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In JoVE (1)
- Ensaio in vitro de metilação tRNA com a Entamoeba histolytica DNA e Dnmt2 tRNA metiltransferase (Ehmeth) Enzyme
Other Publications (43)
- Russian Journal of Immunology : RJI : Official Journal of Russian Society of Immunology
- Chemistry & Biology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Nucleic Acids Research
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- The Review of Scientific Instruments
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English)
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry / Edited by Serge L. Beaucage ... [et Al.]
- Medical Care
- Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
- Value in Health : the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
- Biological Chemistry
- Current Medical Research and Opinion
- Neuroscience Letters
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- RNA (New York, N.Y.)
- Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.)
- PLoS Pathogens
- RNA Biology
- Genes & Development
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Journal of the American Chemical Society
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Nucleic Acids Research
- Journal of Nucleic Acids
- EMBO Reports
- Chemistry & Biology
- Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
- Biological Chemistry
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
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Articles by Mark Helm in JoVE
Ensaio in vitro de metilação tRNA com a Entamoeba histolytica DNA e Dnmt2 tRNA metiltransferase (Ehmeth) Enzyme
Ayala Tovy1, Benjamin Hofmann2, Mark Helm2, Serge Ankri1
1Faculty of Medicine, Rappaport Institute, Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, 2The Pharmacy and Biochemistry Institute, Johannes Gutenberg University
Este protocolo descreve a preparação de um substrato sintético para o tRNA
Other articles by Mark Helm on PubMed
Variability of Substrate Specificity of Serum Antibodies Obtained from Patients with Different Autoimmune and Viral Diseases in Reaction of TRNA Hydrolysis
Russian Journal of Immunology : RJI : Official Journal of Russian Society of Immunology. Apr, 1999 | Pubmed ID: 12687113
Recently we have shown that the substrate specificity of catalytic IgG isolated from sera of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), polyarthritis and hepatitis B for classic poly(N) homopolynucleotide substrates and for specific tRNA(Phe) with compact and stable structure was correlated with the type of disease. At the same time the cleavage specificity was different in comparison with that of all known human RNases. Here we investigated for the first time the hydrolysis by the IgGs isolated from sera of 31 patients with different diseases of the in vitro transcript of human mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) which has less stable structure as compared to tRNA(Phe). The level of activity was strongly dependent on the patient, but in general increased in the order: hepatitis B = Hashimoto's thyroiditis < SLE. The pH dependencies and various salts effects also varied for Abs from the sera of different patients. Nevertheless, the RNase activity of all IgGs was specifically stimulated by Mg(2+) ions, that essentially completely suppress the activity of all known human RNases. In contrast to the classical substrates, no correlation between patient's IgG cleavage specificity and a specific disease was revealed; each patient demonstrated an individual repertoire of polyclonal RNA-hydrolyzing IgGs independently of the disease.
Chemistry & Biology. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14700622
Recombination of genetic information is a major driving force in evolution, today catalyzed by protein enzymes. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, a paper by Riley and Lehman demonstrates that RNA can perform general recombination of RNA strands, thus supporting the scenario of a prebiotic RNA world.
A Monomer-to-trimer Transition of the Human Mitochondrial Transcription Termination Factor (mTERF) is Associated with a Loss of in Vitro Activity
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14744862
The human mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) is a nuclear-encoded 39-kDa protein that recognizes a mtDNA segment within the mitochondrial tRNA(Leu(UUR)) gene immediately adjacent to and downstream of the 16 S rRNA gene. Binding of mTERF to this site promotes termination of rDNA transcription. Despite the fact that mTERF binds DNA as a monomer, the presence in its sequence of three leucine-zipper motifs suggested the possibility of mTERF establishing intermolecular interactions with proteins of the same or different type. When a mitochondrial lysate from HeLa cells was submitted to gel filtration chromatography, mTERF was eluted in two peaks, as detected by immunoblotting. The first peak, which varied in proportion between 30 and 50%, appeared at the position expected from the molecular mass of the monomer (41 +/- 2 kDa), and the gel filtration fractions that contained it exhibited DNA binding activity. Most interestingly, the material in this peak had a strong stimulating activity on in vitro transcription of the mitochondrial rDNA. The second peak eluted at a position corresponding to an estimated molecular mass of 111 +/- 5 kDa. No mTERF DNA binding activity could be detected in the corresponding gel filtration fractions. Therefore, we propose that mTERF exists in mitochondria in two forms, an active monomer and an inactive large size complex. The estimated molecular weight of this complex and the fact that purified mTERF can be eluted from a gel filtration column as a complex of the same molecular weight strongly suggest that this inactive complex is a homotrimer of mTERF.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15019776
The evolutionary loss in eukaryotic cells of mitochondrial (mt) tRNA genes and of tRNA structural information in the surviving genes has led to the appearance of mt-tRNAs with highly unusual structural features. One such mt-tRNA is the human mt-tRNALys, which relies on post-transcriptional base modification to achieve correct three-dimensional structure. It has been shown that the in vitro transcript of human mt-tRNALys adopts a particular, non-cloverleaf structure when devoid of modified bases, while the native, fully modified tRNA shows the expected cloverleaf structure. Furthermore, a methyl group at position A9-N1, introduced chemically in an otherwise unmodified mt-tRNALys transcript, was found to induce a stable cloverleaf conformation, raising the question of how the specific methyltransferase recognizes the unmodified transcript. In order to shed light on this unusual case of tRNA maturation, the tRNA modification enzymes contained in protein extracts from either highly purified HeLa cell mitochondria or HeLa cell cytosol were first identified and compared, and then used to analyze the mt-tRNALys. An