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In JoVE (2)
- In situ Quantification of Pancreatic Beta-cell Mass in Mice
- Computer-assisted Large-scale Visualization and Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Mass, Size Distribution and Architecture
Other Publications (32)
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
- American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
- American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
- The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
- In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
- Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
- Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
- American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
- PloS One
- Journal of Cell Science
- Assay and Drug Development Technologies
- Biophysical Journal
- Annals of Surgery
- PloS One
Articles by Manami Hara in JoVE
In situ Quantification of Pancreatic Beta-cell Mass in Mice
Abraham Kim, German Kilimnik, Manami Hara
Department of Medicine, University of Chicago
The following protocol outlines the process of pancreatic dissection for virtual slice imaging, and the subsequent quantification of all GFP-tagged beta-cells in the entire pancreas.
Computer-assisted Large-scale Visualization and Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Mass, Size Distribution and Architecture
Abraham Kim1, German Kilimnik1, Charles Guo1, Joshua Sung1, Junghyo Jo2, Vipul Periwal2, Piotr Witkowski3, Philip Dilorio4, Manami Hara1
1Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 2Laboratory of Biological Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 3Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, 4Diabetes Division, University of Massachusetts
Novel computer-assisted methods of large-scale procurement and analysis of immunohistochemically stained pancreatic specimens are described: (1) Virtual Slice capture of the entire section; (2) Mass analysis of large-scale data; (3) Reconstruction of 2D Virtual Slices; (4) 3D islet mapping; and (5) Mathematical analysis.
Other articles by Manami Hara on PubMed
Insulin Resistance is Attenuated in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome with the Pro(12)Ala Polymorphism in the PPARgamma Gene
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11836319
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is common in women of reproductive age and is associated with a high risk for development of type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance, a key component in the pathogenesis of PCOS and glucose intolerance, is ameliorated by the thiazolidinediones, synthetic ligands for the PPARgamma. In the present study we have examined the relationship of the Pro(12)Ala polymorphism in the PPARgamma gene (PPARG) to clinical and hormonal features of PCOS. Two hundred and eighteen women with PCOS had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test, and blood was obtained for measurement of serum androgen levels. Sixty percent of the subjects were Caucasian, 26% were African-American, 6% were Hispanic, 6% were South Asian, and 2% were Middle-Eastern. Compared with Caucasians, the African-American group had a higher prevalence of diabetes (19% vs. 5%, respectively), were more obese (body mass index, 40.9 +/- 1.8 vs. 36.3 +/- 0.8 kg/m(2); P < 0.05), and were more insulin resistant. Twenty-eight of 218 subjects had the Ala allele, all in the heterozygous state. The frequency of the Ala allele varied among the groups: 0.01 in African-Americans, 0.08 in Caucasians, and 0.15 in Hispanics. Nondiabetic Caucasians with an Ala allele (Pro/Ala group) were more insulin sensitive than those in the Pro/Pro group, as evidenced by a lower homeostasis model assessment index (5.18 +/- 1.33 vs. 6.54 +/- 0.54; P < 0.05) and lower levels of insulin at both the fasting (132 +/- 27 vs. 165 +/- 12 pmol/liter; P = 0.03) and 2 h (688 +/- 103 vs. 10190 +/- 99 pmol/liter; P = 0.04) time points during the oral glucose tolerance test. We conclude that Pro(12)Ala in PPARG is a modifier of insulin resistance in Caucasian women with PCOS.
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11932299
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggests that variation in the gene encoding the cysteine protease calpain-10 influences susceptibility to type 2 diabetes. The present study was undertaken to determine whether variation in this gene is associated with quantitative traits pertinent to the pathogenesis of PCOS and diabetes. We studied 212 women with PCOS (124 white of European ancestry, 57 African-American, 13 Hispanic, 13 Asian-American, and 5 Middle-Eastern). Each subject was genotyped for 3 DNA polymorphisms in the calpain-10 gene associated with type 2 diabetes (SNP-43, -19, and -63). The white and African-American subjects were examined for association of these polymorphisms with phenotypic features of PCOS and type 2 diabetes. There were not enough individuals in the other groups for similar genotype/phenotype analyses. Nineteen (9%) of the 212 women with PCOS were diabetic and were not included in the genotype/phenotype analyses. Twelve (63%) of these subjects were African-American. Phenotypic traits in nondiabetic white probands did not differ whether analyzed for each individual SNP (SNP-43, -19, -63) or haplotype combination. Nor was there association of SNP-43, -19, or -63 with any of the phenotypic features of type 2 diabetes or PCOS in nondiabetic African-Americans. However, nondiabetic African-Americans with the 112/121-haplotype combination had significantly higher insulin levels, in response to an oral glucose challenge, as reflected in the area under the insulin curve (257,021 +/- 95,384 vs. 136,240 +/- 11,468 pmol/min; P = 0.03), compared with those with other haplotypes. This finding was particularly notable because the 112/121 subjects were less obese. The difference between groups in area under the insulin response curve remained significant (P = 0.002 by analysis of covariance) after adjustment for body mass index. In addition to its association with insulin levels in African-Americans, the 112/121-haplotype combination was associated with an approximate 2-fold increase in risk of PCOS in both African-Americans and whites.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jan, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12388130
We have generated transgenic mice that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the mouse insulin I gene promoter (MIP). The MIP-GFP mice develop normally and are indistinguishable from control animals with respect to glucose tolerance and pancreatic insulin content. Histological studies showed that the MIP-GFP mice had normal islet architecture with coexpression of insulin and GFP in the beta-cells of all islets. We observed GFP expression in islets from embryonic day E13.5 through adulthood. Studies of beta-cell function revealed no difference in glucose-induced intracellular calcium mobilization between islets from transgenic and control animals. We prepared single-cell suspensions from both isolated islets and whole pancreas from MIP-GFP-transgenic mice and sorted the beta-cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting based on their green fluorescence. These studies showed that 2.4 +/- 0.2% (n = 6) of the cells in the pancreas of newborn (P1) and 0.9 +/- 0.1% (n = 5) of 8-wk-old mice were beta-cells. The MIP-GFP-transgenic mouse may be a useful tool for studying beta-cell biology in normal and diabetic animals.
