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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Marcin Gierdalski in JoVE
Мигрирующие поведение клеток Сгенерировано за ганглиозные культур Высокопреосвященнейшего
Marcin Gierdalski*1, Thomas McFate*1, Joseph Abbah2, Sharon L. Juliano1,2
1Dept. of Anatomy, Physiology and Genetics, Uniformed Services University, 2Neuroscience Program, Uniformed Services University
Временной интервал визуализации 3D культуры ткани позволяет изучать миграционное поведение отдельных клеток, происходящих из ганглиозные возвышение в качестве реакции на фракционированного извлечения белка из коры головного мозга.
Other articles by Marcin Gierdalski on PubMed
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11830257
Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation. 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12353469
Normal development of cerebral cortex depends on proper sequential genesis of cortical neurons and glia. Disruption of corticogenesis in ferret by short-term arresting of cell division using injections of methylazoxy methanol (MAM) leads to a specific constellation of effects, including disruption and early differentiation of radial glia into astrocytes and disorganization of reelin-containing Cajal-Retzius cells. We hypothesize that early interference of normal cortical development removes a factor instrumental in maintaining radial glia in their normal elongated shape. In support of this idea, coculture of MAM-treated slices with normal cortical plate restores radial glia and Cajal-Retzius cells to their normal positions. Recently, we found that conditioned medium obtained from normal organotypic cultures returned radial glia toward their normal morphology only in a fraction of 30-50 kDa molecular weight (MW). To assess whether restoring this factor would also improve effective migration into the cortical plate of E24 MAM-treated animals, we conducted experiments using cocultures of normal cortical plate with organotypic cultures of MAM-treated cortex, which received prior BrdU injections. In both the normal and E24 MAM-treated/normal cortical plate coculture, a greater percentage of BrdU positive cells migrated effectively into the cortical plate. We suggest that early interruption of cell division eliminates a population of cells and a factor important for maintaining proper cortical development, specifically providing cues maintaining elongation of radial glia.
Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12368063
A Radialization Factor in Normal Cortical Plate Restores Disorganized Radial Glia and Disrupted Migration in a Model of Cortical Dysplasia
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12581165
Treatment of pregnant ferrets on embryonic day 24 (E24) with the antimitotic methylazoxy methanol (MAM) leads to a specific constellation of effects in newborn kits, which include a very thin and poorly laminated neocortex, disruption of radial glial cell morphology with early differentiation into astrocytes, and abnormal positioning of Cajal-Retzius cells. We suggest that MAM treatment on E24 results in this model of cortical dysplasia by eliminating a population of cells that produce a factor capable of maintaining radial glia in their normal morphology. The abnormal radial glia, either alone or in combination with other abnormal features, are likely to prevent proper migration into the cortical plate. To test the possibility that normal cortex can provide the missing substance that influences radial glia, slices of E24 MAM-treated cortex were removed at postnatal day 0 (P0) and cultured adjacent to explants of P0 normal cortical plate. By labelling a small number of cells with injections of fluorescent dextrans into the cultured slices, we found that abnormal radial glia in MAM treated slices cocultured adjacent to normal cortical plate were restored toward normal, in comparison to E24 MAM treated slices cultured alone and in other control conditions. We also found that abnormally positioned Cajal-Retzius cells move into the marginal zone and that neurons are able to migrate into the cortical plate more effectively in the coculture condition. These data indicate that normal cortical plate of ferrets contains a factor causing radial glia to maintain their elongated morphology; the improved position of radial glia encourages repositioning of Cajal-Retzius cells and improved neuronal migration into the cortical plate.
Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991). Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12764030
A model of cortical dysplasia results from disruption of the earliest generated neocortical cells. Injections of an antimitotic (methylazoxy methanol - MAM) into pregnant ferrets result in a constellation of effects, which include disruption of radial glia, with early differentiation in astrocytes, and impaired migration of neurons into the cortical plate. We found previously that culture of P0 MAM-treated slices with explants of normal cortical plate reorganizes the radial glia toward their normal morphology and improves migration of neurons into the cortical plate. This suggested that P0 normal cortical plate contains a 'factor' capable of providing reorganizing cues to disorganized developing cortex. The current study characterizes the biological activity in normal cortical plate by isolating fractions of different molecular weight obtained from conditioned media of organotypic cultures. The only media fraction capable of providing reorganizing activity to MAM-treated cortex was the molecular weight fraction between 30 and 50 kDa. Treatment designed to denature proteins demonstrated that the active molecular weight fraction (30-50 kDa) was not able to provide reorganizing cues when either heated or treated with Proteinase K. These data provide support for the idea that normal cortical plate of neonatal ferret contains a radialization factor that is a protein of 30-50 kDa.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16162931
Radial glia are integral components of the developing neocortex. During corticogenesis, they form an important scaffold for neurons migrating into the cortical plate. Recent attention has focused on neuregulin (NRG1), acting through erbB receptors, in maintaining their morphology. We developed a model of developmental radial glial disruption by delivering an antimitotic [methylazoxy methanol (MAM)] to pregnant ferrets on embryonic day 24 (E24). We previously found that normal ferret cortex contains a soluble factor capable of realigning the disorganized radial glia back toward their normal morphology. Characterization of the reorganizing activity in normal cortex demonstrated that the probable factor mediating these responses was a 30-50 kDa protein. To test whether this endogenous soluble factor was NRG1, we used organotypic cultures of E24 MAM-treated ferret neocortex supplemented with the endogenous factor obtained from normal cortical implants, exogenous NRG1beta, antibodies that either blocked or stimulated erbB receptors, or a soluble erbB subtype that binds to available NRG1. We report that exogenous NRG1 or antibodies that stimulate erbB receptors dramatically improve the morphology of disrupted radial glia, whereas blockade of NRG1-erbB signaling prevents the radial glial repair. Our results suggest that NRG1 is an endogenous factor in ferret neocortex capable of repairing damaged radial glia and that it acts via one or more erbB receptors.