initial screening for modification activities, using as substrates unmodified in vitro transcripts of tRNA genes with well characterized structures, namely yeast cytosolic tRNAPhe, human cytosolic tRNA3Lys, and human mt-tRNAIle, revealed the presence of nine and 11 modification activities in the mitochondrial and cytosolic protein extracts, respectively, the mitochondrial extract including a tRNA (adenine-9,N1)-methyltransferase activity. The comparison of the level and kinetics of A9-N1 methylation and other secondary modifications in the unmodified, misfolded mt-tRNALys and in a cloverleaf-shaped structural mutant, engineered to adopt the tRNALys cloverleaf structure without post-transcriptional modifications, suggested strongly that the methylation of A9-N1 in tRNALys proceeds via a cloverleaf-shaped intermediate. Therefore, it is proposed that this intermediate is present in the in vitro transcript as part of a dynamic equilibrium, and that the mitochondrial protein extract contains an activity that stabilizes, by secondary modification, such a transient cloverleaf-shaped intermediate. Thus, countering the evolutionary loss of structural information in mt-tRNA genes, the mt-tRNA structure is maintained by a modification enzyme encoded in nuclear DNA.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). May, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15100439
In vitro transcription has proven to be a successful tool for preparation of functional RNAs, especially in the tRNA field, in which, despite the absence of post-transcriptional modifications, transcripts are correctly folded and functionally active. Human mitochondrial (mt) tRNA(Lys) deviates from this principle and folds into various inactive conformations, due to the absence of the post-transcriptional modification m(1)A9 which hinders base-pairing with U64 in the native tRNA. Unavailability of a functional transcript is a serious drawback for structure/function investigations as well as in deciphering the molecular mechanisms by which point mutations in the mt tRNA(Lys) gene cause severe human disorders. Here, we show that an engineered in vitro transcribed "pseudo-WT" tRNA(Lys) variant is efficiently recognized by lysyl-tRNA synthetase and can substitute for the WT tRNA as a valuable reference molecule. This has been exploited in a systematic analysis of the effects on aminoacylation of nine pathology-related mutations described so far. The sole mutation located in a loop of the tRNA secondary structure, A8344G, does not affect aminoacylation efficiency. Out of eight mutations located in helical domains converting canonical Watson-Crick pairs into G-U pairs or C.A mismatches, six have no effect on aminoacylation (A8296G, U8316C, G8342A, U8356C, U8362G, G8363A), and two lead to drastic decreases (5000- to 7000-fold) in lysylation efficiencies (G8313A and G8328A). This screening, allowing for analysis of the primary impact level of all mutations affecting one tRNA under comparable conditions, indicates distinct molecular origins for different disorders.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16045328
We describe the allosteric control of Diels-Alder reactions by a small organic effector, theophylline. This is achieved by converting a Diels-Alder ribozyme into an allosterically regulated system. In contrast to other published systems, we have a bond-forming reaction with two small-molecule substrates and multiple turnover. This system could be very attractive for the development of assays for a variety of analytes and can be regarded as a prototype of fully synthetic signaling cascades.
A New Mechanism for MtDNA Pathogenesis: Impairment of Post-transcriptional Maturation Leads to Severe Depletion of Mitochondrial TRNASer(UCN) Caused by T7512C and G7497A Point Mutations
Nucleic Acids Research. 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16199753
We have studied the consequences of two homoplasmic, pathogenic point mutations (T7512C and G7497A) in the tRNA(Ser(UCN)) gene of mitochondrial (mt) DNA using osteosarcoma cybrids. We identified a severe reduction of tRNA(Ser(UCN)) to levels below 10% of controls for both mutations, resulting in a 40% reduction in mitochondrial protein synthesis rate and in a respiratory chain deficiency resembling that in the patients muscle. Aminoacylation was apparently unaffected. On non-denaturating northern blots we detected an altered electrophoretic mobility for G7497A containing tRNA molecules suggesting a structural impact of this mutation, which was confirmed by structural probing. By comparing in vitro transcribed molecules with native RNA in such gels, we also identified tRNA(Ser(UCN)) being present in two isoforms in vivo, probably corresponding to the nascent, unmodified transcripts co-migrating with the in vitro transcripts and a second, faster moving isoform corresponding to the mature tRNA. In cybrids containing either mutations the unmodified isoforms were severely reduced. We hypothesize that both mutations lead to an impairment of post-transcriptional modification processes, ultimately leading to a preponderance of degradation by nucleases over maturation by modifying enzymes, resulting in severely reduced tRNA(Ser(UCN)) steady state levels. We infer that an increased degradation rate, caused by disturbance of tRNA maturation and, in the case of the G7497A mutant, alteration of tRNA structure, is a new pathogenic mechanism of mt tRNA point mutations.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Dec, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16251384
The synthesis of highly structured small RNAs containing nonstandard nucleotides is of high interest for structural and functional investigations. A general approach is the joining, by T4 DNA ligase-mediated splinted ligation, of two or more RNA fragments, each of which may contain its own set of modified nucleotides. The RNA fragments hybridize with a complementary DNA splint to form a ternary ligation-competent-complex (LCC), which is then turned over by the DNA ligase. We studied the formation of the LCC and its precursors using size exclusion chromatography combined with a fluorescence detector. The spatial proximity of two cyanine-dye-labeled RNA fragments in LCCs was detected by monitoring FRET. An observed correlation of LCC formation and ligation yields suggests the use of long splints to stabilize LCCs. Splint oligos of increasing length, which in general appear to reduce the number of different hybridization intermediate species found in a reaction mixture, were applied to the synthesis by T4-DNA-ligation of two highly structured target molecules, one a 73 mer tRNA, the other a 49 mer synthetic ribozyme. A stable LCC could be isolated and turned over with>95% ligation efficiency. In conclusion, the use of long splints presents a generally applicable means to overcome the low propensity of highly structured RNAs for hybridization, and thus to significantly improve ligation efficiencies.