Diabetes. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14514633
To clarify the lineage relationship between cells that express the neural stem cell marker nestin and endocrine cells of the pancreas, we analyzed offspring of a cross between mice carrying a nestin promoter/enhancer-driven cre-recombinase (Nestin-cre) and C57BL/6J-Gtrosa26(tm1Sor) mice that carry a loxP-disrupted beta-galactosidase gene (Rosa26). In nestin-cre(+/tg);R26R(loxP/+) embryos, cre-recombinase was detected in association with nestin-positive cells in the pancreatic mesenchyme with some of the nestin-positive cells lining vascular channels. In postnatal mice, pancreatic beta-galactosidase expression was restricted to vascular endothelial cells of the islet and a subset of cells in the muscularis of arteries in a distribution identical to endogenous nestin expression. Ex vivo explants of mouse pancreatic ducts grew dense cultures that costained for nestin and beta-galactosidase, demonstrating recombination in vitro. The cultures could be differentiated into complex stereotypic structures that contain nestin- and insulin-expressing cells. Nestin-cre(+/tg);R26R(loxP/+)-derived duct cultures showed that insulin-positive cells were negative for beta-galactosidase. These results indicate that both in vivo and in vitro pancreatic endocrine cells arise independently of nestin-positive precursors. The apparent vascular nature of the nestin-positive cell population and the close association with endocrine cells suggest that nestin-positive cells play an important role in the growth and maintenance of the islet.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14983031
Insulin-producing cells normally occur only in the pancreas and thymus. Surprisingly, we found widespread insulin mRNA and protein expression in different diabetic mouse and rat models, including streptozotocin-treated mice and rats, ob/ob mice, and mice fed high-fat diets. We detected in diabetic mice proinsulin- and insulin-positive cells in the liver, adipose tissue, spleen, bone marrow, and thymus; many cells also produced glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide. By in situ nucleic acid hybridization, diabetic, but not nondiabetic, mouse liver exhibited insulin transcript-positive cells, indicating that insulin was synthesized by these cells. In transgenic mice that express GFP driven by the mouse insulin promoter, streptozotocin-induced diabetes led to the appearance of GFP-positive cells in liver, adipose tissue, and bone marrow; the fluorescent signals showed complete concordance with the presence of immunoreactive proinsulin. Hyperglycemia produced by glucose injections in nondiabetic mice led to the appearance of proinsulin- and insulin-positive cells within 3 days. Bone marrow transplantation experiments showed that most of the extrapancreatic proinsulin-producing cells originated from the bone marrow. Immunoreactive proinsulin- and insulin-positive cells were also detected in the liver, adipose tissue, and bone marrow of diabetic rats, indicating that extrapancreatic, extrathymic insulin production occurs in more than one species. These observations have implications for the regulation of insulin gene expression, modulation of self-tolerance by insulin gene expression, and strategies for the generation of insulin-producing cells for the treatment of diabetes.
Thyroid : Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15142366
The proband, a 9-year-old Hispanic female, presented with hair loss, strabismus, and weight gain. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) she was found to have severe primary hypothyroidism and a large pituitary mass. In addition, acanthosis nigricans, obesity, and hyperinsulinism were observed. Findings were similar in three of four siblings. Thyroid peroxidase antibodies were detected in the father and three of four siblings. Although all family members were obese, and hyperinsulinemia with high proinsulin and C-peptide was found in all except one sibling, only the mother and one child had overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. Because of the unusual association of autoimmune thyroid disease, insulin resistance and obesity rather than insulin deficiency, we searched for possible genetic abnormalities. The HLA haplotypes did not cosegregate with autoimmune thyroid disease or insulin resistance. Mutational analysis of known obesity genes was done. Leptin was not deficient, and sequencing of the proband's DNA showed no mutations in the perixisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, PPAR-gamma(2), PPAR-alpha or melanocortin 4 receptor genes. Maternally inherited diabetes and deafness was ruled out since no mutations were found in mitochondria DNA. Insulin receptor antibodies were not detected. In conclusion, the remarkably high incidence of childhood autoimmune hypothyroidism, pituitary enlargement, insulin resistance and obesity in this family is not linked to known HLA types or known gene defects.
