In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (12)

Articles by Marie-Victoire Guillot-Sestier in JoVE

Other articles by Marie-Victoire Guillot-Sestier on PubMed

Regulation of BetaAPP and PrPc Cleavage by Alpha-secretase: Mechanistic and Therapeutic Perspectives

Current Alzheimer Research. Apr, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18393805

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is by far the most common form of dementia in the elderly and concerns one out of three individuals over 85. Like other neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson, Hungtington or prion diseases, AD is characterized by the formation of amyloid plaques in the central nervous system. In the brain of AD patients, the main component of these abnormal deposits is an aggregated form of the so-called amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which is produced from a large trans-membrane type-1 protein, the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP), by the sequential action of the beta- and gamma-secretases. Beside these two amyloidogenic proteolytic attacks, betaAPP is targeted by a third enzyme termed alpha-secretase. Of utmost importance, this cleavage, which can be of constitutive or regulated origin, occurs right in the middle of the Abeta sequence, thus precluding its production. For this reason, and because the sAPPalpha secreted fragment derived from this cleavage displays beneficial effects, tremendous efforts have been made recently in order to both identify the proteases involved and the way they are regulated. More recently, it emerged that alpha-secretase was also responsible for the physiological processing of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) in the middle of its toxic 106-126 sequence. This review will focus on the recent advances in the alpha-secretase pathways regulation and will discuss the putative therapeutic approaches that could be envisioned concerning the treatment of two apparently distinct diseases that share common denominators according to their metabolism.

TMP21 Regulates Abeta Production but Does Not Affect Caspase-3, P53, and Neprilysin

Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jun, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18405662

The presenilin (PS)-dependent gamma-secretase activity refers to a high molecular mass-complex including, besides PS1 or PS2, three other proteins recently identified, namely nicastrin, Aph-1, and Pen-2. This proteolytic complex has been shown to contribute to both gamma- and epsilon-cleavages of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP), thereby generating beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD), respectively. TMP21, a member of the p24 cargo protein family, was recently shown to interact with PS complexes. Interestingly, TMP21 modulates gamma-secretase-mediated Abeta production but does not regulate epsilon-secretase-derived AICD formation [F. Chen, H. Hasegawa, G. Schmitt-ulms, T. Kawarai, C. Bohm, T. Katayama, Y. Gu, N. Sanjo, M. Glista, E. Rogaeva, Y. Wakutami, R. Pardossi-Piquard, X. Ruan, A. Tandon, F. Checler, P. Marambaud, K. Hansen, D. Westaway, P. St. George-Hyslop, P. Fraser, TMP21 is a presenilin complex component that modulates gamma- but not epsilon-secretase activities, Nature 440 (2006) 1208-1212]. Here we investigate the functional incidence of the over-expression or depletion of TMP21 on both intracellular and secreted Abeta recoveries and AICD-associated phenotypes. First we confirm that TMP21 depletion yields increased levels of secreted Abeta40. However, we demonstrate that both staurosporine-stimulated caspase-3 activation, p53 and neprilysin expression and activity were not affected by TMP21 over-expression or depletion. Overall, our functional data further reinforce the view that TMP21 behaves as a regulator of gamma- but not epsilon-cleavages generated by PS-dependent gamma-secretase complex.

P53-dependent Control of Cell Death by Nicastrin: Lack of Requirement for Presenilin-dependent Gamma-secretase Complex

Journal of Neurochemistry. Apr, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19187441

Nicastrin (NCT) is a component of the presenilin (PS)-dependent gamma-secretase complexes that liberate amyloid beta-peptides from the beta-Amyloid Precursor Protein. Several lines of evidence indicate that the members of these complexes could also contribute to the control of cell death. Here we show that over-expression of NCT increases the viability of human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells and decreases staurosporine (STS)- and thapsigargin (TPS)-induced caspase-3 activation in various cell lines from human and neuronal origins by Akt-dependent pathway. NCT lowers p53 expression, transcriptional activity and promoter transactivation and reduces p53 phosphorylation. NCT-associated protection against STS-stimulated cell death was completely abolished by p53 deficiency. Conversely, the depletion of NCT drastically enhances STS-induced caspase-3 activation and p53 pathway and favored p53 nuclear translocation. We examined whether NCT protective function depends on PS-dependent gamma-secretase activity. First, a 29-amino acid deletion known to reduce NCT-dependent amyloid beta-peptide production did not affect NCT-associated protective phenotype. Second, NCT still reduces STS-induced caspase-3 activation in fibroblasts lacking PS1 and PS2. Third, the gamma-secretase inhibitor DFK167 did not affect NCT-mediated reduction of p53 activity. Altogether, our study indicates that NCT controls cell death via phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and p53-dependent pathways and that this function remains independent of the activity and molecular integrity of the gamma-secretase complexes.