Nucleic Acids Research. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16452298
Alternative foldings are an inherent property of RNA and a ubiquitous problem in scientific investigations. To a living organism, alternative foldings can be a blessing or a problem, and so nature has found both, ways to harness this property and ways to avoid the drawbacks. A simple and effective method employed by nature to avoid unwanted folding is the modulation of conformation space through post-transcriptional base modification. Modified nucleotides occur in almost all classes of natural RNAs in great chemical diversity. There are about 100 different base modifications known, which may perform a plethora of functions. The presumably most ancient and simple nucleotide modifications, such as methylations and uridine isomerization, are able to perform structural tasks on the most basic level, namely by blocking or reinforcing single base-pairs or even single hydrogen bonds in RNA. In this paper, functional, genomic and structural evidence on cases of folding space alteration by post-transcriptional modifications in native RNA are reviewed.
Molecular Dysfunction Associated with the Human Mitochondrial 3302A>G Mutation in the MTTL1 (mt-tRNALeu(UUR)) Gene
Nucleic Acids Research. 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17130166
The gene encoding mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)), MT-TL1, is a hotspot for pathogenic mtDNA mutations. Amongst the first to be described was the 3302A>G transition which resulted in a substantial accumulation in patient muscle of RNA19, an unprocessed RNA intermediate including mt-16S rRNA, mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and MTND1. We have now been able to further assess the molecular aetiology associated with 3302A>G in transmitochondrial cybrids. Increased steady-state levels of RNA19 was confirmed, although not to the levels previously reported in muscle. This data was consistent with an increase in RNA19 stability. The mutation resulted in decreased mt-tRNA(Leu(UUR)) levels, but its stability was unchanged, consistent with a defect in RNA19 processing responsible for low tRNA levels. A partial defect in aminoacylation was also identified, potentially caused by an alteration in tRNA structure. These deficiencies lead to a severe defect in respiration in the transmitochondrial cybrids, consistent with the profound mitochondrial disorder originally associated with this mutation.
Nucleic Acids Research. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17344321
Here, we report a single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) study of a Diels-Alderase (DAse) ribozyme, a 49-mer RNA with true catalytic properties. The DAse ribozyme was labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 as a FRET pair of dyes to observe intramolecular folding, which is a prerequisite for its recognition and turnover of two organic substrate molecules. FRET efficiency histograms and kinetic data were taken on a large number of surface-immobilized ribozyme molecules as a function of the Mg(2+) concentration in the buffer solution. From these data, three separate states of the DAse ribozyme can be distinguished, the unfolded (U), intermediate (I) and folded (F) states. A thermodynamic model was developed to quantitatively analyze the dependence of these states on the Mg(2+) concentration. The FRET data also provide information on structural properties. The I state shows a strongly cooperative compaction with increasing Mg(2+) concentration that arises from association with several Mg(2+) ions. This transition is followed by a second Mg(2+)-dependent cooperative transition to the F state. The observation of conformational heterogeneity and continuous fluctuations between the I and F states on the approximately 100 ms timescale offers insight into the folding dynamics of this ribozyme.