American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology. Oct, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15163621
The use of biosynthetic fluorescent sensors is an important new approach for imaging Ca(2+) in cells. Genetically encoded indicators based on green fluorescent protein, calmodulin, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) have been utilized to measure Ca(2+) in nonmammalian transgenic organisms and provide information about the organization and regulation of Ca(2+) signaling events in vivo. However, expression of biosynthetic FRET-based Ca(2+) indicators in transgenic mammals has proven to be problematic. Here, we report transgenic expression of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) biosensor in mouse pancreas. We targeted expression of a yellow cameleon3.3er (YC3.3er) transgene with mouse insulin I promoter. YC3.3er protein expression was limited to pancreatic beta-cells within islets of Langerhans and absent in the exocrine pancreas and other tissues. Animals developed and matured normally; sensor expression was unaffected by age. Glucose tolerance in transgenic mice was also unaffected, indicating the transgenic biosensor did not impair endocrine pancreas function. ER Ca(2+) responses after administration of thapsigargin, carbachol, and glucose were measured in individual beta-cells of intact islets using confocal microscopy and confirmed the function of the biosensor. We conclude that controlling transgene transcription with a cell-specific promoter permits transgenic expression of FRET-based Ca(2+) sensors in mammals and that this approach will facilitate real-time optical imaging of signal transduction events in living tissues.
Association of the (AU)AT-rich Element Polymorphism in PPP1R3 with Hormonal and Metabolic Features of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15181086
Insulin resistance, a key factor in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), is associated with a reduction in activation of muscle glycogen synthase. A 5-bp insertion-deletion polymorphism in the (AU)AT-rich element (ARE) within the 3'-untranslated region of the gene encoding the muscle-specific glycogen-targeting subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PPP1R3) has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship of the ARE polymorphism with clinical and hormonal characteristics of women with PCOS. We studied 186 women with PCOS who had undergone a standard 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and measurement of serum androgen and SHBG levels. Among the largest cohort of nondiabetic subjects (Caucasian, n = 112), the presence of the deletion allele (ARE-2) was associated with insulin resistance and hyperandrogenemia. There was no association of the ARE polymorphism with body mass index or blood glucose concentration during the oral glucose tolerance test. Subjects who were homozygous for the insertion allele (ARE-1/1) had a mean insulin area under the curve (99,116 +/- 6,625 pmol/liter.min) that was significantly lower than that in either the heterozygous (ARE-1/2) (132,195 +/- 12,340 pmol/liter.min) or homozygous (ARE-2/2) (164,661 +/- 24,219 pmol/liter.min) deletion groups. In addition, ARE-1/1 subjects had significantly lower serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate compared with ARE-2/2 subjects (4.2 +/- 0.3 vs. 6.6 +/- 0.7 micromol/liter) and a trend toward lower levels of free testosterone (78.8 +/- 6.5 vs. 114.1 +/- 30.8 pmol/liter). Studies of diabetic and nondiabetic PCOS women of other racial and ethnic backgrounds will be necessary to assess the impact of this and other variants in PPP1R3 upon the phenotype and natural history of women with PCOS.
Transplantation. Aug, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15446323
Intrahepatic human islet transplantation has raised hopes for a cure for diabetes mellitus, especially in patients with type 1 diabetes; however, the need for a substantial amount of islets and, in many instances, repeated transplantations demonstrates underlying problems with this procedure, such as failure of angiogenesis and immunologic rejection. Studies using rodent models may be helpful in improving the success of islet transplantation. However, most of the studies using rodents for islet transplantation have been under the kidney capsule rather than the liver. Using islets from transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent protein under the control of mouse insulin I promoter, the authors have developed a method with which to visualize histologic and pathologic changes in intraportally transplanted islets and surrounding hepatic tissue using reflected light confocal imaging. Initial events 24 hr after islet transplantation in the liver include beta-cell loss and hepatic ischemic injuries.
Imaging Beta Cell Development in Real-time Using Pancreatic Explants from Mice with Green Fluorescent Protein-labeled Pancreatic Beta Cells
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal. Jan-Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15926862
We present a convenient method for monitoring pancreatic beta cell development in real-time, through in vitro culture of embryonic pancreatic explants from transgenic mice with a genetic tag for insulin-producing beta cells.
