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Articles by Mark A. Tanouye in JoVE
, Epilepsi Mutants Nöbetler Neurocircuit Tahliller Drosophila
Iris C. Howlett1, Mark A. Tanouye1,2
1Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, 2Department of Environmental Science, Policy Management, University of California, Berkeley
Yüksek frekanslı elektrik stimülasyonu, nöbet benzeri aktivite kullanma uyarılabilir
Other articles by Mark A. Tanouye on PubMed
Genome Research. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12213773
Olfaction is of considerable importance to many insects in behaviors critical for survival and reproduction, including location of food sources, selection of mates, recognition of colony con-specifics, and determination of oviposition sites. An ubiquitous, but poorly understood, component of the insect's olfactory system is a group of odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) that are present at high concentrations in the aqueous lymph surrounding the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons. OBPs are believed to shuttle odorants from the environment to the underlying odorant receptors, for which they could potentially serve as odorant presenters. Here we show that the Drosophila genome carries 51 potential OBP genes, a number comparable to that of its odorant-receptor genes. We find that the majority (73%) of these OBP-like genes occur in clusters of as many as nine genes, in contrast to what has been observed for the Drosophila odorant-receptor genes. Two of the presumptive OBP gene clusters each carries an odorant-receptor gene. We also report an intriguing subfamily of 12 putative OBPs that share a unique C-terminal structure with three conserved cysteines and a conserved proline. Members of this subfamily have not previously been described for any insect. We have performed phylogenetic analyses of the OBP-related proteins in Drosophila as well as other insects, and we discuss the duplication and divergence of the genes for this large family. [The sequence data from this study have been submitted to FlyBase. Annotations for these sequences are available as supplementary material at http://www.genome.org.]
Potassium Bromide, an Anticonvulsant, is Effective at Alleviating Seizures in the Drosophila Bang-sensitive Mutant Bang Senseless
Brain Research. Sep, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15312786
Human seizure disorders are a major health concern due to the large number of affected individuals, the potentially devastating consequences of untreated seizure occurrences, and the lack of an effective treatment for all patients. Although anticonvulsants have proven very helpful in treating seizures and remain the best option available for treatment, not all afflicted individuals respond to medication and many only do so in unique drug combinations or at the cost of adverse side-effects. Therefore, new and more effective anticonvulsants are continually sought after to combat this illness. In this study, we present results which offer the possibility of using Drosophila bang-sensitive (BS) mutants as a tool to screen anticonvulsants. By feeding the BS mutants a known anticonvulsant, potassium bromide, we have demonstrated that the drug dramatically reduces the seizures of bang senseless, the most severe of the BS mutants. This methodology suggests that the Drosophila system can potentially be a powerful instrument for assaying and testing new compounds with anticonvulsant properties.
Genetics. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15654097
Suppressor mutations provide potentially powerful tools for examining mechanisms underlying neurological disorders and identifying novel targets for pharmacological intervention. Here we describe mutations that suppress seizures in a Drosophila model of human epilepsy. A screen utilizing the Drosophila easily shocked (eas) "epilepsy" mutant identified dominant suppressors of seizure sensitivity. Among several mutations identified, neuronal escargot (esg) reduced eas seizures almost 90%. The esg gene encodes a member of the snail family of transcription factors. Whereas esg is normally expressed in a limited number of neurons during a defined period of nervous system development, here normal esg was expressed in all neurons and throughout development. This greatly ameliorated both the electrophysiological and the behavioral epilepsy phenotypes of eas. Neuronal esg appears to act as a general seizure suppressor in the Drosophila epilepsy model as it reduces the susceptibility of several seizure-prone mutants. We observed that esg must be ectopically expressed during nervous system development to reduce seizure susceptibility in adults. Furthermore, induction of esg in a small subset of neurons (interneurons) will reduce seizure susceptibility. A combination of microarray and computational analyses revealed 100 genes that represent possible targets of neuronal esg. We anticipate that some of these genes may ultimately serve as targets for novel antiepileptic drugs.
Drosophila Couch Potato Mutants Exhibit Complex Neurological Abnormalities Including Epilepsy Phenotypes
Genetics. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15687283
RNA-binding proteins play critical roles in regulation of gene expression, and impairment can have severe phenotypic consequences on nervous system function. We report here the discovery of several complex neurological phenotypes associated with mutations of couch potato (cpo), which encodes a Drosophila RNA-binding protein. We show that mutation of cpo leads to bang-sensitive paralysis, seizure susceptibility, and synaptic transmission defects. A new cpo allele called cpo(EG1) was identified on the basis of a bang-sensitive paralytic mutant phenotype in a sensitized genetic background (sda/+). In heteroallelic combinations with other cpo alleles, cpo(EG1) shows an incompletely penetrant bang-sensitive phenotype with approximately 30% of flies becoming paralyzed. In response to electroconvulsive shock, heteroallelic combinations with cpo(EG1) exhibit seizure thresholds less than half that of wild-type flies. Finally, cpo flies display several neurocircuit abnormalities in the giant fiber (GF) system. The TTM muscles of cpo mutants exhibit long latency responses coupled with decreased following frequency. DLM muscles in cpo mutants show drastic reductions in following frequency despite exhibiting normal latency relationships. The labile sites appear to be the electrochemical GF-TTMn synapse and the chemical PSI-DLMn synapses. These complex neurological phenotypes of cpo mutants support an important role for cpo in regulating proper nervous system function, including seizure susceptibility.