Nucleic Acids Research. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17890733
Techniques for investigation of exogenous small interfering RNA (siRNA) after penetration of the cell are of substantial interest to the development of efficient transfection methods as well as to potential medical formulations of siRNA. A FRET-based visualization method including the commonplace dye labels fluorescein and tetramethylrhodamin (TMR) on opposing strands of siRNA was found compatible with RNA interference (RNAi). Investigation of spectral properties of three labelled siRNAs with differential FRET efficiencies in the cuvette, including pH dependence and FRET efficiency in lipophilic environments, identified the ratio of red and green fluorescence (R/G-ratio) as a sensitive parameter, which reliably identifies samples containing >90% un-degraded siRNA. Spectral imaging of siRNAs microinjected into cells showed emission spectra indistinguishable from those measured in the cuvette. These were used to establish a calibration curve for assessing the degradation state of siRNA in volume elements inside cells. An algorithm, applied to fluorescence images recorded in standard green and red fluorescence channels, produces R/G-ratio images of high spatial resolution, identifying volume elements in the cell with high populations of intact siRNA with high fidelity. To demonstrate the usefulness of this technique, the movement of intact siRNA molecules are observed after introduction into the cytosol by microinjection, standard transfection and lipofection with liposomes.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Nov, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17941640
The Review of Scientific Instruments. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17979440
The increasing use of micromechanical cantilevers in sensing applications causes a need for reliable readout techniques of micromechanical cantilever sensor (MCS) bending. Current optical beam deflection techniques suffer from drawbacks such as artifacts due to changes in the refraction index upon exchange of media. Here, an adaptation of the Fabry-Perot interferometer is presented that allows simultaneous determination of MCS bending and changes in the refraction index of media. Calibration of the instrument with liquids of known refraction index provides an avenue to direct measurement of bending with nanometer precision. Versatile construction of flow cells in combination with alignment features for substrate chips allows simultaneous measurement of two MCS situated either on the same, or on two different support chips. The performance of the instrument is demonstrate in several sensing applications, including adsorption experiments of alkanethioles on MCS gold surfaces, and measurement of humidity changes in air.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 17998290
Post-transcriptional ribonucleotide modifications are widespread and abundant processes that have not been analyzed adequately due to the lack of appropriate detection methods. Here, two methods for the analysis of modified nucleotides in RNA are presented that are based on the quantitative and site-specific DNAzyme-mediated cleavage of the target RNA at or near the site of modification. Quantitative RNA cleavage is achieved by cycling the DNAzyme and its RNA substrate through repeated periods of heating and cooling. In a first approach, DNAzyme-directed cleavage directly 5' of the residue in question allows radioactive labeling of the newly freed 5'-OH. After complete enzymatic hydrolysis, the modification status can be assessed by two-dimensional thin layer chromatography. In a second approach, oligoribonucleotide fragments comprising the modification site are excised from the full-length RNA in an endonucleolytic fashion, using a tandem DNAzyme. The excised fragment is isolated by electrophoresis and submitted to further conventional analysis. These results establish DNAzymes as valuable tools for the site-specific and highly sensitive detection of ribonucleotide modifications.
Sculpting an RNA Conformational Energy Landscape by a Methyl Group Modification--a Single-molecule FRET Study
Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18449867
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Aug, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18567810
Although their amino acid sequences and structure closely resemble DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt2 proteins were recently shown by Goll and colleagues to function as RNA methyltransferases transferring a methyl group to the C5 position of C38 in tRNA(Asp). We observe that human DNMT2 methylates tRNA isolated from Dnmt2 knock-out Drosophila melanogaster and Dictyostelium discoideum. RNA extracted from wild type D. melanogaster was methylated to a lower degree, but in the case of Dictyostelium, there was no difference in the methylation of RNA isolated from wild-type and Dnmt2 knock-out strains. Methylation of in vitro transcribed tRNA(Asp) confirms it to be a target of DNMT2. Using site directed mutagenesis, we show here that the enzyme has a DNA methyltransferase-like mechanism, because similar residues from motifs IV, VI, and VIII are involved in catalysis as identified in DNA methyltransferases. In addition, exchange of C292, which is located in a CFT motif conserved among Dnmt2 proteins, strongly reduced the catalytic activity of DNMT2. Dnmt2 represents the first example of an RNA methyltransferase using a DNA methyltransferase type of mechanism.
Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry / Edited by Serge L. Beaucage ... [et Al.]. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18819081
Investigation of single RNA molecules using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is a powerful approach to investigate dynamic and thermodynamic aspects of the folding process of a given RNA. Its application requires interdisciplinary work from the fields of chemistry, biochemistry, and physics. The present work gives detailed instructions on the synthesis of RNA molecules labeled with two fluorescent dyes interacting by FRET, as well as on their investigation by single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy.
An Empirical Basis for Standardizing Adherence Measures Derived from Administrative Claims Data Among Diabetic Patients
Medical Care. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18953222
To compare the predictive validity of 8 different adherence measures by studying the variability explained between each measure and 2 outcome measures: hospitalization episodes and total nonpharmacy cost among Medicaid eligible persons diagnosed with diabetes.
Preparation of Small Amounts of Sterile SiRNA-liposomes with High Entrapping Efficiency by Dual Asymmetric Centrifugation (DAC)
Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19124051
Liposomal formulation of siRNA is an attractive approach for improving its delivery in vivo, shielding the RNA from nucleases and promoting tumor targeting. Here, the production of very small batch sizes of siRNA-liposomes by using the "dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC)" technique was investigated. This new technique combines rapid and sterile liposome preparation with very high entrapping efficiencies. DAC is here presented in conjunction with a non-destructive microscale analysis based on double fluorescence labeling, which enables monitoring of siRNA integrity during the liposomal preparation. Integrity is reflected in spatial proximity of the dyes, which results in measurable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The combination of DAC and the sensitive FRET analysis allows the handling of batch sizes down to 20 mg of conventional liposomes (CL) and sterically stabilized liposomes (SL). These were prepared in common 2 ml reaction tubes and loaded with calcein or labeled siRNA. Liposome sizes were 79+/-16 nm for CL and 109+/-9 nm for SL loaded with siRNA. Trapping efficiencies ranged from 43 to 81%, depending on batch size, enclosed compound, and liposome composition. FRET monitoring showed that the siRNA remained intact throughout DAC and that liposomal formulations protected the siRNA from nucleases. siRNA-liposomes remained stable for at least 3 months.