Electrophysiological Characterization of Pancreatic Islet Cells in the Mouse Insulin Promoter-green Fluorescent Protein Mouse
Endocrinology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16109783
We recently reported a transgenic [mouse insulin promoter (MIP)-green fluorescent protein (GFP)] mouse in which GFP expression is targeted to the pancreatic islet beta-cells to enable convenient identification of beta-cells as green cells. The GFP-expressing beta-cells of the MIP-GFP mouse were functionally indistinguishable from beta-cells of normal mice. Here we characterized the ionic channel properties and exocytosis of MIP-GFP mouse islet beta- and alpha-cells. Beta-cells displayed delayed rectifying K+ and high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels and exhibited Na+ currents only at hyperpolarized holding potential. Alpha-cells were nongreen and had both A-type and delayed rectifier K+ channels, both low-voltage-activated and high-voltage-activated Ca2+ channels, and displayed Na+ currents readily at -70 mV holding potential. Alpha-cells had ATP-sensitive K+ channel (KATP) channel density as high as that in beta-cells, and, surprisingly, alpha-cell KATP channels were more sensitive to ATP inhibition (IC50=0.16+/-0.03 mM) than beta-cell KATP channels (IC50=0.86+/-0.10 mM). Whereas alpha-cells were rather uniform in size [2-4.5 picofarad (pF)], beta-cells varied vastly in size (2-12 pF). Of note, small beta-cells (<4.5 pF) showed little exocytosis, whereas medium beta-cells (5-8 pF) exhibited vigorous exocytosis, but large beta-cells (>8 pF) had weaker exocytosis. We found no correlation between beta-cell size and their Ca2+ channel density, suggesting that Ca2+ influx may not be the cause of the heterogeneity in exocytotic responses. The MIP-GFP mouse therefore offers potential to further explore the functional heterogeneity in beta-cells of different sizes. The MIP-GFP mouse islet is therefore a reliable model to efficiently examine alpha-cell and beta-cell physiology and should greatly facilitate examination of their pathophysiology when the MIP-GFP mice are crossed with diabetic models.
The Fusion of Bone-marrow-derived Proinsulin-expressing Cells with Nerve Cells Underlies Diabetic Neuropathy
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16116088
Diabetic neuropathy is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. Here we show that, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rodents with neuropathy, a subpopulation of bone-marrow-derived cells marked by proinsulin expression migrates to and fuses with neurons in the sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglion (DRG), resulting in neuronal dysfunction and accelerated apoptosis. The absence or presence of proinsulin expression, which identifies the fusion cells, and not the disease state (nondiabetic vs. diabetic) of the rats from which the DRG neurons are isolated determines whether the DRG neurons show normal or abnormal calcium homeostasis and apoptosis. These results suggest that bone-marrow-derived cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications.
BioTechniques. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16206909
We describe a method to visualize green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled cells in intact organs through combined confocal and reflected laser light imaging. This method allows us a three-dimensional (3-D) view of specific cell types in situ. Imaging of tissues from transgenic mice in which the endothelial cells are labeled with GFP under the control of endothelial-specific tyrosine receptor kinase 2 (TIE2) shows the spatial distribution of the GFP-labeled endothelial cells in intact organs. We have used this method to examine the tissue necrosis in the intact heart and kidney resulting from myocardial and renal infarction. In myocardial infarction produced by surgically occluding the left anterior descending coronary artery, the border of the infarct was highly cellular and showed a disrupted endothelial network and scar tissue appearing as a dense layer of reflection. The induced renal infarction produced by ligating the renal artery in the pedicle showed a clear infarct border in the affected kidney. The 3-D reconstruction of specific cell types in the context of the surrounding tissues should be useful for studying the overall organization and the relationship between different structures in the intact organ in normal and disease states.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16368785
We have developed a method to visualize fluorescent protein-labeled beta-cells in the intact pancreas through combined reflection and confocal imaging. This method provides a 3-D view of the beta-cells in situ. Imaging of the pancreas from mouse insulin I promoter (MIP)-green (GFP) and red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic mice shows that islets, beta-cell clusters, and single beta-cells are not evenly distributed but are aligned along the large blood vessels. We also observe the solitary beta-cells in both fetal and adult mice and along the pancreatic and common bile ducts. We have imaged the developing endocrine cells in the embryos using neurogenin-3 (Ngn3)-GFP mice crossed with MIP-RFP mice. The dual-color-coded pancreas from embryos (E15.5) shows a large number of green Ngn3-expressing proendocrine cells with a smaller number of red beta-cells. The imaging technique that we have developed, coupled with the transgenic mice in which beta-cells and beta-cell progenitors are labeled with different fluorescent proteins, will be useful for studying pancreatic development and function in normal and disease states.
