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In JoVE (1)
- MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
Other Publications (17)
- Pathology Oncology Research : POR
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Biological Chemistry
- Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Imaging
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Seminars in Cancer Biology
- Journal of Cell Science
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
- Current Protocols in Cell Biology / Editorial Board, Juan S. Bonifacino ... [et Al.]
- Molecular Imaging
- Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
- Gynecologic Oncology
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- Cancer Research
Articles by Mansoureh Sameni in JoVE
MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
Mansoureh Sameni1, Arulselvi Anbalagan1, Mary B. Olive1, Kamiar Moin1,2, Raymond R. Mattingly1,2, Bonnie F. Sloane1,2
1Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University
We have developed 3D coculture models for live-cell imaging in real-time of interactions among breast tumor cells and other cells in their microenvironment that impact progression to an invasive phenotype. These models can serve as preclinical screens for drugs to target paracrine-induced proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways implicated in invasiveness.
Other articles by Mansoureh Sameni on PubMed
Pathology Oncology Research : POR. 1995 | Pubmed ID: 11173567
Alterations in trafficking of cathepsins B and D have been reported in human and animal tumors. In MCF10 human breast epithelial cells, altered trafficking of cathepsin B occurs during their progression from a preneoplastic to neoplastic state. We now show that this is also the case for altered trafficking of cathepsin D. Nevertheless, the two cathepsins are not necessarily trafficked to the same vesicles. Perinuclear vesicles of immortal MCF10A cells label for both cathepsins B and D, yet the peripheral vesicles found in ras-transfected MCF10AneoT cells label for cathepsin B, cathepsin D or both enzymes. Studies at the electron microscopic level confirm these findings and show in addition surface labeling for both enzymes in the transfected cells. By immunofluorescence staining, cathepsin B can be localized on the outer surface of the cells. Similar patterns of peripheral intracellular and surface staining for cathepsin B are seen in the human breast carcinoma lines MCF7 and BT20. We suggest that the altered trafficking of cathepsins B and D may be of functional significance in malignant progression of human breast epithelial cells. Translocation of vesicles containing cathepsins B and D toward the cell periphery occurs in human breast epithelial cells that are at the point of transition between the pre-neoplastic and neoplastic state and remains part of the malignant phenotype of breast carcinoma cells.
Gastroenterology. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11832455
Proteases play key roles in the pathogenesis of tumor growth and invasion. This study assesses the expression of cathepsin B in dysplastic adenomatous polyps.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12072442
Interactions of stromal and tumor cells with the extracellular matrix may regulate expression of proteases including the lysosomal proteases cathepsins B and D. In the present study, we determined whether the expression of these two proteases in human breast fibroblasts was modulated by interactions with the extracellular matrix component, collagen I. Breast fibroblasts were isolated from non-malignant breast tissue as well as from tissue surrounding malignant human breast tumors. Growth of these fibroblasts on collagen I gels affected cell morphology, but not the intracellular localization of vesicles staining for cathepsin B or D. Cathepsins B and D levels (mRNA or intracellular protein) were not affected in fibroblasts growing on collagen I gels or plastic, nor was cathepsin D secreted from these cells. In contrast, protein expression and secretion of cathepsin B, primarily procathepsin B, was induced by growth on collagen I gels. The induced secretion appeared to be mediated by integrins binding to collagen I, as inhibitory antibodies against alpha(1), alpha(2), and beta(1) integrin subunits prevented procathepsin B secretion from fibroblasts grown on collagen. In addition, procathepsin B secretion was induced when cells were plated on beta(1) integrin antibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of cathepsin B and D expression and localization in human breast fibroblasts and their regulation by a matrix protein. Secretion of the cysteine protease procathepsin B from breast fibroblasts may have physiological and pathological consequences, as proteases are required for normal development and for lactation of the mammary gland, yet can also initiate and accelerate the progression of breast cancer.
Determination of Cathepsin B Expression May Offer Additional Prognostic Information for Ovarian Cancer Patients
Biological Chemistry. Jul-Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12437120
The lysosomal cysteine proteinase cathepsin B has been implicated in the progression of various human tumors including ovarian cancer. Included in this study were 63 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Follow-up information (median follow-up period 7 years) was available for all patients, among whom 42 (66.7%) had relapsed and 32 (50.8%) had died. The immunohistochemistry method was adopted for the detection of cathepsin B using paraffin embedded specimens. Results were compared to clinico-pathological data. Statistical analysis showed cathepsin B expression to be significantly associated with the stage of disease, debulking success and interestingly, with progesterone receptors. It was also inversely related to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Accordingly, cathepsin B can be regarded as unfavorable and as an independent tumor marker for progression-free survival and overall survival in ovarian cancer patients with long follow-up.
