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In JoVE (1)
- מיקוד Bulb נוירונים חוש הריח שימוש משולב In vivo Electroporation ו Gal4 מבוסס Enhancer מלכודת קווי דג הזברה
Other Publications (11)
- Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
- CSH Protocols
- The Journal of Clinical Investigation
- Development (Cambridge, England)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- The Journal of Cell Biology
- PloS One
- Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
- Communicative & Integrative Biology
- PloS One
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Articles by Martin Distel in JoVE
מיקוד Bulb נוירונים חוש הריח שימוש משולב In vivo Electroporation ו Gal4 מבוסס Enhancer מלכודת קווי דג הזברה
Kenric J. Hoegler1, Martin Distel2, Reinhard W. Köster3, John H. Horne1
1Department of Biology, Pace University, 2Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of California, San Diego, 3Division of Cell Biology and Cell Physiology, Zoological Institute, Braunschweig University of Technology
ברזולוציה של זמן ומרחב של מניפולציות גנטיות קובע את הספקטרום של תופעות ביולוגיות כי הם יכולים להפריע. כאן אנו משתמשים ובזמן מרחבית בדידה
Other articles by Martin Distel on PubMed
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Apr, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16610098
Intravital time-lapse imaging has altered significantly many long-standing rules of biological mechanisms, but being apparatus-intense and laborious, time-lapse imaging remained mostly restricted to specialized labs. We show that recently introduced, fully automated fluorescence stereomicroscopes represent cost-effective but powerful means of imaging dynamic events ranging from observing embryogenesis over several days to detailed tissue rearrangements and fast blood cell rolling in vivo. When combined with deconvolution approaches, even subcellular resolution in several colors can be achieved. Using three-dimensional image recording, we show the spatial reconstruction of expression patterns. Furthermore, by combining three-dimensional image recording over time with subsequent deconvolution analysis, we demonstrate that subcellular dynamics such as axonal pathfinding can be resolved. These findings promise that time-lapse imaging using a stereomicroscope will become a hands-on standard method for phenotype analysis in many fields of biology.
CSH Protocols. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 21357148
INTRODUCTIONIntravital time-lapse imaging is a powerful technique for investigating continuous developmental processes without missing crucial events. Because of the rapid embryogenesis, external development, and transparency of zebrafish embryos, their developmental processes can be visualized in time-lapse studies in the context of the living organism. The following protocol describes a method for performing intravital time-lapse imaging of zebrafish embryos over several days using confocal or compound stereomicroscopes.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19363289
Our aging society is confronted with a dramatic increase of patients suffering from tauopathies, which include Alzheimer disease and certain frontotemporal dementias. These disorders are characterized by typical neuropathological lesions including hyperphosphorylation and subsequent aggregation of TAU protein and neuronal cell death. Currently, no mechanism-based cures are available. We generated fluorescently labeled TAU transgenic zebrafish, which rapidly recapitulated key pathological features of tauopathies, including phosphorylation and conformational changes of human TAU protein, tangle formation, neuronal and behavioral disturbances, and cell death. Due to their optical transparency and small size, zebrafish larvae are well suited for both in vivo imaging and drug development. TAU-induced neuronal cell death was imaged by time-lapse microscopy in vivo. Furthermore, we used this zebrafish model to identify compounds targeting the TAU kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta). We identified a newly developed highly active GSK3beta inhibitor, AR-534, by rational drug design. AR-534 reduced TAU phosphorylation in TAU transgenic zebrafish. This transgenic zebrafish model may become a valuable tool for further studies of the neuropathology of dementia.