Insulin Regulates Islet Alpha-cell Function by Reducing KATP Channel Sensitivity to Adenosine 5'-triphosphate Inhibition
Endocrinology. May, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16455778
Glucose regulates pancreatic islet alpha-cell glucagon secretion directly by its metabolism to generate ATP in alpha-cells, and indirectly via stimulation of paracrine release of beta-cell secretory products, particularly insulin. How the cellular substrates of these pathways converge in the alpha-cell is not well known. We recently reported the use of the MIP-GFP (mouse insulin promoter-green fluorescent protein) mouse to reliably identify islet alpha- (non-green cells) and beta-cells (green cells), and characterized their ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channel properties, showing that alpha-cell K(ATP) channels exhibited a 5-fold higher sensitivity to ATP inhibition than beta-cell K(ATP) channels. Here, we show that insulin exerted paracrine regulation of alpha-cells by markedly reducing the sensitivity of alpha-cell K(ATP) channels to ATP (IC(50) = 0.18 and 0.50 mM in absence and presence of insulin, respectively). Insulin also desensitized beta-cell K(ATP) channels to ATP inhibition (IC(50) = 0.84 and 1.23 mM in absence and presence of insulin, respectively). Insulin effects on both islet cell K(ATP) channels were blocked by wortmannin, indicating that insulin acted on the insulin receptor-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway. Insulin did not affect alpha-cell A-type K(+) currents. Glutamate, known to also inhibit alpha-cell glucagon secretion, did not activate alpha-cell K(ATP) channel opening. We conclude that a major mechanism by which insulin exerts paracrine control on alpha-cells is by modulating its K(ATP) channel sensitivity to ATP block. This may be an underlying basis for the proposed sequential glucose-insulin regulation of alpha-cell glucagon secretion, which becomes distorted in diabetes, leading to dysregulated glucagon secretion.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16556844
Autoimmune destruction of beta cells is the predominant cause of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in humans and is modeled in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Many therapeutic interventions prevent the development of T1DM in NOD mice, but few can induce its reversal once established. Intervention with Freund's complete adjuvant, semi-allogeneic splenocytes, and temporary islet transplantation has been reported to cure NOD mice of established T1DM. Using the same approach, we report here that this treatment cured 32% of NOD mice of established diabetes (>340 milligrams per deciliter blood glucose), although beta cells in these mice were not derived from donor splenocytes.
Recovery of Islet Beta-cell Function in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Mice: an Indirect Role for the Spleen
Diabetes. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17130468
Limitations in islet beta-cell transplantation as a therapeutic option for type 1 diabetes have prompted renewed interest in islet regeneration as a source of new islets. In this study we tested whether severely diabetic adult C57BL/6 mice can regenerate beta-cells. Diabetes was induced in C57BL/6 mice with high-dose streptozotocin (160-170 mg/kg). In the absence of islet transplantation, all diabetic mice remained diabetic (blood glucose >400 mg/dl), and no spontaneous reversal of diabetes was observed. When syngeneic islets (200/mouse) were transplanted into these diabetic mice under a single kidney capsule, stable restoration of euglycemia for >/=120 days was achieved. Removal of the kidney bearing the transplanted islets at 120 days posttransplantation revealed significant restoration of endogenous beta-cell function. This restoration of islet function was associated with increased beta-cell mass, as well as beta-cell hypertrophy and proliferation. The restoration of islet cell function was facilitated by the presence of a spleen; however, the facilitation was not due to the direct differentiation of spleen-derived cells into beta-cells. This study supports the possibility of restoring beta-cell function in diabetic individuals and points to a role for the spleen in facilitating this process.
Gastroenterology. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18241861
Pancreatic beta-cell mass increases in response to increased demand for insulin, but the factors involved are largely unknown. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a growth factor that plays a role in the development and survival of the enteric nervous system. We investigated the role of GDNF in regulating beta-cell survival.
Generation of Embryonic Stem Cells from Mouse Insulin I Promoter-green Fluorescent Protein Transgenic Mice and Characterization in a Teratoma Model
In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal. Jan-Feb, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18855079
Insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus. Potential new treatments for this disease include cell-replacement therapies using embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We have generated ESCs from a transgenic mouse model, mouse insulin 1 promoter (MIP) green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice, in which embryonic and adult beta cells are genetically tagged with GFP. The aim of the present study is to examine the differentiation potential of MIP-GFP ESCs in the microenvironment of the kidney capsule. The ESCs grew rapidly and formed a teratoma with GFP-expressing beta-like cells present in clusters that formed a cord-like structure similar to what is seen in the embryonic pancreas. These structures also included glucagon-expressing alpha cells and amylase-expressing acinar cells. Electron microscopic analysis showed insulin-like granules in columnar epithelium with microvilli adjacent to exocrine-like granule-containing cells. The MIP-GFP ESCs should be a useful research tool to study the differentiation capacity of ESCs toward pancreatic lineages.
