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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
- The American Journal of Pathology
- Human Gene Therapy
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN
- FEBS Letters
- The American Journal of Pathology
- PloS One
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
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Articles by Mark A. Atkinson in JoVE
Protocolo de Coleta para Pâncreas Humano
Martha L. Campbell-Thompson, Emily L. Montgomery, Robin M. Foss, Kerwin M. Kolheffer, Gerald Phipps, Lynda Schneider, Mark A. Atkinson
Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida
Este vídeo demonstra um processo para o processamento de dissecção pâncreas humano em formatos de armazenamento. Orientação anatómica é mantida ao longo das regiões pancreáticas para permitir a definição da composição de ilhotas regional e densidade.
Other articles by Mark A. Atkinson on PubMed
Adeno-associated Virus Transduction of Islets with Interleukin-4 Results in Impaired Metabolic Function in Syngeneic Marginal Islet Mass Transplantation
Transplantation. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12438968
Previous studies suggest that therapeutic expression of interleukin (IL)-4 by islet cells improves their efficacy in transplantation models directed at reversing type 1 diabetes. We investigated the effects of introducing IL-4 into islets with recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) on the reversal of hyperglycemia in a syngeneic marginal islet mass transplantation model. C57BL/6 islets were mock-transduced or transduced with rAAV expressing murine IL-4 (rAAV-IL-4) or rAAV expressing green fluorescent protein (rAAV-GFP) before transplantation of a marginal mass into diabetic mice. Normoglycemia was achieved in only 1/7 mice receiving rAAV-IL-4 transduced islets in comparison to 6/6 mock-transduced and 4/6 rAAV-GFP transduced animals. The failure of IL-4 expressing islets was not associated with cellular toxicity of rAAV or impairment of glucose-stimulated insulin release in vitro. Islet expression of IL-4 led to impaired metabolic function in mice receiving a marginal mass of syngeneic islets.
Adeno-associated Virus-mediated IL-10 Gene Therapy Inhibits Diabetes Recurrence in Syngeneic Islet Cell Transplantation of NOD Mice
Diabetes. Mar, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12606512
Islet transplantation represents a potential cure for type 1 diabetes, yet persistent autoimmune and allogeneic immunities currently limit its clinical efficacy. For alleviating the autoimmune destruction of transplanted islets, newly diagnosed NOD mice were provided a single intramuscular injection of recombinant adeno-associated viral vector encoding murine IL-10 (rAAV-IL-10) 4 weeks before renal capsule delivery of 650 syngeneic islets. A dose-dependent protection of islet grafts was observed. Sixty percent (3 of 5) of NOD mice that received a transduction of a high-dose (4 x 10(9) infectious units) rAAV-IL-10 remained normoglycemic for at least 117 days, whereas diabetes recurred within 17 days in mice that received a low-dose rAAV-IL-10 (4 x 10(8) infectious units; 5 of 5) as well as in all of the control mice (5 of 5 untreated and 4 of 4 rAAV-green fluorescent protein-transduced). Serum IL-10 levels positively correlated with prolonged graft survival and were negatively associated with the intensity of autoimmunity. The mechanism of rAAV-IL-10 protection involved a reduction of lymphocytic infiltration as well as induction of antioxidant enzymes manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase 1 in islet grafts. These studies support the utility of immunoregulatory cytokine gene therapy delivered by rAAV for preventing autoimmune disease recurrence in transplant-based therapies for type 1 diabetes.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Apr, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12660329
Gene therapy has the potential to provide a therapeutic strategy for numerous renal diseases such as diabetic nephropathy, chronic rejection, Alport syndrome, polycystic kidney disease, and inherited tubular disorders. In previous studies using cationic liposomes or adenoviral or retroviral vectors to deliver genes into the kidney, transgene expression has been transient and often associated with adverse host immune responses, particularly with the use of adenoviral vectors. The unique properties of recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors permit long-term stable transgene expression with a relatively low host immune response. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate gene expression in the rat kidney after intrarenal arterial infusion of a rAAV (serotype 2) vector encoding green fluorescence protein (GFP) induced by a cytomegalovirus-chicken beta-actin hybrid promoter. The left kidney of experimental animals was treated with either saline or transduced with rAAV2-GFP (0.125 ml/100 g body wt, 1 x 10(10)/ml infectious units) through the renal artery. A time-dependent expression of GFP was observed in all kidneys injected with rAAV2-GFP, with maximal expression observed at 6 wk posttransduction. The expression of GFP was restricted to cells in the S(3) segment of the proximal tubule and intercalated cells in the collecting duct, the latter identified by co-localization with H(+)-ATPase. No transduction was observed in the glomeruli or the intrarenal vasculature. These studies demonstrate successful transgene expression in tubular epithelial cells, specifically in the S(3) segment of the proximal tubule and intercalated cells, after intrarenal administration of a rAAV vector and provide the impetus for further studies to exploit its use as a tool for gene therapy in the kidney.