The Mei-P26 Gene Encodes a RING Finger B-box Coiled-coil-NHL Protein That Regulates Seizure Susceptibility in Drosophilia
Genetics. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15937125
Seizure-suppressor mutations provide unique insight into the genes and mechanisms involved in regulating nervous system excitability. Drosophila bang-sensitive (BS) mutants present a useful tool for identifying seizure suppressors since they are a well-characterized epilepsy model. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of a new Drosophila seizure-suppressor mutant that results from disruption of the meiotic gene mei-P26, which belongs to the RBCC-NHL family of proteins. The mei-P26 mutation reduces seizures in easily shocked (eas) and slamdance (sda) epileptic flies following mechanical stimulation and electroconvulsive shock. In addition, mutant mei-P26 flies exhibit seizure thresholds at least threefold greater than those of wild type. The mei-P26 phenotypes appear to result from missense mutation of a critical residue in the NHL protein-protein interaction domain of the protein. These results reveal a surprising role for mei-P26 outside of the germline as a regulator of seizure susceptibility, possibly by affecting synaptic development as a ubiquitin ligase.
Journal of Neurophysiology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16192342
Gap junction proteins mediate electrical synaptic transmission. In Drosophila, flies carrying null mutations in the shakB locus, such as shakB2, have behavioral and electrophysiological defects in the giant fiber (GF) system neurocircuit consistent with a loss of transmission at electrical synapses. The shakB2 mutation also affects seizure susceptibility. Mutant flies are especially seizure-resistant and have a high threshold to evoked seizures. In addition, in some double mutant combinations with "epilepsy" mutations, shakB2 appears to act as a seizure-suppressor mutation: shakB2 restores seizure susceptibility to the wild-type range in the double mutant. In double mutant combinations, shakB2 completely suppresses seizures caused by slamdance (sda), knockdown (kdn), and jitterbug (jbug) mutations. Seizures caused by easily shocked (eas) and technical knockout (tko) mutations are partially suppressed by shakB2. Seizures caused by bang-sensitive (bas2) and bang-senseless (bss1, bss2 alleles) mutations are not suppressed by shakB2. These results show the use of Drosophila as a model system for studying the kinds of genetic interactions responsible for seizure susceptibility, bringing us closer to unraveling the complexity of seizure disorders in humans.
Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. Feb, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16378740
Flies escape danger by jumping into the air and flying away. The giant fibre system (GFS) is the neural circuit that mediates this simple behavioural response to visual stimuli. The sensory signal is received by the giant fibre and relayed to the leg and wing muscle motorneurons. Many of the neurons in the Drosophila GFS are uniquely identifiable and amenable to cell biological, electrophysiological and genetic studies. Here we review the anatomy and development of this system and highlight its utility for studying many aspects of nervous system biology ranging from neural development and synaptic plasticity to the aetiology of neural disorder.
Mutations in the K+/Cl- Cotransporter Gene Kazachoc (kcc) Increase Seizure Susceptibility in Drosophila
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16943550
During a critical period in the developing mammalian brain, there is a major switch in the nature of GABAergic transmission from depolarizing and excitatory, the pattern of the neonatal brain, to hyperpolarizing and inhibitory, the pattern of the mature brain. This switch is believed to play a major role in determining neuronal connectivity via activity-dependent mechanisms. The GABAergic developmental switch may also be particularly vulnerable to dysfunction leading to seizure disorders. The developmental GABA switch is mediated primarily by KCC2, a neuronal K+/Cl- cotransporter that determines the intracellular concentration of Cl- and, hence, the reversal potential for GABA. Here, we report that kazachoc (kcc) mutations that reduce the level of the sole K+/Cl- cotransporter in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster render flies susceptible to epileptic-like seizures. Drosophila kcc protein is widely expressed in brain neuropil, and its level rises with developmental age. Young kcc mutant flies with low kcc levels display behavioral seizures and demonstrate a reduced threshold for seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock. The kcc mutation enhances a series of other Drosophila epilepsy mutations indicating functional interactions leading to seizure disorder. Both genetic and pharmacological experiments suggest that the increased seizure susceptibility of kcc flies occurs via excitatory GABAergic signaling. The kcc mutants provide an excellent model system in which to investigate how modulation of GABAergic signaling influences neuronal excitability and epileptogenesis.
