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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
- Journal of Neurophysiology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of Vision
- Epileptic Disorders : International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
- Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
- PM & R : the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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Articles by Mark A. Halko in JoVE
Kombinera transkraniell magnetisk stimulering och fMRI för att undersöka nätverket standardläge
Mark A. Halko, Mark C. Eldaief, Jared C. Horvath, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center
I denna artikel undersöker vi de metoder och överväganden som ligger på kombinationen av TMS och fMRI för att undersöka effekterna av hjärnstimulering på default-nätverket.
Other articles by Mark A. Halko on PubMed
Journal of Neurophysiology. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17135476
The involvement of occipital cortex in sensory processing is not restricted solely to the visual modality. Tactile processing has been shown to modulate higher-order visual and multisensory integration areas in sighted as well as visually deprived subjects; however, the extent of involvement of early visual cortical areas remains unclear. To investigate this issue, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging in normally sighted, briefly blindfolded subjects with well-defined visuotopic borders as they tactually explored and rated raised-dot patterns. Tactile task performance resulted in significant activation in primary visual cortex (V1) and deactivation of extrastriate cortical regions V2, V3, V3A, and hV4 with greater deactivation in dorsal subregions and higher visual areas. These results suggest that tactile processing affects occipital cortex via two distinct pathways: a suppressive top-down pathway descending through the visual cortical hierarchy and an excitatory pathway arising from outside the visual cortical hierarchy that drives area V1 directly.
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17507555
Human parietal cortex is implicated in a wide variety of sensory and cognitive functions, yet its precise organization remains unclear. Visual field maps provide a potential structural basis for descriptions of functional organization. Here, we detail the topography of a series of five maps of the contralateral visual hemifield within human posterior parietal cortex. These maps are located along the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and are revealed by direct visual stimulation during functional magnetic resonance imaging, allowing these parietal regions to be routinely and reliably identified simultaneously with occipital visual areas. Two of these maps (IPS3 and IPS4) are novel, whereas two others (IPS1 and IPS2) have previously been revealed only by higher-order cognitive tasks. Area V7, a previously identified visual map, is observed to lie within posterior IPS and to share a foveal representation with IPS1. These parietal maps are reliably observed across scan sessions; however, their precise topography varies between individuals. The multimodal organization of posterior IPS mirrors this variability in visual topography, with complementary tactile activations found immediately adjacent to the visual maps both medially and laterally. These visual maps may provide a practical framework in which to characterize the functional organization of human IPS.
Journal of Vision. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18831611
A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain illusory contour formation. However, since prior studies have focused on a single mechanism, there is no clear consensus regarding contour formation mechanisms. Here we developed a novel vivid dynamic display we call the chomping pacman that allows measurement of minute differences in contour clarity. This illusion is shown to be more vivid than traditional static displays. Using the method of adjustment, we are able to identify three mechanisms of contour formation: extrapolation, interpolation, and figural. We posit that these three mechanisms combine to form the general illusory contour percept in traditional static Kanizsa displays and likely contribute to real-world contour perception.
Epileptic Disorders : International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19736169
Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis (HS) often show ictal and interictal propagation of epileptiform EEG activity to the ipsilateral temporal neocortex, the ipsilateral frontal lobe or the contralateral hippocampus, although structural MRI only shows unilateral involvement of the hippocampal formation. We used whole-head diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to delineate a network that facilitates propagation of interictal epileptiform and seizure activity in this patient group.
Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20130756
A long-standing debate in cognitive neuroscience pertains to the innate nature of language development and the underlying factors that determine this faculty. We explored the neural correlates associated with language processing in a unique individual who is early blind, congenitally deaf, and possesses a high level of language function. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared the neural networks associated with the tactile reading of words presented in Braille, Print on Palm (POP), and a haptic form of American Sign Language (haptic ASL or hASL). With all three modes of tactile communication, indentifying words was associated with robust activation within occipital cortical regions as well as posterior superior temporal and inferior frontal language areas (lateralized within the left hemisphere). In a normally sighted and hearing interpreter, identifying words through hASL was associated with left-lateralized activation of inferior frontal language areas however robust occipital cortex activation was not observed. Diffusion tensor imaging -based tractography revealed differences consistent with enhanced occipital-temporal connectivity in the deaf-blind subject. Our results demonstrate that in the case of early onset of both visual and auditory deprivation, tactile-based communication is associated with an extensive cortical network implicating occipital as well as posterior superior temporal and frontal associated language areas. The cortical areas activated in this deaf-blind subject are consistent with characteristic cortical regions previously implicated with language. Finally, the resilience of language function within the context of early and combined visual and auditory deprivation may be related to enhanced connectivity between relevant cortical areas.
Combining Visual Rehabilitative Training and Noninvasive Brain Stimulation to Enhance Visual Function in Patients with Hemianopia: a Comparative Case Study
PM & R : the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21944300
To standardize a protocol for promoting visual rehabilitative outcomes in post-stroke hemianopia by combining occipital cortical transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) with Vision Restoration Therapy (VRT).
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Modulates the Brain's Intrinsic Activity in a Frequency-dependent Manner
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22160708
Intrinsic activity in the brain is organized into networks. Although constrained by their anatomical connections, functional correlations between nodes of these networks reorganize dynamically. Dynamic organization implies that couplings between network nodes can be reconfigured to support processing demands. To explore such reconfigurations, we combined repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to modulate cortical activity in one node of the default network, and assessed the effect of this upon functional correlations throughout the network. Two different frequencies of rTMS to the same default network node (the left posterior inferior parietal lobule, lpIPL) induced two topographically distinct changes in functional connectivity. High-frequency rTMS to lpIPL decreased functional correlations between cortical default network nodes, but not between these nodes and the hippocampal formation. In contrast, low frequency rTMS to lpIPL did not alter connectivity between cortical default network nodes, but increased functional correlations between lpIPL and the hippocampal formation. These results suggest that the default network is composed of (at least) two subsystems. More broadly, the finding that two rTMS stimulation regimens to the same default network node have distinct effects reveals that this node is embedded within a network that possesses multiple, functionally distinct relationships among its distributed partners.