Heme Oxygenase-1 Modulates Early Inflammatory Responses: Evidence from the Heme Oxygenase-1-deficient Mouse
The American Journal of Pathology. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15331427
Induction of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is protective in tissue injury in models of allograft rejection and vascular inflammation through either prevention of oxidative damage or via immunomodulatory effects. To examine the specific role of HO-1 in modulating the immune response, we examined the differences in immune phenotype between HO-1 knockout (HO-1(-/-)) and wild-type (HO-1(+/+)) mice. Consistent with previous findings, marked splenomegaly and fibrosis were observed in HO-1(-/-) mice. The lymph nodes of HO-1-deficient mice demonstrated a relative paucity of CD3- and B220-positive cells, but no such abnormalities were observed in the thymus. Flow cytometric analysis of isolated splenocytes demonstrated no differences in the proportions of T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes or monocytes/macrophages between the HO-1(-/-) and HO-1(+/+) mice. Significantly higher baseline serum IgM levels were observed in HO-1(-/-) versus HO-1(+/+) mice. Under mitogen stimulation with either lipopolysaccharide or anti-CD3/anti-CD28, HO-1(-/-) splenocytes secreted disproportionately higher levels of pro-inflammatory Th1 cytokines as compared to those from HO-1(+/+) mice. These findings demonstrate significant differences in the immune phenotype between the HO-1(-/-) and the HO-1(+/+) mice. The absence of HO-1 correlates with a Th1-weighted shift in cytokine responses suggesting a general pro-inflammatory tendency associated with HO-1 deficiency.
Efficient Transduction of Vascular Endothelial Cells with Recombinant Adeno-associated Virus Serotype 1 and 5 Vectors
Human Gene Therapy. Feb, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15761263
Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) has become an attractive tool for gene therapy because of its ability to transduce both dividing and nondividing cells, elicit a limited immune response, and the capacity for imparting long-term transgene expression. Previous studies have utilized rAAV serotype 2 predominantly and found that transduction of vascular cells is relatively inefficient. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the transduction efficiency of rAAV serotypes 1 through 5 in human and rat aortic endothelial cells (HAEC and RAEC). rAAV vectors with AAV2 inverted terminal repeats containing the human alpha1-antitrypsin (hAAT) gene were transcapsidated using helper plasmids to provide viral capsids for the AAV1 through 5 serotypes. True type rAAV2 and 5 vectors encoding beta-galactosidase or green fluorescence protein were also studied. Infection with rAAV1 resulted in the most efficient transduction in both HAEC and RAEC compared to other serotypes (p < 0.001) at 7 days posttransduction. Interestingly, expression was increased in cells transduced with rAAV5 to levels surpassing rAAV1 by day 14 and 21. Transduction with rAAV1 was completely inhibited by removal of sialic acid with sialidase, while heparin had no effect. These studies are the first demonstration that sialic acid residues are required for rAAV1 transduction in endothelial cells. Transduction of rat aortic segments ex vivo and in vivo demonstrated significant transgene expression in endothelial and smooth muscle cells with rAAV1 and 5 serotype vectors, in comparison to rAAV2. These results suggest the unique potential of rAAV1 and rAAV5-based vectors for vascular-targeted gene-based therapeutic strategies.
