platforms in the Adriatic Sea (Italy) have been used in this study. The objectives of the study were: a) to evaluate the toxicity of DEG for marine organisms; b) to evaluate if a high DEG content in PWs may alter their toxicity; c) to verify whether the DEG threshold concentration established by the Italian legislation (3.5 g/l) for PWs discharged at sea is safe for marine environment. Ten different species (Vibrio fischeri, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Brachionus plicatilis, Artemia franciscana, Tigropus fulvus, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Crassostrea gigas, Tapes philippinarum and Dicentrarchus labrax) have been exposed to DEG; four of these species were also exposed to PWs in combination with DEG. The results showed that: a) DEG is not toxic at levels normally detected in Adriatic PWs; b) DEG in combination with PW showed mainly additive or synergistic effects; c) short-term bioassays showed that the DEG limit of 3.5 g/l could be acceptable.