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In JoVE (1)
- घुलनशील सिग्नल की मध्यस्थता सहभागिता जांच के लिए उपकला कोशिकाओं और बैक्टीरिया के सह संस्कृति Microfluidic
Other Publications (8)
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Articles by Manjunath Hegde in JoVE
घुलनशील सिग्नल की मध्यस्थता सहभागिता जांच के लिए उपकला कोशिकाओं और बैक्टीरिया के सह संस्कृति Microfluidic
Jeongyun Kim1, Manjunath Hegde1, Arul Jayaraman1,2
1McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Texas A&M University
इस प्रोटोकॉल उपकला कोशिकाओं और जीवाणुओं के साथ - साथ और स्थानीय संस्कृति के लिए एक microfluidic सह संस्कृति मॉडल का वर्णन करता है. इस मॉडल रोगजनन पर अलग घुलनशील आणविक संकेतों की भूमिका की जांच के रूप में के रूप में अच्छी तरह से स्क्रीन ख्यात प्रोबायोटिक जीवाणु उपभेदों के प्रभाव के लिए इस्तेमाल किया जा सकता है.
Other articles by Manjunath Hegde on PubMed
Differential Effects of Epinephrine, Norepinephrine, and Indole on Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Chemotaxis, Colonization, and Gene Expression
Infection and Immunity. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17591798
During infection in the gastrointestinal tract, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 is exposed to a wide range of signaling molecules, including the eukaryotic hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, and bacterial signal molecules such as indole. Since these signaling molecules have been shown to be involved in the regulation of phenotypes such as motility and virulence that are crucial for EHEC infections, we hypothesized that these molecules also govern the initial recognition of the large intestine environment and attachment to the host cell surface. Here, we report that, compared to indole, epinephrine and norepinephrine exert divergent effects on EHEC chemotaxis, motility, biofilm formation, gene expression, and colonization of HeLa cells. Using a novel two-fluorophore chemotaxis assay, it was found that EHEC is attracted to epinephrine and norepinephrine while it is repelled by indole. In addition, epinephrine and norepinephrine also increased EHEC motility and biofilm formation while indole attenuated these phenotypes. DNA microarray analysis of surface-associated EHEC indicated that epinephrine/norepinephrine up-regulated the expression of genes involved in surface colonization and virulence while exposure to indole decreased their expression. The gene expression data also suggested that autoinducer 2 uptake was repressed upon exposure to epinephrine/norepinephrine but not indole. In vitro adherence experiments confirmed that epinephrine and norepinephrine increased attachment to epithelial cells while indole decreased adherence. Taken together, these results suggest that epinephrine and norepinephrine increase EHEC infection while indole attenuates the process.
The New York State Dental Journal. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18402382
A high incidence of dental disease has been reported in Nepal. Previous studies, both in the Manipal Teaching Hospital, Pokhara, Nepal, and other centers revealed problems in the use of medicines in dentistry. A number of initiatives to improve prescribing have been carried out. The study presented here was undertaken to assess the impact of these initiatives on drug utilization among dental outpatients. The study was conducted among patients attending the dental outpatient department of the hospital over a six-month period. Demographic details were studied. The drug classes and individual drugs prescribed were recorded. The cost of drugs was calculateS using the outpatient pharmacy price list. The prescriptions were analyzed using the WHO/INRUD prescribing indicators. Anomalies were noted in prescribing. Improvement was noted in certain parameters compared to previous studies. The educational initiatives should be strengthened. Managerial interventions can be considered. Further studies are required.
The ISME Journal. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18528414
We have shown that the quorum-sensing signals acylhomoserine lactones, autoinducer-2 (AI-2) and indole influence the biofilm formation of Escherichia coli. Here, we investigate how the environment, that is, temperature, affects indole and AI-2 signaling in E. coli. We show in biofilms that indole addition leads to more extensive differential gene expression at 30 degrees C (186 genes) than at 37 degrees C (59 genes), that indole reduces biofilm formation (without affecting growth) more significantly at 25 and 30 degrees C than at 37 degrees C and that the effect is associated with the quorum-sensing protein SdiA. The addition of indole at 30 degrees C compared to 37 degrees C most significantly repressed genes involved in uridine monophosphate (UMP) biosynthesis (carAB, pyrLBI, pyrC, pyrD, pyrF and upp) and uracil transport (uraA). These uracil-related genes are also repressed at 30 degrees C by SdiA, which confirms SdiA is involved in indole signaling. Also, compared to 37 degrees C, indole more significantly decreased flagella-related qseB, flhD and fliA promoter activity, enhanced antibiotic resistance and inhibited cell division at 30 degrees C. In contrast to indole and SdiA, the addition of (S)-4,5-dihydroxy-2,3-pentanedione (the AI-2 precursor) leads to more extensive differential gene expression at 37 degrees C (63 genes) than at 30 degrees C (11 genes), and, rather than repressing UMP synthesis genes, AI-2 induces them at 37 degrees C (but not at 30 degrees C). Also, the addition of AI-2 induces the transcription of virulence genes in enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 at 37 degrees C but not at 30 degrees C. Hence, cell signals cause diverse responses at different temperatures, and indole- and AI-2-based signaling are intertwined.