An Integral Role for Heme Oxygenase-1 and Carbon Monoxide in Maintaining Peripheral Tolerance by CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15843512
Over the past decade, a great deal of interest and attention has been directed toward a population of regulatory T cells (Treg) coexpressing the markers CD4 and CD25. The hallmark phenotype of this cell population resides in its ability to dominantly maintain peripheral tolerance and avert autoimmunity. Despite robust research interest in Treg, their mechanism of action and interaction with other cell populations providing immune regulation remains unclear. In this study, we present a model for Treg activity that implicates carbon monoxide, a by-product of heme oxygenase-1 activity, as an important and underappreciated facet in the suppressive capacity of Treg. Our hypothesis is based on recent evidence supporting a role for heme oxygenase-1 in regulating immune reactivity and posit carbon monoxide to function as a suppressive molecule. Potential roles for indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, costimulatory molecules, and cytokines in tolerance induction are also presented. This model, if validated, could act as a catalyst for new investigations into Treg function and ultimately result in novel methods to modulate Treg biology toward therapeutic applications.
Interleukin 10 Attenuates Neointimal Proliferation and Inflammation in Aortic Allografts by a Heme Oxygenase-dependent Pathway
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15878989
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with well known antiinflammatory, immunosuppressive, and immunostimulatory properties. Chronic allograft rejection, characterized by vascular neointimal proliferation, is a major cause of organ transplant loss, particularly in heart and kidney transplant recipients. In a Dark Agouti to Lewis rat model of aortic transplantation, we evaluated the effects of a single intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector (serotype 1) encoding IL-10 (rAAV1-IL-10) on neointimal proliferation and inflammation. rAAV1-IL-10 treatment resulted in a significant reduction of neointimal proliferation and graft infiltration with macrophages and T and B lymphocytes. The mechanism underlying the protective effects of IL-10 in aortic allografts involved heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) because inhibition of HO activity reversed not only neointimal proliferation but also inflammatory cell infiltration. Our results indicate that IL-10 attenuates neointimal proliferation and inflammatory infiltration and strongly imply that HO-1 is an important intermediary through which IL-10 regulates the inflammatory responses associated with chronic vascular rejection.
Immunity. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16111631
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) animal models such as the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse have improved our understanding of disease pathophysiology, but many candidate therapeutics identified therein have failed to prevent/cure human disease. We have performed a comprehensive evaluation of disease-modifying agents tested in the NOD mouse based on treatment timing, duration, study length, and efficacy. Interestingly, some popular tenets regarding NOD interventions were not confirmed: all treatments do not prevent disease, treatment dose and timing strongly influence efficacy, and several therapies have successfully treated overtly diabetic mice. The analysis provides a unique perspective on NOD interventions and suggests that the response of this model to therapeutic interventions can be a useful predictor of the human response as long as careful consideration is given to treatment dose, timing, and protocols; more thorough investigation of these parameters should improve clinical translation.