Prospective Validation of Eight Different Adherence Measures for Use with Administrative Claims Data Among Patients with Schizophrenia
Value in Health : the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19402852
The aim of this study was to compare the predictive validity of eight different adherence measures by studying the variability explained between each measure and hospitalization episodes among Medicaid-eligible persons diagnosed with schizophrenia on antipsychotic monotherapy.
Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19558320
Extreme thermophiles produce unusually long polyamines, including the linear caldopentamine (Cdp) and the branched pentamine tetrakis(3-aminopropyl)-ammonium (Taa), with the latter containing a central quaternary ammonium moiety. Here we compare the interaction of these two pentamines with RNA by studying the heat denaturation, electrophoretic behavior, and ability of tRNA to be methylated in vitro by purified tRNA methyltransferases under various salt conditions. At concentrations in the micromolar range, branched Taa causes a considerable increase in the melting temperature (T(m)) of yeast tRNA(Phe) transcripts by >20 degrees C, which is significantly greater than stabilization by the linear Cdp. In non-denaturing gel electrophoresis, strong and specific binding to Taa, but not to Cdp, was clearly observed for tRNA(Phe). In both types of experiments, polyamines and monovalent metal ions competed for binding sites. Structural probing revealed no significant conformational changes in tRNA on Taa binding. In post-transcriptional in vitro methylation reactions, the formation of m(2)G/m(2)(2)G by the methyltransferase Trm1p and of m(1)A by TrmIp were not affected or only slightly stimulated by polyamines. In contrast, Taa specifically inhibited Trm4p-dependent formation of m(5)C only in tRNA(Phe), likely by occupying sites that are relevant to RNA recognition by the methyltransferase.
Current Medical Research and Opinion. Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19635045
To identify the adherence value cut-off point that optimally stratifies good versus poor compliers using administratively derived adherence measures, the medication possession ratio (MPR) and the proportion of days covered (PDC) using hospitalization episode as the primary outcome among Medicaid eligible persons diagnosed with schizophrenia, diabetes, hypertension, congestive heart failure (CHF), or hyperlipidemia.
Neuroscience Letters. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19679165
Over-expression of blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein is considered as a major hurdle in the treatment of various CNS disorders. A down-regulation strategy is considered as one means to counteract disease- or therapy-associated induction of P-glycoprotein. Here, we evaluated whether a targeting of P-glycoprotein can be achieved in mouse brain capillary endothelial cells using siRNA. A 4-day treatment paradigm with once daily hydrodynamic intravenous injections of siRNA resulted in a significant reduction of the P-glycoprotein-labeled area in the hippocampal hilus and parietal cortex. P-glycoprotein expression proved to be down-regulated in these brain regions by 31 and 16%, respectively. An impact of siRNA administration on density of brain capillaries was excluded by quantification of the endothelial cell marker GLUT-1. In conclusion, the study provides first preliminary evidence that a down-regulation of P-glycoprotein can be achieved in brain capillary endothelial cells by administration of siRNA in vivo.
Nucleic Acids Research. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20007150
The nucleobase modification 5-methylcytosine (m(5)C) is widespread both in DNA and different cellular RNAs. The functions and enzymatic mechanisms of DNA m(5)C-methylation were extensively studied during the last decades. However, the location, the mechanism of formation and the cellular function(s) of the same modified nucleobase in RNA still remain to be elucidated. The recent development of a bisulfite sequencing approach for efficient m(5)C localization in various RNA molecules puts ribo-m(5)C in a highly privileged position as one of the few RNA modifications whose detection is amenable to PCR-based amplification and sequencing methods. Additional progress in the field also includes the characterization of several specific RNA methyltransferase enzymes in various organisms, and the discovery of a new and unexpected link between DNA and RNA m(5)C-methylation. Numerous putative RNA:m(5)C-MTases have now been identified and are awaiting characterization, including the identification of their RNA substrates and their related cellular functions. In order to bring these recent exciting developments into perspective, this review provides an ordered overview of the detection methods for RNA methylation, of the biochemistry, enzymology and molecular biology of the corresponding modification enzymes, and discusses perspectives for the emerging biological functions of these enzymes.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20013414
By monitoring the efficiency of fluorescence resonance energy transfer of dyes attached to the different strands of siRNA, the structural integrity of the latter can be traced inside cells. Here, the experimental details of dye-labeled siRNA construction, tissue culture, and transfection with liposomally formulated siRNAs are given, as well as the conditions for confocal microscopy and an algorithm allowing the visualization of intact siRNA after image data treatment. The method allows rapid screening of different liposomal siRNA formulations, obtained by small scale dual asymmetric centrifugation with high entrapping efficiency.
