JoVE   
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Biology

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Neuroscience

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Immunology and Infection

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Bioengineering

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Applied Physics

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Chemistry

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Behavior

  
You do not have subscription access to articles in this section. Learn more about access.

  JoVE Environment

|   

JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms I

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

Model Organisms II

You do not have subscription access to videos in this collection. Learn more about access.

In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (7)

Articles by Luis Ugozzoli in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

The Preparation of Primary Hematopoietic Cell Cultures From Murine Bone Marrow for Electroporation

1Gene Expression Division, Bio-Rad Laboratories, Inc


JoVE 1026

This procedure describes how to establish primary hematopoietic cell cultures from murine bone marrow and is followed by transfection using the Gene Pulser MXCell electroporation system.

Other articles by Luis Ugozzoli on PubMed

Fluorescent Multicolor Multiplex Homogeneous Assay for the Simultaneous Analysis of the Two Most Common Hemochromatosis Mutations

We report the development of a qualitative fluorescent multiplex homogeneous assay designed for the detection of the two most common hemochromatosis mutations using dual-labeled fluorescent probes. The assay is able to detect four allelic variants in a single closed tube using a single thermocycling protocol. The procedure combines the great sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction, the specificity provided by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization using the 5(') nuclease assay format, and the higher throughput of a multicolor fluorescence detection procedure. Genomic DNA was prepared from whole blood specimens using standard procedures. Following DNA sample preparation, two regions of the hemochromatosis gene (HFE) including the H63D and C282Y mutations were coamplified and detected in real-time by four different fluorescently labeled allele-specific oligonucleotide probes. Assay specificity was demonstrated by a blind methods comparison study that included 37 DNA samples from individuals with a known HFE genotype. Results from the study showed that the multicolor multiplex HFE assay unambiguously classified all possible genotypes for the HFE gene C282Y and H63D mutations(1). This technique will be useful for research and molecular diagnostic laboratories and can be easily adapted for the detection of other single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Linked Linear Amplification for Simultaneous Analysis of the Two Most Common Hemochromatosis Mutations

Two mutations in HFE, G845A (amino acid substitution C282Y) and C187G (H63D), are associated with hereditary hemochromatosis. We developed and validated a novel method, linked linear amplification (LLA), for detection of these two mutations.

Real-time Genotyping with Oligonucleotide Probes Containing Locked Nucleic Acids

Oligonucleotide probes containing locked nucleic acid (LNA) hybridize to complementary single-stranded target DNA sequences with an increased affinity compared to oligonucleotide DNA probes. As a consequence of the incorporation of LNA residues into the oligonucleotide sequence, the melting temperature of the oligonucleotide increases considerably, thus allowing the successful use of shorter LNA probes as allele-specific tools in genotyping assays. In this article, we report the use of probes containing LNA residues for the development of qualitative fluorescent multiplex assays for the detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in real-time polymerase chain reaction using the 5'-nuclease detection assay. We developed two applications that show the improved specificity of LNA probes in assays for allelic discrimination. The first application is a four-color 5'-nuclease assay for the detection of SNPs for two of the most common genetic factors involved in thrombotic risk, factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A. The second application is a two-color assay for the specific detection of the A-to-T tranversion in codon 6 of the beta-globin gene, responsible for sickle cell anemia. Both real-time genotyping assays were evaluated by comparing the performance of our method to that of a reference method and in both cases, we found a 100% concordance. This approach will be useful for research and molecular diagnostic laboratories in situations in which the specificity provided by oligonucleotide DNA probes is insufficient to discriminate between two DNA sequences that differ by only one nucleotide.

Four-color Multiplex 5' Nuclease Assay for the Simultaneous Detection of the Factor V Leiden and the Prothrombin G20210A Mutations

We developed a real-time multiplex four-color assay for the simultaneous detection of the factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PT) G20210A mutations in one closed tube using a single thermocycling protocol. The assay combines the power of multiplex PCR with the specificity provided by allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization using the 5' nuclease assay format. Human genomic DNA is prepared from whole blood with standard procedures. A 97-bp DNA sequence of the coagulation factor V gene is co-amplified with a 111-bp DNA sequence of the coagulation factor II (PT) gene using four PCR primers. In addition, the reactions included four differentially labeled ASO probes for the specific detection of the different FVL/PT G20210A genotypes. To evaluate the assay's performance characteristics, we performed a comparison of two methods. We analyzed DNA samples from 52 individuals with known FVL/PT G20210A genotypes that were previously genotyped with an assay that combined PCR with the use of restriction fragment length polymorphisms. We found a 100% concordance between the results generated by both methodologies. We conclude that the four-color multiplex assay is specific and reproducible for the detection of the FVL/PT G20210A mutations, and it can be easily adapted for the detection of other SNPs.

Multiplex Assays with Fluorescent Microbead Readout: a Powerful Tool for Mutation Detection

Four-color Multiplex Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction--overcoming Its Limitations

Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) conducted in real time is a powerful tool for measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in biological samples. Multiplex PCR is defined as the simultaneous amplification of two or more DNA (cDNA) targets in a single reaction vessel and may be carried out only using uniquely labeled probes for each target. Up to four genes can be detected in a multiplex 5' nuclease assay when using the appropriate instrument and the right combination of fluorophores. One of the more important advantages of multiplexing is a reduced sample requirement, which is especially important when sample material is scarce. Additional benefits are saving time on reaction setup and lower cost compared to singleplex reactions. Although multiplexing has several advantages over singleplex qRT-PCR, limited work has been done to show its feasibility. Few publications on four-color multiplex qRT-PCR have been reported, and to our knowledge no work has been done to explore the assay's limitations. In this paper, we report the first in-depth analysis of a four-gene multiplex qRT-PCR. To achieve a better understanding of the potential limitations of the qRT-PCR assay, we used in vitro transcribed RNA derived from four human genes. To emulate gene expression experiments, we developed a model system in which the in vitro transcripts were spiked with plant total RNA. This model allowed us to develop an artificial system closely resembling differential gene expression levels varying up to a million fold. We identified a single "universal" reaction condition that enabled optimal amplification in real time of up to four genes over a wide range of template concentrations. This study shows that multiplexing is a feasible approach applicable to most qRT-PCR assays performed with total RNA, independent of the expression levels of the genes under scrutiny.

Optimizing Electroporation Conditions in Primary and Other Difficult-to-transfect Cells

Electroporation is a valuable tool for nucleic acid delivery because it can be used for a wide variety of cell types. Many scientists are shifting toward the use of cell types that are more relevant to in vivo applications, including primary cells, which are considered difficult to transfect. The ability to electroporate these cell types with nucleic acid molecules of interest at a relatively high efficiency while maintaining cell viability is essential for elucidating the pathway(s) in which a gene product is involved. We present data demonstrating that by optimizing electroporation parameters, nucleic acid molecules can be delivered in a highly efficient manner. We display transfection results for primary and difficult-to-transfect cell types including human primary fibroblasts, human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Jurkat cells, and two neuroblastoma cell lines [SK-N-SH (human) and Neuro-2A (mouse)] with plasmid DNAs and siRNAs. Our data demonstrate that by determining proper electroporation conditions, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase mRNA was silenced in Jurkat cells when compared with negative control siRNA electroporations as early as 4 h post-transfection. Other experiments demonstrated that optimized electroporation conditions using a fluorescently labeled transfection control siRNA resulted in 75% transfection efficiency for Neuro-2A, 93% for human primary fibroblasts, and 94% for HUVEC cells, as analyzed by flow cytometry.

Waiting
simple hit counter