The Alpha-secretase-derived N-terminal Product of Cellular Prion, N1, Displays Neuroprotective Function in Vitro and in Vivo

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19850936

Cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) undergoes a disintegrin-mediated physiological cleavage, generating a soluble amino-terminal fragment (N1), the function of which remained unknown. Recombinant N1 inhibits staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activation by modulating p53 transcription and activity, whereas the PrP(c)-derived pathological fragment (N2) remains biologically inert. Furthermore, N1 protects retinal ganglion cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis, reduces the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated biotinylated UTP nick end labeling-positive and p53-immunoreactive neurons in a pressure-induced ischemia model of the rat retina and triggers a partial recovery of b-waves but not a-waves of rat electroretinograms. Our work is the first demonstration that the alpha-secretase-derived PrP(c) fragment N1, but not N2, displays in vivo and in vitro neuroprotective function by modulating p53 pathway. It further demonstrates that distinct N-terminal cleavage products of PrP(c) harbor different biological activities underlying the various phenotypes linking PrP(c) to cell survival.

The Extracellular Regulated Kinase-1 (ERK1) Controls Regulated Alpha-secretase-mediated Processing, Promoter Transactivation, and MRNA Levels of the Cellular Prion Protein

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21586567

The α-secretases A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and ADAM17 trigger constitutive and regulated processing of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) yielding N1 fragment. The latter depends on protein kinase C (PKC)-coupled M1/M3 muscarinic receptor activation and subsequent phosphorylation of ADAM17 on its intracytoplasmic threonine 735. Here we show that regulated PrP(c) processing and ADAM17 phosphorylation and activation are controlled by the extracellular-regulated kinase-1/MAP-ERK kinase (ERK1/MEK) cascade. Thus, reductions of ERK1 or MEK activities by dominant-negative analogs, pharmacological inhibition, or genetic ablation all impair N1 secretion, whereas constitutively active proteins increase N1 recovery in the conditioned medium. Interestingly, we also observed an ERK1-mediated enhanced expression of PrP(c). We demonstrate that the ERK1-associated increase in PrP(c) promoter transactivation and mRNA levels involve transcription factor AP-1 as a downstream effector. Altogether, our data identify ERK1 as an important regulator of PrP(c) cellular homeostasis and indicate that this kinase exerts a dual control of PrP(c) levels through transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms.

α-Secretase-derived Fragment of Cellular Prion, N1, Protects Against Monomeric and Oligomeric Amyloid β (Aβ)-associated Cell Death

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22184125

In physiological conditions, both β-amyloid precursor protein (βAPP) and cellular prion (PrP(c)) undergo similar disintegrin-mediated α-secretase cleavage yielding N-terminal secreted products referred to as soluble amyloid precursor protein-α (sAPPα) and N1, respectively. We recently demonstrated that N1 displays neuroprotective properties by reducing p53-dependent cell death both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we examined the potential of N1 as a neuroprotector against amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated toxicity. We first show that both recombinant sAPPα and N1, but not its inactive parent fragment N2, reduce staurosporine-stimulated caspase-3 activation and TUNEL-positive cell death by lowering p53 promoter transactivation and activity in human cells. We demonstrate that N1 also lowers toxicity, cell death, and p53 pathway exacerbation triggered by Swedish mutated βAPP overexpression in human cells. We designed a CHO cell line overexpressing the London mutated βAPP (APP(LDN)) that yields Aβ oligomers. N1 protected primary cultured neurons against toxicity and cell death triggered by oligomer-enriched APP(LDN)-derived conditioned medium. Finally, we establish that N1 also protects neurons against oligomers extracted from Alzheimer disease-affected brain tissues. Overall, our data indicate that a cellular prion catabolite could interfere with Aβ-associated toxicity and that its production could be seen as a cellular protective mechanism aimed at compensating for an sAPPα deficit taking place at the early asymptomatic phase of Alzheimer disease.

Ferulic Acid is a Nutraceutical β-secretase Modulator That Improves Behavioral Impairment and Alzheimer-like Pathology in Transgenic Mice

PloS One. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23409038

Amyloid precursor protein (APP) proteolysis is required for production of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that comprise β-amyloid plaques in brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Recent AD therapeutic interest has been directed toward a group of anti-amyloidogenic compounds extracted from plants. We orally administered the brain penetrant, small molecule phenolic compound ferulic acid (FA) to the transgenic PSAPP mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis (bearing mutant human APP and presenilin-1 transgenes) and evaluated behavioral impairment and AD-like pathology. Oral FA treatment for 6 months reversed transgene-associated behavioral deficits including defective: hyperactivity, object recognition, and spatial working and reference memory, but did not alter wild-type mouse behavior. Furthermore, brain parenchymal and cerebral vascular β-amyloid deposits as well as abundance of various Aβ species including oligomers were decreased in FA-treated PSAPP mice. These effects occurred with decreased cleavage of the β-carboxyl-terminal APP fragment, reduced β-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 protein stability and activity, attenuated neuroinflammation, and stabilized oxidative stress. As in vitro validation, we treated well-characterized mutant human APP-overexpressing murine neuron-like cells with FA and found significantly decreased Aβ production and reduced amyloidogenic APP proteolysis. Collectively, these results highlight that FA is a β-secretase modulator with therapeutic potential against AD.