RNA (New York, N.Y.). Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20106954
Pseudouridine is the most abundant of more than 100 chemically distinct natural ribonucleotide modifications. Its synthesis consists of an isomerization reaction of a uridine residue in the RNA chain and is catalyzed by pseudouridine synthases. The unusual reaction mechanism has become the object of renewed research effort, frequently involving replacement of the substrate uridines with 5-fluorouracil (f(5)U). f(5)U is known to be a potent inhibitor of pseudouridine synthase activity, but the effect varies among the target pseudouridine synthases. Derivatives of f(5)U have previously been detected, which are thought to be either hydrolysis products of covalent enzyme-RNA adducts, or isomerization intermediates. Here we describe the interaction of pseudouridine synthase 1 (Pus1p) with f(5)U-containing tRNA. The interaction described is specific to Pus1p and position 27 in the tRNA anticodon stem, but the enzyme neither forms a covalent adduct nor stalls at a previously identified reaction intermediate of f(5)U. The f(5)U27 residue, as analyzed by a DNAzyme-based assay using TLC and mass spectrometry, displayed physicochemical properties unaltered by the reversible interaction with Pus1p. Thus, Pus1p binds an f(5)U-containing substrate, but, in contrast to other pseudouridine synthases, leaves the chemical structure of f(5)U unchanged. The specific, but nonproductive, interaction demonstrated here thus constitutes an intermediate of Pus turnover, stalled by the presence of f(5)U in an early state of catalysis. Observation of the interaction of Pus1p with fluorescence-labeled tRNA by a real-time readout of fluorescence anisotropy and FRET revealed significant structural distortion of f(5)U-tRNA structure in the stalled intermediate state of pseudouridine catalysis.
Evidence-based Use of Second-generation Antipsychotics in a State Medicaid Pediatric Population, 2001-2005
Psychiatric Services (Washington, D.C.). Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20123816
The purpose of this study was to identify children in a state Medicaid population who were newly treated with second-generation antipsychotics from 2001 through 2005, to classify each use of these agents as evidence based or not depending on the child's diagnoses, and to identify factors associated with the likelihood of evidence-based use of the medication.
A New Nuclear Function of the Entamoeba Histolytica Glycolytic Enzyme Enolase: the Metabolic Regulation of Cytosine-5 Methyltransferase 2 (Dnmt2) Activity
PLoS Pathogens. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20174608
Cytosine-5 methyltransferases of the Dnmt2 family function as DNA and tRNA methyltransferases. Insight into the role and biological significance of Dnmt2 is greatly hampered by a lack of knowledge about its protein interactions. In this report, we address the subject of protein interaction by identifying enolase through a yeast two-hybrid screen as a Dnmt2-binding protein. Enolase, which is known to catalyze the conversion of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PG) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), was shown to have both a cytoplasmatic and a nuclear localization in the parasite Entamoeba histolytica. We discovered that enolase acts as a Dnmt2 inhibitor. This unexpected inhibitory activity was antagonized by 2-PG, which suggests that glucose metabolism controls the non-glycolytic function of enolase. Interestingly, glucose starvation drives enolase to accumulate within the nucleus, which in turn leads to the formation of additional enolase-E.histolytica DNMT2 homolog (Ehmeth) complex, and to a significant reduction of the tRNA(Asp) methylation in the parasite. The crucial role of enolase as a Dnmt2 inhibitor was also demonstrated in E.histolytica expressing a nuclear localization signal (NLS)-fused-enolase. These results establish enolase as the first Dnmt2 interacting protein, and highlight an unexpected role of a glycolytic enzyme in the modulation of Dnmt2 activity.
RNA Biology. Mar-Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20224293
RNA nucleotide modifications are typically of low abundance and frequently go unnoticed by standard detection methods of molecular biology and cell biology. With a burst of knowledge intruding from such diverse areas as genomics, structural biology, regulation of gene expression and immunology, it becomes increasingly clear that many exciting functions of nucleotide modifications remain to be explored. It follows in turn that the biology of nucleotide modification and editing is a field poised to rapidly gain importance in a variety of fields. The detection and analysis of nucleotide modifications present a clear limitation in this respect. Here, various methods for detection of nucleotide modifications are discussed based on three discriminating principles, namely physicochemical properties, enzymatic turnover and chemical reactivity. Because the full extent of nucleotide modification across the various RNA species remains ill understood, emphasis is placed on high-throughput techniques with a potential to screen entire transcriptomes.
Biochemistry. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20459084
Post-transcriptional ribonucleotide modification is a phenomenon best studied in tRNA, where it occurs most frequently and in great chemical diversity. This paper reviews the intrinsic network of modifications in the structural core of the tRNA, which governs structural flexibility and rigidity to fine-tune the molecule to peak performance and to regulate its steady-state level. Structural effects of RNA modifications range from nanometer-scale rearrangements to subtle restrictions of conformational space on the angstrom scale. Structural stabilization resulting from nucleotide modification results in increased thermal stability and translates into protection against unspecific degradation by bases and nucleases. Several mechanisms of specific degradation of hypomodified tRNA, which were only recently discovered, provide a link between structural and metabolic stability.
Genes & Development. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20679393
Dnmt2 proteins are the most conserved members of the DNA methyltransferase enzyme family, but their substrate specificity and biological functions have been a subject of controversy. We show here that, in addition to tRNA(Asp-GTC), tRNA(Val-AAC) and tRNA(Gly-GCC) are also methylated by Dnmt2. Drosophila Dnmt2 mutants showed reduced viability under stress conditions, and Dnmt2 relocalized to stress granules following heat shock. Strikingly, stress-induced cleavage of tRNAs was Dnmt2-dependent, and Dnmt2-mediated methylation protected tRNAs against ribonuclease cleavage. These results uncover a novel biological function of Dnmt2-mediated tRNA methylation, and suggest a role for Dnmt2 enzymes during the biogenesis of tRNA-derived small RNAs.
