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In JoVE (1)
- Directed Cellular Self-Assembly to Fabricate Cell-Derived Tissue Rings for Biomechanical Analysis and Tissue Engineering
Other Publications (7)
- Human Gene Therapy
- Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
- The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
- Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
- Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
- Cells, Tissues, Organs
- Tissue Engineering. Part A
Articles by Marsha W. Rolle in JoVE
Directed Cellular Self-Assembly to Fabricate Cell-Derived Tissue Rings for Biomechanical Analysis and Tissue Engineering
Tracy A. Gwyther, Jason Z. Hu, Kristen L. Billiar, Marsha W. Rolle
Biomedical Engineering Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute
This article outlines a versatile method to create cell-derived tissue rings by cellular self-assembly. Smooth muscle cells seeded into ring-shaped agarose wells aggregate and contract to form robust three-dimensional (3D) tissues within 7 days. Millimeter-scale tissue rings are conducive to mechanical testing and serve as building blocks for tissue assembly.
Other articles by Marsha W. Rolle on PubMed
Chemical Dimerization of Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor-1 Induces Myoblast Proliferation, Increases Intracardiac Graft Size, and Reduces Ventricular Dilation in Infarcted Hearts
Human Gene Therapy. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17518610
The ability to control proliferation of grafted cells in the heart and consequent graft size could dramatically improve the efficacy of cell therapies for cardiac repair. To achieve targeted graft cell proliferation, we created a chimeric receptor (F36Vfgfr-1) composed of a modified FK506-binding protein (F36V) fused with the cytoplasmic domain of the fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 (FGFR-1). We retrovirally transduced mouse C2C12 and MM14 skeletal myoblasts with this construct and treated them with AP20187, a dimeric F36V ligand ("dimerizer"), in vitro and in vivo to induce receptor dimerization. Dimerizer treatment in vitro activated the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and induced proliferation in myoblasts expressing F36Vfgfr-1 comparable with the effects of basic FGF. Wild-type myoblasts did not respond to dimerizer. Subcutaneous grafts composed of myoblasts expressing F36Vfgfr-1 showed a dose-dependent increase in DNA synthesis with dimerizer treatment. When myoblasts expressing F36Vfgfr-1 were injected into infarcted hearts of nude mice, dimerizer treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in graft size, from 20 +/- 3 to 42.9 +/- 4.3% of the left ventricle. Blinded echocardiographic analysis demonstrated that larger graft size was associated with a dose-dependent reduction in ventricular dilation after myocardial infarction, although animals with the largest grafts showed an increased incidence of ventricular tachycardia. Thus, selective proliferation of genetically modified graft cells can be induced with a systemically administered synthetic molecule in vitro or in vivo. Control of intramyocardial graft size by this approach may allow optimization of cell-based therapy to obtain desired cardiac function postinfarction.
Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17572688
Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a potent angiogenic molecule, but its therapeutic use is limited by mitogenic effects on multiple cell types. To specifically activate FGF signaling in endothelial cells, a chimeric FGF receptor was generated that contained a modified FK506 drug-binding domain (F36V) fused to the FGF receptor-1 (FGFR1) cytoplasmic domain. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human microvascular endothelial cells were retrovirally transduced with this chimeric receptor, and the effects of administering synthetic receptor-dimerizing ligands were studied. As expected, both control and transduced cells proliferated in response to bFGF treatment; however, only transduced endothelial cells exhibited dose-dependent proliferative responses to dimerizer treatment. Dimerizer-induced proliferation was MEK-dependent and was accompanied by MAP kinase phosphorylation, indicating that the chimeric receptor utilizes signaling pathways similar to endogenous FGFR1. Although bFGF stimulated wound re-epithelialization in HUVECs (which natively express FGFR1 and FGFR4), chemical dimerization of FGFR1 did not; this suggests FGFR4 may control migration in these cells. The ability to selectively activate receptor subtypes should facilitate the study of signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo beyond what can be accomplished with nonselective natural ligands, and it may eventually permit stimulation of graft cell angiogenesis without driving overgrowth of host cells.
Synthesis and Organization of Hyaluronan and Versican by Embryonic Stem Cells Undergoing Embryoid Body Differentiation
The Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry : Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20026669
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) provide a convenient model to probe the molecular and cellular dynamics of developmental cell morphogenesis. ESC differentiation in vitro via embryoid bodies (EBs) recapitulates many aspects of early stages of development, including the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of pluripotent cells into more differentiated progeny. Hyaluronan and versican are important extracellular mediators of EMT processes, yet the temporal expression and spatial distribution of these extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules during EB differentiation remains undefined. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the synthesis and organization of hyaluronan and versican by using murine ESCs during EB differentiation. Hyaluronan and versican (V0 and V1 isoforms), visualized by immunohistochemistry and evaluated biochemically, accumulated within EBs during the course of differentiation. Interestingly, increasing amounts of a 70-kDa proteolytic fragment of versican were also detected over time, along with ADAMTS-1 and -5 protein expression. ESCs expressed each of the hyaluronan synthases (HAS) -1, -2, and -3 and versican splice variants (V0, V1, V2, and V3) throughout EB differentiation, but HAS-2, V0, and V1 were expressed at significantly increased levels at each time point examined. Hyaluronan and versican exhibited overlapping expression patterns within EBs in regions of low cell density, and versican expression was excluded from clusters of epithelial (cytokeratin-positive) cells but was enriched within the vicinity of mesenchymal (N-cadherin-positive) cells. These results indicate that hyaluronan and versican synthesized by ESCs within EB microenvironments are associated with EMT processes and furthermore suggest that endogenously produced ECM molecules play a role in ESC differentiation. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.