Innate Immunity in Alzheimer's Disease: a Complex Affair

CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23574177

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by three major histopathological hallmarks: β-amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles and gliosis. While neglected for decades, the neuroinflammatory processes coordinated by microglia are now accepted as etiologic events in AD evolution. Microglial cells are found in close vicinity to amyloid plaques and display various activation phenotypes determined by the expression of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, and innate immune surface receptors. During the development of AD pathology, microglia fail to restrict amyloid plaques and may contribute to neurotoxicity and cognitive deficit. Nevertheless, under specific activation states, microglia can participate in cerebral amyloid clearance. This review focuses on the complex relationship between microglia and Aβ pathology, and highlights both deleterious and beneficial roles of microglial activation states in the context of AD. A deeper understanding of microglial biology will hopefully pave the way for next-generation AD therapeutic approaches aimed at harnessing these enigmatic innate immune cells of the central nervous system.

Brain Injury, Neuroinflammation and Alzheimer's Disease

Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23874297

With as many as 300,000 United States troops in Iraq and Afghanistan having suffered head injuries (Miller, 2012), traumatic brain injury (TBI) has garnered much recent attention. While the cause and severity of these injuries is variable, severe cases can lead to lifelong disability or even death. While aging is the greatest risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), it is now becoming clear that a history of TBI predisposes the individual to AD later in life (Sivanandam and Thakur, 2012). In this review article, we begin by defining hallmark pathological features of AD and the various forms of TBI. Putative mechanisms underlying the risk relationship between these two neurological disorders are then critically considered. Such mechanisms include precipitation and 'spreading' of cerebral amyloid pathology and the role of neuroinflammation. The combined problems of TBI and AD represent significant burdens to public health. A thorough, mechanistic understanding of the precise relationship between TBI and AD is of utmost importance in order to illuminate new therapeutic targets. Mechanistic investigations and the development of preclinical therapeutics are reliant upon a clearer understanding of these human diseases and accurate modeling of pathological hallmarks in animal systems.

The Role of the Immune System in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Adaptive or Maladaptive?

Brain Research. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25218556

Neurodegenerative diseases share common features, including catastrophic neuronal loss that leads to cognitive or motor dysfunction. Neuronal injury occurs in an inflammatory milieu that is populated by resident and sometimes, infiltrating, immune cells - all of which participate in a complex interplay between secreted inflammatory modulators and activated immune cell surface receptors. The importance of these immunomodulators is highlighted by the number of immune factors that have been associated with increased risk of neurodegeneration in recent genome-wide association studies. One of the more difficult tasks for designing therapeutic strategies for immune modulation against neurodegenerative diseases is teasing apart beneficial from harmful signals. In this regard, learning more about the immune components of these diseases has yielded common themes. These unifying concepts should eventually enable immune-based therapeutics for treatment of Alzheimer׳s and Parkinson׳s diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Targeted immune modulation should be possible to temper maladaptive factors, enabling beneficial immune responses in the context of neurodegenerative diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease.

Il10 Deficiency Rebalances Innate Immunity to Mitigate Alzheimer-like Pathology

Neuron. Feb, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25619654

The impact of inflammation suppressor pathways on Alzheimer's disease (AD) evolution remains poorly understood. Human genetic evidence suggests involvement of the cardinal anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-10 (IL10). We crossed the APP/PS1 mouse model of cerebral amyloidosis with a mouse deficient in Il10 (APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-)). Quantitative in silico 3D modeling revealed activated Aβ phagocytic microglia in APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-) mice that restricted cerebral amyloidosis. Genome-wide RNA sequencing of APP/PS1(+)Il10(-/-) brains showed selective modulation of innate immune genes that drive neuroinflammation. Il10 deficiency preserved synaptic integrity and mitigated cognitive disturbance in APP/PS1 mice. In vitro knockdown of microglial Il10-Stat3 signaling endorsed Aβ phagocytosis, while exogenous IL-10 had the converse effect. Il10 deficiency also partially overcame inhibition of microglial Aβ uptake by human Apolipoprotein E. Finally, the IL-10 signaling pathway was abnormally elevated in AD patient brains. Our results suggest that "rebalancing" innate immunity by blocking the IL-10 anti-inflammatory response may be therapeutically relevant for AD.

Innate Immunity Fights Alzheimer's Disease

Trends in Neurosciences. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26549882

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related dementia. Pathognomonic accumulation of cerebral β-amyloid plaques likely results from imbalanced production and removal of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. In AD, innate immune cells lose their ability to restrict cerebral Aβ accumulation. At least in principle, mononuclear phagocytes can be enlisted to clear Aβ/β-amyloid from the brain. While the classical focus has been on dampening neuroinflammation in the context of AD, we hypothesize that rebalancing cerebral innate immunity by inhibiting actions of key anti-inflammatory cytokines returns the brain to a physiological state. Recent experiments demonstrating beneficial effects of blocking anti-inflammatory cytokine signaling in preclinical mouse models provide supportive evidence. This concept represents an important step toward innate immune-targeted therapy to combat AD.

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