Expanding the Chemical Scope of RNA:methyltransferases to Site-specific Alkynylation of RNA for Click Labeling
Nucleic Acids Research. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21037259
This work identifies the combination of enzymatic transfer and click labeling as an efficient method for the site-specific tagging of RNA molecules for biophysical studies. A double-activated analog of the ubiquitous co-substrate S-adenosyl-l-methionine was employed to enzymatically transfer a five carbon chain containing a terminal alkynyl moiety onto RNA. The tRNA:methyltransferase Trm1 transferred the extended alkynyl moiety to its natural target, the N2 of guanosine 26 in tRNA(Phe). LC/MS and LC/MS/MS techniques were used to detect and characterize the modified nucleoside as well as its cycloaddition product with a fluorescent azide. The latter resulted from a labeling reaction via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne 1,3-cycloaddition click chemistry, producing site-specifically labeled RNA whose suitability for single molecule fluorescence experiments was verified in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments.
Journal of the American Chemical Society. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21287983
The rupture force of a split (bipartite) aptamer that forms binding pockets for adenosine monophosphate (AMP) was measured by atomic force spectroscopy. Changes in the rupture force were observed in the presence of AMP, while this effect was absent when mutant aptamers or inosine were used. Thus, changes in the rupture force were a direct consequence of specific binding of AMP to the split aptamer. The split aptamer concept allowed the detection of nonlabeled AMP and enabled us to determine the dissociation constant on a single-molecule level.
A Post-labeling Approach for the Characterization and Quantification of RNA Modifications Based on Site-directed Cleavage by DNAzymes
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21370054
Deoxyribozymes or DNAzymes are small DNA molecules with catalytic activity originating from in vitro selection experiments. Variants of the two most popular DNAzymes with RNase activity, the 10-23 DNAzyme and the 8-17 DNAzyme, promote efficient in vitro cleavage of the phosphodiester bond in at least 11 out of 16 possible dinucleotide permutations. Judicious choice of the sequences flanking the active core of the DNAzymes permits to direct cleavage activity with high sequence specificity. Here, the harnessing of these features for the analysis of RNA nucleotide modifications by a post-labeling approach is described in detail. DNAzymes are designed such that RNase cleavage is directed precisely to the 5' end of the nucleotide to be analyzed. Iterative complex formation of DNAzyme and RNA substrate and subsequent cleavage are performed by temperature cycling. The DNAzyme activity liberates the analyte nucleotide on the very 5'-end of an RNA fragment, whose hydroxyl group can be conveniently phosphorylated with (32)P. The labeled RNA is digested to mononucleotides, and analyzed by thin layer chromatography.
Single-molecule FRET Studies of Counterion Effects on the Free Energy Landscape of Human Mitochondrial Lysine TRNA
Biochemistry. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21375355
The folding energy landscape of RNA is greatly affected by interactions between the RNA and counterions that neutralize the backbone negative charges and may also participate in tertiary contacts. Valence, size, coordination number, and electron shell structure can all contribute to the energetic stabilization of specific RNA conformations. Using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we have examined the folding properties of the RNA transcript of human mitochondrial tRNA(Lys), which possesses two different folded states in addition to the unfolded one under conditions of thermodynamic equilibrium. We have quantitatively analyzed the degree of RNA tertiary structure stabilization for different types of cations based on a thermodynamic model that accounts for multiple conformational states and RNA-ion interactions within each state. We have observed that small monovalent ions stabilize the tRNA tertiary structure more efficiently than larger ones. More ions were found in close vicinity of compact RNA structures, independent of the type of ion. The largest conformation-dependent binding specificity of ions of the same charge was found for divalent ions, for which the ionic radii and coordination properties were responsible for shaping the folding free energy.
A Multifunctional Bioconjugate Module for Versatile Photoaffinity Labeling and Click Chemistry of RNA
Nucleic Acids Research. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21646334
A multifunctional reagent based on a coumarin scaffold was developed for derivatization of naive RNA. The alkylating agent N3BC [7-azido-4-(bromomethyl)coumarin], obtained by Pechmann condensation, is selective for uridine. N3BC and its RNA conjugates are pre-fluorophores which permits controlled modular and stepwise RNA derivatization. The success of RNA alkylation by N3BC can be monitored by photolysis of the azido moiety, which generates a coumarin fluorophore that can be excited with UV light of 320 nm. The azidocoumarin-modified RNA can be flexibly employed in structure-function studies. Versatile applications include direct use in photo-crosslinking studies to cognate proteins, as demonstrated with tRNA and RNA fragments from the MS2 phage and the HIV genome. Alternatively, the azide function can be used for further derivatization by click-chemistry. This allows e.g. the introduction of an additional fluorophore for excitation with visible light.