Progress in Neurobiology. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18063465
Studies of human seizure disorders have revealed that susceptibility to seizures is greatly influenced by genetic factors. In addition to causing epilepsy, genetic factors can suppress seizures and epileptogenesis. Examination of seizure-suppressor genes is challenging in humans. However, such genes are readily identified and analyzed in a Drosophila animal model of epilepsy. In this article, the epilepsy phenotype of Drosophila seizure-sensitive mutants is reviewed. A novel class of genes called seizure-suppressors is described. Mutations defining suppressors revert the "epilepsy" phenotype of neurological mutants. We conclude this review with particular discussion of a seizure-suppressor gene encoding DNA topoisomerase I (top1). Mutations of top1 are especially effective at reverting the seizure-sensitive phenotype of Drosophila epilepsy mutants. In addition, an unexpected class of anti-epileptic drugs has been identified. These are DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors such as camptothecin and its derivatives; several candidates are comparable or perhaps better than traditional anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate at reducing seizures in Drosophila drug-feeding experiments.
Seizure Sensitivity is Ameliorated by Targeted Expression of K+-Cl- Cotransporter Function in the Mushroom Body of the Drosophila Brain
Genetics. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19884312
The kcc(DHS1) allele of kazachoc (kcc) was identified as a seizure-enhancer mutation exacerbating the bang-sensitive (BS) paralytic behavioral phenotypes of several seizure-sensitive Drosophila mutants. On their own, young kcc(DHS1) flies also display seizure-like behavior and demonstrate a reduced threshold for seizures induced by electroconvulsive shock. The product of kcc shows substantial homology to KCC2, the mammalian neuronal K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter. The kcc(DHS1) allele is a hypomorph, and its seizure-like phenotype reflects reduced expression of the kcc gene. We report here that kcc functions as a K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter when expressed heterologously in Xenopus laevis oocytes: under hypotonic conditions that induce oocyte swelling, oocytes that express Drosophila kcc display robust ion transport activity observed as a Cl(-)-dependent uptake of the K(+) congener (86)Rb(+). Ectopic, spatially restricted expression of a UAS-kcc(+) transgene was used to determine where cotransporter function is required in order to rescue the kcc(DHS1) BS paralytic phenotype. Interestingly, phenotypic rescue is largely accounted for by targeted, circumscribed expression in the mushroom bodies (MBs) and the ellipsoid body (EB) of the central complex. Intriguingly, we observed that MB induction of kcc(+) functioned as a general seizure suppressor in Drosophila. Drosophila MBs have generated considerable interest especially for their role as the neural substrate for olfactory learning and memory; they have not been previously implicated in seizure susceptibility. We show that kcc(DHS1) seizure sensitivity in MB neurons acts via a weakening of chemical synaptic inhibition by GABAergic transmission and suggest that this is due to disruption of intracellular Cl(-) gradients in MB neurons.
International Review of Neurobiology. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21906534
Despite the frequency of seizure disorders in the human population, the genetic and physiological basis for these defects has been difficult to resolve. Although many genetic contributions to seizure susceptibility have been identified, these involve disparate biological processes, many of which are not neural specific. The large number and heterogeneous nature of the genes involved makes it difficult to understand the complex factors underlying the etiology of seizure disorders. Examining the effect known genetic mutations have on seizure susceptibility is one approach that may prove fruitful. This approach may be helpful in both understanding how different physiological processes affect seizure susceptibility and identifying novel therapeutic treatments. We review here factors contributing to seizure susceptibility in Drosophila, a genetically tractable system that provides a model for human seizure disorders. Seizure-like neuronal activities and behaviors in the fruit fly are described, as well as a set of mutations that exhibit features resembling some human epilepsies and render the fly sensitive to seizures. Especially interesting are descriptions of a novel class of mutations that are second-site mutations that act as seizure suppressors. These mutations revert epilepsy phenotypes back to the wild-type range of seizure susceptibility. The genes responsible for seizure suppression are cloned with the goal of identifying targets for lead compounds that may be developed into new antiepileptic drugs.
Drosophila As a Model for Epilepsy: Bss is a Gain-of-function Mutation in the Para Sodium Channel Gene That Leads to Seizures
Genetics. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21115970
We report the identification of bang senseless (bss), a Drosophila melanogaster mutant exhibiting seizure-like behaviors, as an allele of the paralytic (para) voltage-gated Na(+) (Na(V)) channel gene. Mutants are more prone to seizure episodes than normal flies because of a lowered seizure threshold. The bss phenotypes are due to a missense mutation in a segment previously implicated in inactivation, termed the "paddle motif" of the Na(V) fourth homology domain. Heterologous expression of cDNAs containing the bss(1) lesion, followed by electrophysiology, shows that mutant channels display altered voltage dependence of inactivation compared to wild type. The phenotypes of bss are the most severe of the bang-sensitive mutants in Drosophila and can be ameliorated, but not suppressed, by treatment with anti-epileptic drugs. As such, bss-associated seizures resemble those of pharmacologically resistant epilepsies caused by mutation of the human Na(V) SCN1A, such as severe myoclonic epilepsy in infants or intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures.