Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- Fotoblekning tester (FRAP & Flip) för att mäta Chromatin Protein Dynamics i Living embryonala stamceller
Other Publications (9)
This translation into Swedish was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Malka Nissim-Rafinia in JoVE
Fotoblekning tester (FRAP & Flip) för att mäta Chromatin Protein Dynamics i Living embryonala stamceller
Malka Nissim-Rafinia, Eran Meshorer
Department of Genetics, The Alexander Silberman Institute of Life Sciences, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Vi beskriver fotoblekning metoder inklusive fluorescens återhämtning efter fotoblekning (FRAP) och fluorescens Förlust i fotoblekning (Flip) för att övervaka kromatin protein dynamik i embryonala stamceller (ES-celler). Kromatin protein dynamik, vilket anses vara ett av sätten att studera kromatin plasticitet, är förstärkt i pluripotenta celler.
Other articles by Malka Nissim-Rafinia on PubMed
Trends in Genetics : TIG. Mar, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11858835
Inherited diseases are associated with profound phenotypic variability, which is affected strongly by genetic modifiers. The splicing machinery could be one such modifying system, through a mechanism involving splicing motifs and their interaction with a complex repertoire of splicing factors. Mutations in splicing motifs and changes in levels of splicing factors can result in different splicing patterns. Changes in the level of normal transcripts or in the relative pattern of different mRNA isoforms affect disease expression, leading to phenotypic variability. Here, we discuss the splicing machinery in terms of its significance in disease severity and its potential role as a genetic modifier.
Restoration of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Function by Splicing Modulation
EMBO Reports. Nov, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15472711
A significant fraction of disease-causing mutations affects pre-mRNA splicing. These mutations can generate both aberrant and correct transcripts, the level of which varies among different patients. An inverse correlation was found between this level and disease severity, suggesting a role for splicing regulation as a genetic modifier. Overexpression of splicing factors increased the level of correctly spliced RNA, transcribed from minigenes carrying disease-causing splicing mutations. However, whether this increase could restore the protein function was unknown. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of Htra2-beta1 and SC35 increases the level of normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) transcripts in cystic-fibrosis-derived epithelial cells carrying the 3849+10 kb C --> T splicing mutation. This led to activation of the CFTR channel and restoration of its function. Restoration was also obtained by sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, known to upregulate the expression of splicing factors. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of splicing modulation for genetic diseases caused by splicing mutations.
Trends in Genetics : TIG. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16039004
Disease severity correlates with the level of correctly spliced RNA transcribed from genes carrying splicing mutations and with the ratio of alternatively spliced isoforms. Hence, a role for splicing regulation as a genetic modifier has been suggested. Here we discuss recent experiments that provide direct evidence that changes in the level of splicing factors modulate the splicing pattern of disease-associated genes. Importantly, modulation of the splicing pattern led to regulation of the protein function and modification of disease severity.
Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17076271
A significant fraction of CF-causing mutations affects pre-mRNA splicing. These mutations can generate both aberrant and correct transcripts, the level of which varies among different patients. An inverse correlation was found between this level and disease severity, suggesting a role for splicing regulation as a genetic modifier. Subsequent studies showed that overexpression of splicing factors modulated the level of correctly spliced RNA, transcribed from minigenes carrying CF-causing splicing mutations. Overexpression of splicing factors also modulated the level of normal CFTR transcripts, transcribed from the endogenous CFTR allele carrying splicing mutations, in CF-derived epithelial cells. Several of the factors promoted higher level of correct CFTR transcripts. The increased level of normal transcripts led to activation of the CFTR channel and restoration of its function. Restoration was also obtained by sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, known to up-regulate the expression of splicing factors. These results highlight the role of the splicing machinery as a modifier of disease severity in patients carrying splicing mutations and shed a new light on the therapeutic potential of splicing modulation for genetic diseases caused by splicing mutations.
Nonsense-mediated MRNA Decay Affects Nonsense Transcript Levels and Governs Response of Cystic Fibrosis Patients to Gentamicin
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17290305
Aminoglycosides can readthrough premature termination codons (PTCs), permitting translation of full-length proteins. Previously we have found variable efficiency of readthrough in response to the aminoglycoside gentamicin among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, all carrying the W1282X nonsense mutation. Here we demonstrate that there are patients in whom the level of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) nonsense transcripts is markedly reduced, while in others it is significantly higher. Response to gentamicin was found only in patients with the higher level. We further investigated the possibility that the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) might vary among cells and hence governs the level of nonsense transcripts available for readthrough. Our results demonstrate differences in NMD efficiency of CFTR transcripts carrying the W1282X mutation among different epithelial cell lines derived from the same tissue. Variability was also found for 5 physiologic NMD substrates, RPL3, SC35 1.6 kb, SC35 1.7 kb, ASNS, and CARS. Importantly, our results demonstrate the existence of cells in which NMD of all transcripts was efficient and others in which the NMD was less efficient. Downregulation of NMD in cells carrying the W1282X mutation increased the level of CFTR nonsense transcripts and enhanced the CFTR chloride channel activity in response to gentamicin. Together our results suggest that the efficiency of NMD might vary and hence have an important role in governing the response to treatments aiming to promote readthrough of PTCs in many genetic diseases.
Effectiveness of PTC124 Treatment of Cystic Fibrosis Caused by Nonsense Mutations: a Prospective Phase II Trial
Lancet. Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18722008
In about 10% of patients worldwide and more than 50% of patients in Israel, cystic fibrosis results from nonsense mutations (premature stop codons) in the messenger RNA (mRNA) for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). PTC124 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that is designed to induce ribosomes to selectively read through premature stop codons during mRNA translation, to produce functional CFTR.
Cell Cycle (Georgetown, Tex.). Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19106602
Embryonic stem cells display wide-spread pervasive transcriptional output. Here, we propose that multiple simultaneous transcriptional states underlay pluripotency.
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19210577
The nuclear lamina is a proteinaceous structure located underneath the inner nuclear membrane (INM), where it associates with the peripheral chromatin. It contains lamins and lamin-associated proteins, including many integral proteins of the INM, chromatin modifying proteins, transcriptional repressors and structural proteins. A fraction of lamins is also present in the nucleoplasm, where it forms stable complexes and is associated with specific nucleoplasmic proteins. The lamins and their associated proteins are required for most nuclear activities, mitosis and for linking the nucleoplasm to all major cytoskeletal networks in the cytoplasm. Mutations in nuclear lamins and their associated proteins cause about 20 different diseases that are collectively called laminopathies'. This review concentrates mainly on lamins, their structure and their roles in DNA replication, chromatin organization, adult stem cell differentiation, aging, tumorogenesis and the lamin mutations leading to laminopathic diseases.
Nucleus (Austin, Tex.). Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21941115
The pluripotent genome is characterized by unique epigenetic features and a decondensed chromatin conformation. However, the relationship between epigenetic regulation and pluripotency is not altogether clear. Here, using an enhanced MEF/ESC fusion protocol, we compared the reprogramming potency and histone modifications of different embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines (R1, J1, E14, C57BL/6) and found that E14 ESCs are significantly less potent, with significantly reduced H3K9ac levels. Treatment of E14 ESCs with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi) increased H3K9ac levels and restored their reprogramming capacity. Microarray and H3K9ac ChIP-seq analyses, suggested increased extracellular matrix (ECM) activity following HDACi treatment in E14 ESCs. These data suggest that H3K9ac may predict pluripotency and that increasing pluripotency by HDAC inhibition acts through H3K9ac to enhance the activity of target genes involved in ECM production to support pluripotency.