Journal of Nucleic Acids. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21716696
Naturally occurring cellular RNAs contain an impressive number of chemically distinct modified residues which appear posttranscriptionally, as a result of specific action of the corresponding RNA modification enzymes. Over 100 different chemical modifications have been identified and characterized up to now. Identification of the chemical nature and exact position of these modifications is typically based on 2D-TLC analysis of nucleotide digests, on HPLC coupled with mass spectrometry, or on the use of primer extension by reverse transcriptase. However, many modified nucleotides are silent in reverse transcription, since the presence of additional chemical groups frequently does not change base-pairing properties. In this paper, we give a summary of various chemical approaches exploiting the specific reactivity of modified nucleotides in RNA for their detection.
EMBO Reports. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21760614
The dynamic regulation of biological processes by RNA has emerged as a key field in recent years, and was the topic of the 62nd Mosbacher Colloquium of the German Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (GBM). The 2011 Colloquium, held in April in the romantic Neckar-river region, was also a celebration of the tenth anniversary of the RNA Biochemistry study group within the GBM, which acts as platform for RNA biologists and chemists within Germany and in other European countries.
Single-molecule FRET Reveals a Cooperative Effect of Two Methyl Group Modifications in the Folding of Human Mitochondrial TRNA(Lys)
Chemistry & Biology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21802013
Using a combination of advanced RNA synthesis techniques and single molecule spectroscopy, the deconvolution of individual contributions of posttranscriptional modifications to the overall folding and stabilization of human mitochondrial tRNA(Lys) is described. An unexpected destabilizing effect of two pseudouridines on the native tRNA folding was evidenced. Furthermore, the presence of m(2)G10 alone does not facilitate the folding of tRNA(Lys), but a stabilization of the biologically functional cloverleaf shape in conjunction with the principal stabilizing component m(1)A9 exceeds the contribution of m(1)A alone. This constitutes an unprecedented cooperative effect of two nucleotide modifications in the context of a naturally occurring RNA, which may be of general importance for tRNA structure and help understanding several recently described decay pathways for hypomodified tRNAs.
Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA. Sep-Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21823225
Methylation of RNA occurs at a variety of atoms, nucleotides, sequences and tertiary structures. Strongly related to other posttranscriptional modifications, methylation of different RNA species includes tRNA, rRNA, mRNA, tmRNA, snRNA, snoRNA, miRNA, and viral RNA. Different catalytic strategies are employed for RNA methylation by a variety of RNA-methyltransferases which fall into four superfamilies. This review outlines the different functions of methyl groups in RNA, including biophysical, biochemical and metabolic stabilization of RNA, quality control, resistance to antibiotics, mRNA reading frame maintenance, deciphering of normal and altered genetic code, selenocysteine incorporation, tRNA aminoacylation, ribotoxins, splicing, intracellular trafficking, immune response, and others. Connections to other fields including gene regulation, DNA repair, stress response, and possibly histone acetylation and exocytosis are pointed out. WIREs RNA 2011 2 611-631 DOI: 10.1002/wrna.79 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22148896
Abstract Investigations into the fate of siRNA after transfection may unravel new ways to improve RNAi efficiency. Because intracellular degradation of RNA may prevent reliable observation of fluorescence labeled siRNA, new tools for fluorescence microscopy are warranted to cover the considerable duration of the RNAi effect. Here, the characterization and application of new FRET dye pairs for sensing the integrity of duplex siRNA is reported, that allow an assessment of the degradation status of an siRNA cell population by live cell imaging. A panel of high yield fluorescent dyes has been investigated for their suitability as FRET pairs for the investigation of RNA inside the cell. Nine dyes in 13 FRET pairs were evaluated based on the performance in assays of photostability, cross-excitation, bleed-through, as well as on quantified changes of fluorescence as a consequence of e.g. RNA strand hybridization and pH variation. The Atto488/Atto590 FRET pair has been applied to live cell imaging, and has revealed first aspects of unusual trafficking of intact siRNA. A time-lapse study showed highly dynamic movement of siRNA in large perinuclear structures. These and the resulting optimized FRET labeled siRNA are expected to have significant impact on future observations of labeled RNAs in living cells.
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22312113
Naturally occurring nucleotide modifications within RNA have been proposed to be structural determinants for innate immune recognition. We tested this hypothesis in the context of native nonself-RNAs. Isolated, fully modified native bacterial transfer RNAs (tRNAs) induced significant secretion of IFN-α from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in a manner dependent on TLR7 and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. As a notable exception, tRNA(Tyr) from Escherichia coli was not immunostimulatory, as were all tested eukaryotic tRNAs. However, the unmodified, 5'-unphosphorylated in vitro transcript of tRNA(Tyr) induced IFN-α, thus revealing posttranscriptional modifications as a factor suppressing immunostimulation. Using a molecular surgery approach based on catalytic DNA, a panel of tRNA(Tyr) variants featuring differential modification patterns was examined. Out of seven modifications present in this tRNA, 2'-O-methylated G(m)18 was identified as necessary and sufficient to suppress immunostimulation. Transplantation of this modification into the scaffold of yeast tRNA(Phe) also resulted in blocked immunostimulation. Moreover, an RNA preparation of an E. coli trmH mutant that lacks G(m)18 2'-O-methyltransferase activity was significantly more stimulatory than the wild-type sample. The experiments identify the single methyl group on the 2'-oxygen of G(m)18 as a natural modification in native tRNA that, beyond its primary structural role, has acquired a secondary function as an antagonist of TLR7.