Development (Cambridge, England). Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19553285
Previous studies have identified roles of the modulation of Notch activation by Fringe homologues in boundary formation and in regulating the differentiation of vertebrate thymocytes and Drosophila glial cells. We have investigated the role of Lunatic fringe (Lfng) expression during neurogenesis in the vertebrate neural tube. We find that in the zebrafish hindbrain, Lfng is expressed by progenitors in neurogenic regions and downregulated in cells that have initiated neuronal differentiation. Lfng is required cell autonomously in neural epithelial cells to limit the amount of neurogenesis and to maintain progenitors. By contrast, Lfng is not required for the role of Notch in interneuronal fate choice, which we show is mediated by Notch1a. The expression of Lfng does not require Notch activity, but rather is regulated downstream of proneural genes that are widely expressed by neural progenitors. These findings suggest that Lfng acts in a feedback loop downstream of proneural genes, which, by promoting Notch activation, maintains the sensitivity of progenitors to lateral inhibition and thus limits further proneural upregulation.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19628697
Combinatorial genetics for conditional transgene activation allows studying gene function with temporal and tissue specific control like the Gal4-UAS system, which has enabled sophisticated genetic studies in Drosophila. Recently this system was adapted for zebrafish and promising applications have been introduced. Here, we report a systematic optimization of zebrafish Gal4-UAS genetics by establishing an optimized Gal4-activator (KalTA4). We provide quantitative data for KalTA4-mediated transgene activation in dependence of UAS copy numbers to allow for studying dosage effects of transgene expression. Employing a Tol2 transposon-mediated KalTA4 enhancer trap screen biased for central nervous system expression, we present a collection of self-reporting red fluorescent KalTA4 activator strains. These strains reliably transactivate UAS-dependent transgenes and can be rendered homozygous. Furthermore, we have characterized the transactivation kinetics of tissue-specific KalTA4 activation, which led to the development of a self-maintaining effector strain "Kaloop." This strain relates transient KalTA4 expression during embryogenesis via a KalTA4-mediated autoregulatory mechanism to live adult structures. We demonstrate its use by showing that the secondary octaval nucleus in the adult hindbrain is likely derived from egr2b-expressing cells in rhombomere 5 during stages of early embryogenesis. These data demonstrate prolonged and maintained expression by Kalooping, a technique that can be used for permanent spatiotemporal genetic fate mapping and targeted transgene expression in zebrafish.
Global Repression of Cancer Gene Expression in a Zebrafish Model of Melanoma is Linked to Epigenetic Regulation
Zebrafish. Dec, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20047469
We have established a model of melanoma progression in zebrafish through the generation of transgenic lines specifically expressing oncogenic human HRAS in the melanocytic lineage. In these tumors we have carried out quantitative expression analysis of several putative cancer genes, from known and predicted cancer gene lists. In particular, we analyzed 39 out of 101 putative cancer genes identified with a bioinformatics approach and selected for the low frequency of duplication and the high connectivity in protein networks. Data obtained by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis from zebrafish melanoma tissue shows that the expression of many cancer genes is downregulated in zebrafish melanomas, whereas only cell cycle genes are upregulated. To understand whether this trend is due to global repression of gene expression associated to a repressive chromatin state, we investigated whether changes of histone methylation were detectable in our melanoma model. We found substantial differences in the levels of H3K9me3, H4K20me2, H3K27me3, H3K4me3, and H3R2me2a immunostaining in melanoma tissue when compared with normal skin. Thus our analysis suggests that in our model, like in human melanoma, important changes occur to the methylation status of histones. Although the outcome of these changes is still unknown, they could be responsible for the global repression of gene expression through epigenetic regulation shown in this study.
The Centrosome Neither Persistently Leads Migration nor Determines the Site of Axonogenesis in Migrating Neurons in Vivo
The Journal of Cell Biology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21059852
The position of the centrosome ahead of the nucleus has been considered crucial for coordinating neuronal migration in most developmental situations. The proximity of the centrosome has also been correlated with the site of axonogenesis in certain differentiating neurons. Despite these positive correlations, accumulating experimental findings appear to negate a universal role of the centrosome in determining where an axon forms, or in leading the migration of neurons. To further examine this controversy in an in vivo setting, we have generated cell type-specific multi-cistronic gene expression to monitor subcellular dynamics in the developing zebrafish cerebellum. We show that migration of rhombic lip-derived neurons is characterized by a centrosome that does not persistently lead the nucleus, but which is instead regularly overtaken by the nucleus. In addition, axonogenesis is initiated during the onset of neuronal migration and occurs independently of centrosome proximity. These in vivo data reveal a new temporal orchestration of organelle dynamics and provide important insights into the variation in intracellular processes during vertebrate brain differentiation.
Kita Driven Expression of Oncogenic HRAS Leads to Early Onset and Highly Penetrant Melanoma in Zebrafish
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21170325
Melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Because of the increasing incidence and high lethality of melanoma, animal models for continuously observing melanoma formation and progression as well as for testing pharmacological agents are needed.