Systemic Overexpression of Interleukin-10 Fails to Protect Allogeneic Islet Transplants in Nonobese Diabetic Mice
Transplantation. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16123729
Interleukin (IL)-10 has proven effective in various allogeneic transplantation models and for preventing recurrent autoimmune rejection of syngeneic islets in NOD mice. Therefore, we evaluated systemic IL-10 overexpression on allogeneic islet graft survival. Diabetic NOD mice received a single injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) serotype 2 encoding murine IL-10 (rAAV-IL-10) four weeks prior to renal subcasular islet transplantation. In a model having both autoimmune and allogeneic responses, IL-10 failed to protect C57BL/6 islets in spontaneously diabetic NOD mice. In an allograft model (C57BL/6 islets into young male streptozotocin-induced diabetic NOD mice), long-term (i.e., >169 days) islet survival was only seen in 2 of 14 rAAV-IL-10 treated mice. These failures occurred despite in vivo IL-10 production at transplant previously associated with protection of syngeneic islet grafts in NOD mice. Thus, IL-10 appears insufficient in protecting transplanted islet cells from allogeneic rejection and suggests important mechanistic variances between alloreactivity and autoimmunity in terms islet graft loss.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : JASN. Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16251240
IL-10 is a pluripotent cytokine that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Whereas short-term administration of IL-10 has shown benefit in acute glomerulonephritis, no studies have addressed the potential benefits of IL-10 in chronic renal disease. Chronically elevated blood levels of IL-10 in rats were achieved by administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 1 IL-10 (rAAV1-IL-10) vector. Control rats were given a similar dose of rAAV1-GFP. Four weeks after injection, IL-10 levels in serum were measured by ELISA, and chronic renal disease was induced by a 5/6 nephrectomy (n = 6 in each group). Eight weeks later, rats were killed and renal tissue was obtained for RNA, protein, and immunohistochemical analysis. Serum levels of IL-10 were 12-fold greater in the rAAV1-IL-10 group by 4 wk after rAAV1-IL-10 administration (345 +/- 169 versus 28 +/- 15 pg/ml; P = 0.001), and levels were maintained throughout the experiment. rAAV1-IL-10 treatment resulted in less proteinuria (P < 0.05), lower serum creatinine (P < 0.05), and higher creatinine clearances (P < 0.01) compared with rAAV1-GFP-treated rats. Renal interstitial infiltration was significantly attenuated by rAAV1-IL-10 administration as assessed by numbers of CD4+, CD8+, monocyte-macrophages (ED-1+) and dendritic (OX-62+) cells (P < 0.05), and this correlated with reductions in the renal expression of monocyte (renal monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA and protein) and T cell (RANTES mRNA) chemokines. rAAV1-IL-10 administration decreased mRNA levels of IFN-gamma and IL-2 in the kidney. The reduction in inflammatory cells was associated with a significant reduction in glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. It is concluded that IL-10 blocks inflammation and improves renal function in this model of chronic renal disease. The feasibility of long-term overexpression of a gene using the AAV serotype 1 vector system in a model of renal disease is also demonstrated.
Efficient Delivery of SiRNA into Cytokine-stimulated Insulinoma Cells Silences Fas Expression and Inhibits Fas-mediated Apoptosis
FEBS Letters. Jan, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16412430
Fas/FasL interactions have been proposed as a potentially important mechanism mediating beta-cell death in type 1 diabetes. Recent investigations suggest RNA interference, afforded by small interfering RNAs (siRNA), can provide specific and robust gene silencing in mammalian cells. The current study attempted to investigate the effects of silencing Fas expression with siRNA on Fas-mediated apoptosis in mouse insulinoma cells following cytokine incubation. Our results indicate that siRNA is capable of rapid inhibition of cytokine-induced Fas mRNA production and cell surface Fas protein. A complete suppression of the total Fas protein was only observed after prolonged incubation with siRNA, suggesting a slow turn-over of Fas protein. Moreover, siRNA significantly inhibited Fas-mediated beta-cell apoptosis assessed by Caspase-3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling assays, the extent of which positively correlated with the level of cell surface Fas. These observations provide additional evidence supporting a role for the Fas-mediated pathway in beta-cell destruction, and suggest that siRNA targeting Fas may be of therapeutic value in preventing type 1 diabetes and improving islet cell viability in transplantation.