Differentiation of Cardiomyocytes from Human Embryonic Stem Cells is Accompanied by Changes in the Extracellular Matrix Production of Versican and Hyaluronan
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20564236
Proteoglycans and hyaluronan play critical roles in heart development. In this study, human embryonic stem cells (hESC) were used as a model to quantify the synthesis of proteoglycans and hyaluronan in hESC in the early stages of differentiation, and after directed differentiation into cardiomyocytes. We demonstrated that both hESC and cardiomyocyte cultures synthesize an extracellular matrix (ECM) enriched in proteoglycans and hyaluronan. During cardiomyocyte differentiation, total proteoglycan and hyaluronan decreased and the proportion of proteoglycans bearing heparan sulfate chains was reduced. Versican, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, accumulated in hESC and cardiomyocyte cultures. Furthermore, versican synthesized by hESC contained more N- and O-linked oligosaccharide than versican from cardiomyocytes. Transcripts for the versican variants, V0, V1, V2, and V3, increased in cardiomyocytes compared to hESC, with V1 most abundant. Hyaluronan in hESC had lower molecular weight than hyaluronan from cardiomyocyte cultures. These changes were accompanied by an increase in HAS-1 and HAS-2 mRNA in cardiomyocyte cultures, with HAS-2 most abundant. Interestingly, HAS-3 was absent from the cardiomyocyte cultures, but expressed by hESC. These results indicate that human cardiomyocyte differentiation is accompanied by specific changes in the expression and accumulation of ECM components and suggest a role for versican and hyaluronan in this process.
Fibrin Microthreads Support Mesenchymal Stem Cell Growth While Maintaining Differentiation Potential
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21171149
We developed a method to produce discrete fibrin microthreads, which can be seeded with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and used as a suture to enhance the efficiency and localization of cell delivery. To assess the efficacy of fibrin microthreads to support hMSC attachment, proliferation, and survival, microthreads (100 μm diameter per microthread) were bundled together, seeded with 50,000 hMSCs for 2 h, and cultured for 5 days. Cell density on microthread bundles increased over time in culture to a maximum average density of 731 ± 101 cells/mm(2) after 5 days. A LIVE/DEAD assay confirmed that the cells were viable, and Ki-67 staining verified hMSC proliferation. In addition, functional differentiation assays demonstrated that hMSCs cultured on microthreads retained their ability to differentiate into adipocytes and osteocytes. The results of this study demonstrate that fibrin microthreads support hMSC viability and proliferation, while maintaining their multipotency. We anticipate that these cell-seeded fibrin microthreads will serve as a platform technology to improve localized delivery and engraftment of viable cells to damaged tissue.
Cells, Tissues, Organs. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21252472
The goal of this study was to develop a system to rapidly generate engineered tissue constructs from aggregated cells and cell-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) to enable evaluation of cell-derived tissue structure and function. Rat aortic smooth muscle cells seeded into annular agarose wells (2, 4 or 6 mm inside diameter) aggregated and formed thick tissue rings within 2 weeks of static culture (0.76 mm at 8 days; 0.94 mm at 14 days). Overall, cells appeared healthy and surrounded by ECM comprised of glycosoaminoglycans and collagen, although signs of necrosis were observed near the centers of the thickest rings. Tissue ring strength and stiffness values were superior to those reported for engineered tissue constructs cultured for comparable times. The strength (100-500 kPa) and modulus (0.5-2 MPa) of tissue rings increased with ring size and decreased with culture duration. Finally, tissue rings cultured for 7 days on silicone mandrels fused to form tubular constructs. Ring margins were visible after 7 days, but tubes were cohesive and mechanically stable, and histological examination confirmed fusion between ring subunits. This unique system provides a versatile new tool for optimization and functional assessment of cell-derived tissue, and a new approach to creating tissue-engineered vascular grafts.
Tissue Engineering. Part A. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21699414
Large-scale musculoskeletal wounds, such as those seen in trauma injuries, present poor functional healing prognoses. In severe trauma, when the native tissue architecture is destroyed or lost, the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle is diminished by scar formation. Here we demonstrate that a scaffold system composed of fibrin microthreads can provide an efficient delivery system for cell-based therapies and improve regeneration of a large defect in the tibialis anterior of the mouse. Cell-loaded fibrin microthread bundles implanted into a skeletal muscle resection reduced the overall fibroplasia-associated deposition of collagen in the wound bed and promoted in-growth of new muscle tissue. When fibrin microthreads were seeded with adult human cells, implanted cells contributed to the nascent host tissue architecture by forming skeletal muscle fibers, connective tissue, and PAX7-positive cells. Stable engraftment was observed at 10 weeks postimplant and was accompanied by reduced levels of collagen deposition. Taken together, these data support the design and development of a platform for microthread-based delivery of autologous cells that, when coupled to an in vitro cellular reprogramming process, has the potential to improve healing outcomes in large skeletal muscle wounds.