Degradation of Extracellular Matrix Protein Tenascin-C by Cathepsin B: an Interaction Involved in the Progression of Gliomas
Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12437133
Degradation of extracellular matrix proteins by proteases such as the cysteine protease cathepsin B is critical to malignant progression. We have established that procathepsin B presents on the surface of tumor cells through its interaction with the annexin II tetramer [Mai et al., J. Biol. Chem. 275 (2000),12806-12812]. Cathepsin B activity can also be detected on the tumor cell surface and in their culture medium. Interestingly, the annexin II tetramer also interacts with extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen I, fibrin and tenascin-C. Both cathepsin B and tenascin-C are expressed at high levels in malignant tumors, especially at the invasive edges of tumors, and are implicated in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we report that tenascin-C can be degraded by cathepsin B in vitro. We demonstrate by immunohistochemistry that both cathepsin B and tenascin-C are expressed highly in malignant anaplastic astrocytomas and glioblastomas as compared to normal brain tissues. Interestingly, cathepsin B and tenascin-C were also detected in association with tumor neovessels. We suggest that interactions between cathepsin B and tenascin-C are involved in the progression of gliomas including the angiogenesis that is a hallmark of anaplastic astrocytomas.
Molecular Imaging. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14649059
The underlying basement membrane is degraded during progression of breast and colon carcinoma. Thus, we imaged degradation of a quenched fluorescent derivative of basement membrane type IV collagen (DQ-collagen IV) by living human breast and colon tumor spheroids. Proteolysis of DQ-collagen IV by HCT 116 and HKh-2 human colon tumor spheroids was both intracellular and pericellular. In contrast, proteolysis of DQ-collagen IV by BT20 human breast tumor spheroids was pericellular. As stromal elements can contribute to proteolytic activities associated with tumors, we also examined degradation of DQ-collagen IV by human monocytes/macrophages and colon and breast fibroblasts. Fibroblasts themselves exhibited a modest amount of pericellular degradation. Degradation was increased 4-17-fold in cocultures of fibroblasts and tumor cells as compared to either cell type alone. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases, plasmin, and the cysteine protease, cathepsin B, all reduced degradation in the cocultures. Monocytes did not degrade DQ-collagen IV; however, macrophages degraded DQ-collagen IV intracellularly. In coculture of tumor cells, fibroblasts, and macrophages, degradation of DQ-collagen IV was further increased. Imaging of living tumor and stromal cells has, thus, allowed us to establish that tumor proteolysis occurs pericellularly and intracellularly and that tumor, stromal, and inflammatory cells all contribute to degradative processes.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Nov-Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14965444
Cathepsin B protein and activity are known to localize to the basal plasma membrane of colon carcinoma cells following the appearance of K-ras mutations. Using immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation techniques and two human colon carcinoma cell lines - one with a mutated K-ras allele (HCT 116) and a daughter line in which the mutated allele has been disrupted (HKh-2)-we demonstrate that the localization of cathepsin B to caveolae on the surface of these carcinoma cells is regulated by mutant K-ras. In HCT 116 cells, a greater percentage of cathepsin B was distributed to the caveolae, and the secretion of cathepsin B and pericellular (membrane-associated and secreted) cathepsin B activity were greater than observed in HKh-2 cells. Previous studies established the light chain of annexin II tetramer, p11, as a binding site for cathepsin B on the surface of tumor cells. The deletion of active K-ras in HKh-2 cells reduced the steady-state levels of p11 and caveolin-1 and the distribution of p11 to caveolae. Based upon these results, we speculate that cathepsin B, a protease implicated in tumor progression, plays a functional role in initiating proteolytic cascades in caveolae as downstream components of this cascade (e.g., urokinase plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) are also present in HCT 116 caveolae.
Seminars in Cancer Biology. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15652460
Tumor-stromal interactions induce expression of matrix metalloproteinases and serine proteases and, as shown recently, the cysteine protease cathepsin B. We speculate that such interactions upregulate the transcription factor Ets1, resulting in increased cathepsin B expression. This would be consistent with the observed concomitant upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases and serine proteases as well as with the ability of extracellular matrices and their binding partners to alter cathepsin B expression and secretion. Using a confocal assay to analyze the contribution of tumor-stromal interactions to proteolysis, we have been able to confirm enhanced degradation of extracellular matrices by all three classes of proteases.