Role of HNF-1alpha in Regulating the Expression of Genes Involved in Cellular Growth and Proliferation in Pancreatic Beta-cells
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19181415
Hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1alpha is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. Humans heterozygous for mutations in the HNF-1alpha gene develop maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY3), which is associated with reduced insulin secretion. The mechanisms responsible for defective glucose-induced insulin secretion due to HNF-1alpha deficiency are complex. In order to explore the relationship between HNF-1alpha and beta-cell proliferation, we have created a novel animal model. Mice lacking one allele of the HNF-1alpha gene were crossed with transgenic mice expressing the large T antigen driven by the rat insulin II promoter (RIP). The resulting mouse strains allowed us to study the effect of HNF-1alpha deficiency on the extensive beta-cell proliferation that occurs in these mice. Our results indicate that deficiency of HNF-1alpha severely constrains the extent of beta-cell proliferation occurring in RIP-Tag mice leading to significant changes in blood glucose concentrations as a result of reduced beta-cell number, insulin content, insulin secretion and intracellular responses in Ca(2+). Furthermore expression profiling studies using immortalized cell lines generated from HNF-1alpha/RIP-Tag mice showed changes in expression of genes involved in cellular growth and proliferation. These results provide insights into the mechanisms whereby HNF-1alpha affects beta-cell function.
Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19595468
Emerging reports on human islets emphasize distinct differences from the widely accepted prototype of rodent islets, raising questions over their suitability for human studies. Here we aim at elucidating architectural differences and similarities of human versus rodent islets. The cellular composition and architecture of human and rodent islets were compared through three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions. Physiological and pathological changes were examined using islets from various mouse models such as non-obese diabetic (NOD), ob/ob, db/db mice and during pregnancy. A subpopulation of human islets is composed of clusters of alpha-cells within the central beta-cell cores, while the overall proportion of alpha-cells varies among islets. In mouse islets under normal conditions, alpha-cells are localized in the islet periphery, but they do not envelop the entire beta-cell core, so that beta-cells are exposed on the outer layer of the islet, as in most human islets. Also, an increased proportion of alpha-cells within the central core is observed in the pancreas of mouse models exhibiting increased demand for insulin. In summary, human and mouse islets share common architectural features as endocrine micro-organs. Since these may hold a key to better understanding islet plasticity, our concept of the prototypic islet should be revised.
American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19808908
Tracing changes of specific cell populations in health and disease is an important goal of biomedical research. Precisely monitoring pancreatic beta-cell proliferation and islet growth is a challenging area of research. We have developed a method to capture the distribution of beta-cells in the intact pancreas of transgenic mice with fluorescence-tagged beta-cells with a macro written for ImageJ (rsb.info.nih.gov/ij/). Total beta-cell area and islet number and size distribution are quantified with reference to specific parameters and location for each islet and for small clusters of beta-cells. The entire distribution of islets can now be plotted in three dimensions, and the information from the distribution on the size and shape of each islet allows a quantitative and a qualitative comparison of changes in overall beta-cell area at a glance.
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19893748
The islet of Langerhans is a unique micro-organ within the exocrine pancreas, which is composed of insulin-secreting beta-cells, glucagon-secreting alpha-cells, somatostatin-secreting delta-cells, pancreatic polypeptide-secreting PP cells and ghrelin-secreting epsilon-cells. Islets also contain non-endocrine cell types such as endothelial cells. However, the mechanism(s) of islet formation is poorly understood due to technical difficulties in capturing this dynamic event in situ. We have developed a method to monitor beta-cell proliferation and islet formation in the intact pancreas using transgenic mice in which the beta-cells are specifically tagged with a fluorescent protein. Endocrine cells proliferate contiguously, forming branched cord-like structures in both embryos and neonates. Our study has revealed long stretches of interconnected islets located along large blood vessels in the neonatal pancreas. Alpha-cells span the elongated islet-like structures, which we hypothesize represent sites of fission and facilitate the eventual formation of discrete islets. We propose that islet formation occurs by a process of fission following contiguous endocrine cell proliferation, rather than by local aggregation or fusion of isolated beta-cells and islets. Mathematical modeling of the fission process in the neonatal islet formation is also presented.
Islets. Sep-Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20606719
Emerging reports on the organization of the different hormone-secreting cell types (alpha, glucagon; beta, insulin; and delta, somatostatin) in human islets have emphasized the distinct differences between human and mouse islets, raising questions about the relevance of studies of mouse islets to human islet physiology. Here, we examine the differences and similarities between the architecture of human and mouse islets. We studied islets from various mouse models including ob/ob and db/db and pregnant mice. We also examined the islets of monkeys, pigs, rabbits and birds for further comparisons. Despite differences in overall body and pancreas size as well as total beta-cell mass among these species, the distribution of their islet sizes closely overlaps, except in the bird pancreas in which the delta-cell population predominates (both in singlets and clusters) along with a small number of islets. Markedly large islets (>10,000 mum(2)) were observed in human and monkey islets as well as in islets from ob/ob and pregnant mice. The fraction of alpha-, beta- and delta-cells within an islet varied between islets in all the species examined. Furthermore, there was variability in the distribution of alpha- and delta-cells within the same species. In summary, human and mouse islets share common architectural features that may reflect demand for insulin. Comparative studies of islet architecture may lead to a better understanding of islet development and function.