The Long Adventurous Journey of Rhombic Lip Cells in Jawed Vertebrates: a Comparative Developmental Analysis
Frontiers in Neuroanatomy. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21559349
This review summarizes vertebrate rhombic lip and early cerebellar development covering classic approaches up to modern developmental genetics which identifies the relevant differential gene expression domains and their progeny. Most of this information is derived from amniotes. However, progress in anamniotes, particularly in the zebrafish, has recently been made. The current picture suggests that rhombic lip and cerebellar development in jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes) share many characteristics. Regarding cerebellar development, these include a ptf1a expressing ventral cerebellar proliferation (VCP) giving rise to Purkinje cells and other inhibitory cerebellar cell types, and an atoh1 expressing upper rhombic lip giving rise to an external granular layer (EGL, i.e., excitatory granule cells) and an early ventral migration into the anterior rhombencephalon (cholinergic nuclei). As for the lower rhombic lip (LRL), gnathostome commonalities likely include the formation of precerebellar nuclei (mossy fiber origins) and partially primary auditory nuclei (likely convergently evolved) from the atoh1 expressing dorsal zone. The fate of the ptf1a expressing ventral LRL zone which gives rise to (excitatory cells of) the inferior olive (climbing fiber origin) and (inhibitory cells of ) cochlear nuclei in amniotes, has not been determined in anamniotes. Special for the zebrafish in comparison to amniotes is the predominant origin of anamniote excitatory deep cerebellar nuclei homologs (i.e., eurydendroid cells) from ptf1a expressing VCP cells, the sequential activity of various atoh1 paralogs and the incomplete coverage of the subpial cerebellar plate with proliferative EGL cells. Nevertheless, the conclusion that a rhombic lip and its major derivatives evolved with gnathostome vertebrates only and are thus not an ancestral craniate character complex is supported by the absence of a cerebellum (and likely absence of its afferent and efferent nuclei) in jawless fishes.
Communicative & Integrative Biology. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21980574
The behavior of a cell is determined by the interplay of its subcellular components. Thus, being able to simultaneously visualize several organelles inside cells within the natural context of a living organism could greatly enhance our understanding of developmental processes. We have established a Gal4-based system for the simultaneous and cell type specific expression of multiple subcellular labels in transparent zebrafish embryos. This system offers the opportunity to follow intracellular developmental processes in a live vertebrate organism using confocal fluorescence time-lapse microscopy. Using this approach we recently showed that the centrosome neither persistently leads migration nor determines the site of axonogenesis in migrating neurons in the zebrafish cerebellum in vivo. Here we present additional in vivo findings about the centrosomal and microtubule dynamics of neuroepithelial cells during mitotic cleavages at early neural tube stages.
Automated Reporter Quantification in Vivo: High-throughput Screening Method for Reporter-based Assays in Zebrafish
PloS One. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22238673
Reporter-based assays underlie many high-throughput screening (HTS) platforms, but most are limited to in vitro applications. Here, we report a simple whole-organism HTS method for quantifying changes in reporter intensity in individual zebrafish over time termed, Automated Reporter Quantification in vivo (ARQiv). ARQiv differs from current "high-content" (e.g., confocal imaging-based) whole-organism screening technologies by providing a purely quantitative data acquisition approach that affords marked improvements in throughput. ARQiv uses a fluorescence microplate reader with specific detection functionalities necessary for robust quantification of reporter signals in vivo. This approach is: 1) Rapid; achieving true HTS capacities (i.e., >50,000 units per day), 2) Reproducible; attaining HTS-compatible assay quality (i.e., Z'-factors of ≥0.5), and 3) Flexible; amenable to nearly any reporter-based assay in zebrafish embryos, larvae, or juveniles. ARQiv is used here to quantify changes in: 1) Cell number; loss and regeneration of two different fluorescently tagged cell types (pancreatic beta cells and rod photoreceptors), 2) Cell signaling; relative activity of a transgenic Notch-signaling reporter, and 3) Cell metabolism; accumulation of reactive oxygen species. In summary, ARQiv is a versatile and readily accessible approach facilitating evaluation of genetic and/or chemical manipulations in living zebrafish that complements current "high-content" whole-organism screening methods by providing a first-tier in vivo HTS drug discovery platform.