Caveolin-1 Mediates the Expression and Localization of Cathepsin B, Pro-urokinase Plasminogen Activator and Their Cell-surface Receptors in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells
Journal of Cell Science. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15769846
Cathepsin B and pro-urokinase plasminogen activator (pro-uPA) localize to the caveolae of HCT 116 human colorectal carcinoma cells, an association mediated by active K-RAS. In this study, we established a stable HCT 116 cell line with a gene encoding antisense caveolin-1 (AS-cav-1) to examine the effects of caveolin-1, the main structural protein of caveolae, on the expression and localization of cathepsin B and pro-uPA, and their cell-surface receptors p11 and uPA receptor (uPAR), respectively. AS-cav-1 HCT 116 cells secreted less procathepsin B than control (empty vector) cells as measured by immunoblotting and pepsin activation of the proenzyme. Expression and secretion of pro-uPA was also downregulated in AS-cav-1 HCT 116 cells. Localization of cathepsin B and pro-uPA to caveolae was reduced in AS-cav-1 HCT 116 cells, and these cells expressed less total and caveolae-associated p11 and uPAR compared with control cells. Previous studies have shown that uPAR forms a complex with caveolin-1 and beta1-integrin, and we here show that downregulation of caveolin-1 also suppressed the localization of beta1-integrin to caveolae of these cells. Finally, downregulation of caveolin-1 in HCT 116 cells inhibited degradation of the extracellular matrix protein collagen IV and the invasion of these cells through Matrigel. Based on these results, we hypothesize that caveolin-1 affects the expression and localization of cathepsin B and pro-uPA, and their receptors, thereby mediating cell-surface proteolytic events associated with invasion of colon cancer cells.
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15799821
Prostate cancers metastasize to bone leading to osteolysis. Here we assessed proteolysis of DQ-collagen I (a bone matrix protein) and, for comparison, DQ-collagen IV, by living human prostate carcinoma cells in vitro. Both collagens were degraded, and this degradation was reduced by inhibitors of matrix metallo, serine, and cysteine proteases. Because secretion of the cysteine protease cathepsin B is increased in human breast fibroblasts grown on collagen I gels, we analyzed cathepsin B levels and secretion in prostate cells grown on collagen I gels. Levels and secretion were increased only in DU145 cells--cells that expressed the highest baseline levels of cathepsin B. Secretion of cathepsin B was also elevated in DU145 cells grown in vitro on human bone fragments. We further investigated the effect of the bone microenvironment on cathepsin B expression and activity in vivo in a SCID-human model of prostate bone metastasis. High levels of cathepsin B protein and activity were found in DU145, PC3, and LNCaP bone tumors, although the PC3 and LNCaP cells had exhibited low cathepsin B expression in vitro. Our results suggest that tumor-stromal interactions in the context of the bone microenvironment can modulate the expression of the cysteine protease cathepsin B.
Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16402907
The roles of proteases in cancer are now known to be much broader than simply degradation of extracellular matrix during tumor invasion and metastasis. Furthermore, proteases from tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, endothelial cells) as well as tumor cells are recognized to contribute to pathways critical to neoplastic progression. Although elevated expression (transcripts and proteins) of proteases, and in some cases protease inhibitors, has been documented in many tumors, techniques to assess functional roles for proteases require that we measure protease activity and inhibition of that activity rather than levels of proteases, activators, and inhibitors. Novel techniques for functional imaging of protease activity, both in vitro and in vivo, are being developed as are imaging probes that will allow us to determine protease activity and in some cases to discriminate among protease activities. These should be useful clinically as surrogate endpoints for therapies that alter protease activities.
Current Protocols in Cell Biology / Editorial Board, Juan S. Bonifacino ... [et Al.]. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18551423
Proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components by cells is an important metabolic activity as cells grow, remodel, and migrate through the ECM. The ability to analyze ECM degradation can be valuable in the study of developmental processes as well as pathologies, such as cancer. In this unit we describe an in vitro live cell-based method to image and quantitatively measure the degradation of ECM components by live cells. Cells are grown in the presence of fluorescent dye-quenched protein substrates (DQ-gelatin, DQ-collagen I, and DQ-collagen IV) that are mixed with protein matrices. Upon proteolytic cleavage, fluorescence is released that directly reflects the level of proteolysis by the cells. Using confocal microscopy and advanced imaging software, the fluorescence is detected and accurate measurements of proteolytic degradation in three and four dimensions can be assessed.