Synthesized Basement Membranes Direct the Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells into Pancreatic Lineages
Journal of Cell Science. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20647375
We previously reported that embryonic stem (ES) cells cultured on M15 cells, a mesoderm-derived supportive cell line, were efficiently differentiated towards an endodermal fate, finally adopting the specific lineages of various digestive organs such as the pancreas and liver. We show here that the endoderm-inducing activity of M15 cells is in part mediated through the extracellular matrices, and that laminin alpha5 is one of the crucial components. In an attempt to establish a feeder-free ES-cell procedure for pancreatic differentiation, we used a synthesized basement membrane (sBM) substratum using an HEK293 cell line stably expressing laminin-511. On the sBM, mouse ES or induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells sequentially differentiated into the definitive endoderm, pancreatic progenitor cells, and then insulin-expressing pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. Knockdown of ES cells with integrin beta1 (Itgb1) reduces differentiation towards pancreatic cells. Heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2) knockdown and heparitinase treatment synergistically decreased the number of Pdx1-expressing cells. These findings indicate that components of the basement membrane have an important role in the differentiation of definitive endoderm lineages. This novel procedure will be useful for the study of pancreatic differentiation of ES or iPS cells and the generation of potential sources of surrogate cells for regenerative medicine.
Islets. May-Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20657742
The pancreatic islet displays diverse patterns of endocrine cell arrangement. The prototypic islet, with insulin-secreting beta-cells forming the core surrounded by other endocrine cells in the periphery, is largely based on studies of normal rodent islets. Recent reports on large animals, including humans, show a difference in islet architecture, in which the endocrine cells are randomly distributed throughout the islet. This particular species difference has raised concerns regarding the interpretation of data based on rodent studies to humans. On the other hand, further variations have been reported in marsupials and some nonhuman primates, which possess an inverted ratio of beta-cells to other endocrine cells. This review discusses the striking plasticity of islet architecture and cellular composition among various species including changes in response to metabolic states within a single species. We propose that this plasticity reflects evolutionary acquired adaptation induced by altered physiological conditions, rather than inherent disparities between species.
Intraislet Production of GLP-1 by Activation of Prohormone Convertase 1/3 in Pancreatic α-cells in Mouse Models of ß-cell Regeneration
Islets. May-Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20657753
The islet of Langerhans is a highly vascularized micro-organ consisting of not only ß-cells but multiple cell types such as α-, delta-, pancreatic polypeptide- and epsilon-cells that work together to regulate glucose homeostatis. We have recently proposed a new model of the neonatal islet formation in mice by a process of fission following contiguous endocrine cell proliferation in the form of branched cord-like structures in embryos and newborns. There exist large stretches of interconnected islet structures along large blood vessels in the neonatal pancreas, which, upon further development, segregate into smaller fragments (i.e., islets) that eventually become more spherical by internal proliferation as seen in the adult pancreas. α-cells span these elongated islet-like structures in the developing pancreas, which we hypothesize represent sites of fission and facilitate the eventual formation of discrete islets. The α-cells express both prohormone convertase 2 and 1/3 (PC 2 and PC 1/3, respectively), which resulted in the processing of the proglucagon precursor into glucagon-like peptide 1, thereby leading to local production of this important ß-cell growth factor. Furthermore, while α-cells in the adult basically only express PC 2, significant activation of PC 1/3 is also observed in mouse models of insulin resistance such as pregnant, ob/ ob, db/db and prediabetic NOD mice, which may be a common mechanism in proliferating ß-cells. Our study suggests an important role of α-cells for ß-cell proliferation and further for the endocrine cell network within an islet.
GSK-3 Inactivation or Depletion Promotes β-cell Replication Via Down Regulation of the CDK Inhibitor, P27 (Kip1)
Islets. Jan-Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21278490
Diabetes (T1DM and T2DM) is characterized by a deficit in β-cell mass. A broader understanding of human β-cell replication mechanism is thus important to increase β-cell proliferation for future therapeutic interventions. Here, we show that p27 (Kip1), a CDK inhibitor, is expressed abundantly in isolated adult human islets and interacts with various positive cell cycle regulatory proteins including D-type cyclins (D1, D2 and D3) and their kinase partners, CDK4 and CDK6. Also, we see interaction of cyclin E and its kinase partner, CDK2, with p27 suggesting a critical role of p27 as a negative cell cycle regulator in human islets. Our data demonstrate interaction of p27 with GSK-3 in β-cells and show, employing rodent β-cells (INS-1), isolated human islets and purified β-cells derived from human islets, that siRNA-mediated depletion of GSK-3 or p27 or 1-AKP / BIO - mediated GSK-3 inhibition results in increased β-cell proliferation. We also see reduction of p27 levels following GSK-3 inactivation or depletion. Our data show that serum induction of quiescent INS-1 cells leads to sequential phosphorylation of p27 on its S10 and T187 residues with faster kinetics for S10 corresponding with the decreased levels of p27. Altogether our findings indicate that p27 levels in β-cells are stabilized by GSK-3 and thus p27 down regulation following GSK-3 depletion / inactivation plays a critical role in promoting β-cell replication.