Suppression by CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells is Dependent on Expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Antigen-presenting Cells
The American Journal of Pathology. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18511516
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has been viewed as a cytoprotective protein, ameliorating the effects of inflammatory cellular damage, and as beneficial in allograft protection from acute and chronic rejection, suggesting important functions in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Mice deficient in HO-1 exhibit defective immune regulation characterized by a proinflammatory phenotype. We examined if impaired regulatory T cell (Treg) function contributes to the immunoregulatory defects observed in HO-1(-/-) mice. HO-1(-/-) mice exhibited a significantly higher proportion of Foxp3-expressing cells among total CD4(+) and CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in comparison to HO-1(+/+) mice, and HO-1(-/-) Treg cells were at least as effective as HO-1(+/+) Treg cells in suppressing proliferation of effector T cells in vitro from either HO-1(+/+) or HO-1(-/-) mice. However, the absence of HO-1 in antigen-presenting cells abolished the suppressive activity of Treg cells on effector T cells. These findings demonstrate that HO-1 activity in antigen-presenting cells is important for Treg-mediated suppression, providing an explanation for the apparent defect in immune regulation in HO-1(-/-) mice.
Diabetes. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19074986
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) have catalyzed the field of immune regulation. However, translating Treg-based therapies from animal models of autoimmunity to human clinical trials requires robust methods for the isolation and expansion of these cells-a need forming the basis for these studies.
Immune Depletion with Cellular Mobilization Imparts Immunoregulation and Reverses Autoimmune Diabetes in Nonobese Diabetic Mice
Diabetes. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19628781
The autoimmune destruction of beta-cells in type 1 diabetes results in a loss of insulin production and glucose homeostasis. As such, an immense interest exists for the development of therapies capable of attenuating this destructive process through restoration of proper immune recognition. Therefore, we investigated the ability of the immune-depleting agent antithymocyte globulin (ATG), as well as the mobilization agent granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF), to reverse overt hyperglycemia in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20668510
Therapies directed at augmenting regulatory T cell (Treg) activities in vivo as a systemic treatment for autoimmune disorders and transplantation may be associated with significant off-target effects, including a generalized immunosuppression that may compromise beneficial immune responses to infections and cancer cells. Adoptive cellular therapies using purified expanded Tregs represents an attractive alternative to systemic treatments, with results from animal studies noting increased therapeutic potency of antigen-specific Tregs over polyclonal populations. However, current methodologies are limited in terms of the capacity to isolate and expand a sufficient quantity of endogenous antigen-specific Tregs for therapeutic intervention. Moreover, FOXP3+ Tregs fall largely within the CD4+ T cell subset and are thus routinely MHC class II-specific, whereas class I-specific Tregs may function optimally in vivo by facilitating direct tissue recognition.
Diabetes. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21525508
Progressive Erosion of β-cell Function Precedes the Onset of Hyperglycemia in the NOD Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21659497
A progressive decline in insulin responses to glucose was noted in individuals before the onset of type 1 diabetes. We determined whether such abnormalities occurred in prediabetic NOD mice-the prototypic model for human type 1 diabetes.
Structure-based Selection of Small Molecules to Alter Allele-specific MHC Class II Antigen Presentation
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22043012
Class II major histocompatibility molecules are the primary susceptibility locus for many autoimmune disorders, including type 1 diabetes. Human DQ8 and I-A(g7), in the NOD mouse model of spontaneous autoimmune diabetes, confers diabetes risk by modulating presentation of specific islet peptides in the thymus and periphery. We used an in silico molecular docking program to screen a large "druglike" chemical library to define small molecules capable of occupying specific structural pockets along the I-A(g7) binding groove, with the objective of influencing presentation to T cells of the autoantigen insulin B chain peptide consisting of amino acids 9-23. In this study we show, using both murine and human cells, that small molecules can enhance or inhibit specific TCR signaling in the presence of cognate target peptides, based upon the structural pocket targeted. The influence of compounds on the TCR response was pocket dependent, with pocket 1 and 6 compounds inhibiting responses and molecules directed at pocket 9 enhancing responses to peptide. At nanomolar concentrations, the inhibitory molecules block the insulin B chain peptide consisting of amino acids 9-23, endogenous insulin, and islet-stimulated T cell responses. Glyphosine, a pocket 9 compound, enhances insulin peptide presentation to T cells at concentrations as low as 10 nM, upregulates IL-10 secretion, and prevents diabetes in NOD mice. These studies present a novel method for identifying small molecules capable of both stimulating and inhibiting T cell responses, with potentially therapeutic applications.