Functional Live-cell Imaging Demonstrates That Beta1-integrin Promotes Type IV Collagen Degradation by Breast and Prostate Cancer Cells
Molecular Imaging. Sep-Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19123990
The ability of tumor cells to adhere to, migrate on, and remodel extracellular matrices is mediated by cell surface receptors such as beta1-integrins. Here we conducted functional live-cell imaging in real time to investigate the effects of modulating beta1-integrin expression and function on proteolytic remodeling of the extracellular matrix. Human breast and prostate cancer cells were grown on reconstituted basement membrane containing a quenched fluorescent form of collagen IV. Generation of cleavage products and the resulting increases in fluorescence were imaged and quantified. Decreases in the expression and activity of beta1-integrin reduced digestion of quenched fluorescent-collagen IV by the breast and prostate cancer cells and correspondingly their invasion through and migration on reconstituted basement membrane. Decreased extracellular matrix degradation also was associated with changes in the constituents of proteolytic pathways: decreases in secretion of the cysteine protease cathepsin B, the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP)-1 and 2; a decrease in expression of MMP-14 or membrane type 1 MMP; and an increase in secretion of TIMP-3. This is the first study to demonstrate through functional live-cell imaging that downregulation of beta1-integrin expression and function reduces proteolysis of collagen IV by breast and prostate cancer cells.
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19082919
The roles of proteases in cancer are dynamic. Furthermore, the roles or functions of any one protease may differ from one stage of cancer to another. Proteases from tumor-associated cells (e.g., fibroblasts, inflammatory cells, endothelial cells) as well as from tumor cells make important contributions to 'tumor proteolysis'. Many tumors exhibit increases in expression of proteases at the level of transcripts and protein; however, whether those proteases play causal roles in malignant progression is known for only a handful of proteases. What the critical substrate or substrates that are cleaved in vivo by any given protease is also known for only a few proteases. Therefore, the recent development of techniques and reagents for live cell imaging of protease activity, in conjunction with informed knowledge of critical natural substrates, should help to define protease functions. Here we describe live cell assays for imaging proteolysis, protocols for quantifying proteolysis and the use of such assays to follow the dynamics of proteolysis by tumor cells alone and tumor cells interacting with other cells found in the tumor microenvironment. In addition, we describe an in vitro model that recapitulates the architecture of the mammary gland, a model designed to determine the effects of dynamic interactions with the surrounding microenvironment on 'tumor proteolysis' and the respective contributions of various cell types to 'tumor proteolysis'. The assays and models described here could serve as screening platforms for the identification of proteolytic pathways that are potential therapeutic targets and for further development of technologies and imaging probes for in vivo use.
Gynecologic Oncology. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19110306
Lysosomal cysteine protease Cathepsin-B has been implicated in the progression of various human tumours. We examined Cathepsin-B protein levels in endometrial carcinoma patients-mainly post-menopausal-and investigated their possible association with clinical and pathological parameters in order to assess Cathepsin-B's significance as a potential tumour biomarker.
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21854877
Our laboratory has had a longstanding interest in how the interactions between tumors and their microenvironment affect malignant progression. Recently, we have focused on defining the proteolytic pathways that function in the transition of breast cancer from the pre-invasive lesions of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs). We use live-cell imaging to visualize, localize and quantify proteolysis as it occurs in real-time and thereby have established roles for lysosomal cysteine proteases both pericellularly and intracellularly in tumor proteolysis. To facilitate these studies, we have developed and optimized 3D organotypic co-culture models that recapitulate the in vivo interactions of mammary epithelial cells or tumor cells with stromal and inflammatory cells. Here we will discuss the background that led to our present studies as well as the techniques and models that we employ. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteolysis 50 years after the discovery of lysosome.
Cancer Research. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22266111
Metastasis to bone is a major cause of morbidity in breast cancer patients, emphasizing the importance of identifying molecular drivers of bone metastasis for new therapeutic targets. The endogenous cysteine cathepsin inhibitor stefin A is a suppressor of breast cancer metastasis to bone that is co-expressed with cathepsin B in bone metastases. In this study, we used the immunocompetent 4T1.2 model of breast cancer which exhibits spontaneous bone metastasis to evaluate the function and therapeutic targeting potential of cathepsin B in this setting of advanced disease. Cathepsin B abundancy in the model mimicked human disease, both at the level of primary tumors and matched spinal metastases. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cathepsin B in tumor cells reduced collagen I degradation in vitro and bone metastasis in vivo. Similarly, intraperitoneal administration of the highly selective cathepsin B inhibitor CA-074 reduced metastasis in tumor-bearing animals, a reduction that was not reproduced by the broad spectrum cysteine cathepsin inhibitor JPM-OEt. Notably, metastasis suppression by CA-074 was maintained in a late treatment setting, pointing to a role in metastatic outgrowth. Together, our findings established a pro-metastatic role for cathepsin B in distant metastasis and illustrated the therapeutic benefits of its selective inhibition in vivo.