Characterization of an in Vitro Differentiation Assay for Pancreatic-like Cell Development from Murine Embryonic Stem Cells: Detailed Gene Expression Analysis
Assay and Drug Development Technologies. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21395400
Embryonic stem (ES) cell technology may serve as a platform for the discovery of drugs to treat diseases such as diabetes. However, because of difficulties in establishing reliable ES cell differentiation methods and in creating cost-effective plating conditions for the high-throughput format, screening for molecules that regulate pancreatic beta cells and their immediate progenitors has been limited. A relatively simple and inexpensive differentiation protocol that allows efficient generation of insulin-expressing cells from murine ES cells was previously established in our laboratories. In this report, this system is characterized in greater detail to map developmental cell stages for future screening experiments. Our results show that sequential activation of multiple gene markers for undifferentiated ES cells, epiblast, definitive endoderm, foregut, and pancreatic lineages was found to follow the sequence of events that mimics pancreatic ontogeny. Cells that expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein, driven by pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 or insulin 1 promoter, correctly expressed known beta cell lineage markers. Overexpression of Sox17, an endoderm fate-determining transcription factor, at a very early stage of differentiation (days 2-3) enhanced pancreatic gene expression. Overexpression of neurogenin3, an endocrine progenitor cell marker, induced glucagon expression at stages when pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 message was present (days 10-16). Forced expression (between days 16 and 25) of MafA, a pancreatic maturation factor, resulted in enhanced expression of insulin genes, glucose transporter 2 and glucokinase, and glucose-responsive insulin secretion. Day 20 cells implanted in vivo resulted in pancreatic-like cells. Together, our differentiation assay recapitulates the proceedings and behaviors of pancreatic development and will be valuable for future screening of beta cell effectors.
Formation of Pancreatic Islets Involves Coordinated Expansion of Small Islets and Fission of Large Interconnected Islet-like Structures
Biophysical Journal. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21806924
The islets of Langerhans, micro-organs for maintaining glucose homeostasis, range in size from small clusters of <10 cells to large islets consisting of several thousand endocrine cells. Islet size distributions among various species are similar and independent of body size, suggesting an intrinsic limit to islet size. Little is known about the mechanisms regulating islet size. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of changes of islet size distribution in the intact mouse pancreas from birth to eight months, including mathematical modeling to quantify this dynamic biological process. Islet growth was size-dependent during development, with preferential expansion of smaller islets and fission of large interconnected islet-like structures occurring most actively at approximately three weeks of age at the time of weaning. The process of islet formation was complete by four weeks with little or no new islet formation thereafter, and all the β-cells had low proliferation potential in the adult, regardless of islet size. Similarly, in insulinoma-bearing mice, the early postnatal developmental process including fission followed the same time course with no new islet formation in adults. However, tumor progression led to uncontrolled islet growth with accelerated expansion of larger islets. Thus, islet formation and growth is a tightly regulated process involving preferential expansion of small islets and fission of large interconnected islet-like structures.
Coating Human Pancreatic Islets with CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) Regulatory T Cells As a Novel Approach for the Local Immunoprotection
Annals of Surgery. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21865948
To develop a novel approach for local immunoprotection using CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) T regulatory cells (Tregs) attached to the surface of the islets before transplantation.
Altered Islet Composition and Disproportionate Loss of Large Islets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22102895
Human islets exhibit distinct islet architecture with intermingled alpha- and beta-cells particularly in large islets. In this study, we quantitatively examined pathological changes of the pancreas in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Specifically, we tested a hypothesis that changes in endocrine cell mass and composition are islet-size dependent. A large-scale analysis of cadaveric pancreatic sections from T2D patients (n = 12) and non-diabetic subjects (n = 14) was carried out combined with semi-automated analysis to quantify changes in islet architecture. The method provided the representative islet distribution in the whole pancreas section that allowed us to examine details of endocrine cell composition in individual islets. We observed a preferential loss of large islets (>60 µm in diameter) in T2D patients compared to non-diabetic subjects. Analysis of islet cell composition revealed that the beta-cell fraction in large islets was decreased in T2D patients. This change was accompanied by a reciprocal increase in alpha-cell fraction, however total alpha-cell area was decreased along with beta-cells in T2D. Delta-cell fraction and area remained unchanged. The computer-assisted quantification of morphological changes in islet structure minimizes sampling bias. Significant beta-cell loss was observed in large islets in T2D, in which alpha-cell ratio reciprocally increased. However, there was no alpha-cell expansion and the total alpha-cell area was also decreased. Changes in islet architecture were marked in large islets. Our method is widely applicable to various specimens using standard immunohistochemical analysis that may be particularly useful to study large animals including humans where large organ size precludes manual quantitation of organ morphology.