The Neuroendocrine Hormone Norepinephrine Increases Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PA14 Virulence Through the Las Quorum-sensing Pathway
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19517106
It has been proposed that the gastrointestinal tract environment containing high levels of neuroendocrine hormones is important for gut-derived Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections. In this study, we report that the hormone norepinephrine increases P. aeruginosa PA14 growth, virulence factor production, invasion of HCT-8 epithelial cells, and swimming motility in a concentration-dependent manner. Transcriptome analysis of P. aeruginosa exposed to 500 microM, but not 50 microM, norepinephrine for 7 h showed that genes involved in the regulation of the virulence determinants pyocyanin, elastase, and the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS, 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone) were upregulated. The production of rhamnolipids, which are also important in P. aeruginosa infections, was not significantly altered in suspension cultures upon exposure to 500 microM norepinephrine but decreased on semisolid surfaces. Swarming motility, a phenotype that is directly influenced by rhamnolipids, was also decreased upon 500 microM norepinephrine exposure. The increase in the transcriptional activation of lasR but not that of rhlR and the increase in the levels of PQS suggest that the effects of norepinephrine are mediated primarily through the las quorum-sensing pathway. Together, our data strongly suggest that norepinephrine can play an important role in gut-derived infections by increasing the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa PA14.
Lab on a Chip. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20024049
The human gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a unique environment in which intestinal epithelial cells and non-pathogenic (commensal) bacteria co-exist. This equilibrium is perturbed by the entry of pathogens into the GI tract. A key step in the infection process is the navigation of the pathogen through the commensal bacterial layer to attach to epithelial cells. It has been proposed that the microenvironment that the pathogen encounters in the commensal layer plays a significant role in determining the extent of attachment and colonization. Current culture methods for investigating pathogen colonization are not well suited for investigating this hypothesis as they do not enable co-culture of bacteria and epithelial cells in a manner that mimics the GI tract microenvironment. Here we report the development of a microfluidic co-culture model that enables independent culture of eukaryotic cells and bacteria, and testing the effect of the commensal microenvironment on pathogen colonization. A pneumatically-actuated system was developed to form reversible islands that allow development of bacterial biofilm along with culture of an epithelial cell monolayer. The co-culture model used to develop a commensal Escherichia coli biofilm among HeLa cells, followed by introduction of enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) into the commensal island, in a sequence that mimics the sequence of events in GI tract infection. Using wild-type E. coli and a tnaA mutant (lacks the signal indole) as the commensal bacteria, we demonstrate that the commensal biofilm microenvironment is a key determinant of EHEC infectivity and virulence. Our model has the potential to be used in fundamental studies investigating the effect of GI tract signals on EHEC virulence as well as for screening of different probiotic strains for modulating pathogen infectivity in the GI tract.
Chemotaxis to the Quorum-sensing Signal AI-2 Requires the Tsr Chemoreceptor and the Periplasmic LsrB AI-2-binding Protein
Journal of Bacteriology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21097621
AI-2 is an autoinducer made by many bacteria. LsrB binds AI-2 in the periplasm, and Tsr is the l-serine chemoreceptor. We show that AI-2 strongly attracts Escherichia coli. Both LsrB and Tsr are necessary for sensing AI-2, but AI-2 uptake is not, suggesting that LsrB and Tsr interact directly in the periplasm.
Synthetic Quorum-sensing Circuit to Control Consortial Biofilm Formation and Dispersal in a Microfluidic Device
Nature Communications. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22215088
To utilize biofilms for chemical transformations in biorefineries they need to be controlled and replaced. Previously, we engineered the global regulator Hha and cyclic diguanylate-binding BdcA to create proteins that enable biofilm dispersal. Here we report a biofilm circuit that utilizes these two dispersal proteins along with a population-driven quorum-sensing switch. With this synthetic circuit, in a novel microfluidic device, we form an initial colonizer biofilm, introduce a second cell type (dispersers) into this existing biofilm, form a robust dual-species biofilm and displace the initial colonizer cells in the biofilm with an extracellular signal from the disperser cells. We also remove the disperser biofilm with a chemically induced switch, and the consortial population could tune. Therefore, for the first time, cells have been engineered that are able to displace an existing biofilm and then be removed on command allowing one to control consortial biofilm formation for various applications.
Lab on a Chip. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22318368
Bacteria are almost always found in ecological niches as matrix-encased, surface-associated, multi-species communities known as biofilms. It is well established that soluble chemical signals produced by the bacteria influence the organization and structure of the biofilm; therefore, there is significant interest in understanding how different chemical signals are coordinately utilized for community development. Conventional methods for investigating biofilm formation such as macro-scale flow cells are low-throughput, require large volumes, and do not allow spatial and temporal control of biofilm community formation. Here, we describe the development of a PDMS-based two-layer microfluidic flow cell (μFC) device for investigating bacterial biofilm formation and organization in response to different concentrations of soluble signals. The μFC device contains eight separate microchambers for cultivating biofilms exposed to eight different concentrations of signals through a single diffusive mixing-based concentration gradient generator. The presence of pneumatic valves and a separate cell seeding port that is independent from gradient-mixing channels offers complete isolation of the biofilm microchamber from the gradient mixer, and also performs well under continuous, batch or semi-batch conditions. We demonstrate the utility of the μFC by studying the effect of different concentrations of indole-like biofilm signals (7-hydroxyindole and isatin), either individually or in combination, on biofilm development of pathogenic E. coli. This model can be used for developing a fundamental understanding of events leading to bacterial attachment to surfaces that are important in infections and chemicals that influence the biofilm formation or inhibition.