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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology
- The Biochemical Journal
- The EMBO Journal
- Journal of Molecular Biology
- Methods (San Diego, Calif.)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Biochemical Pharmacology
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Articles by Martine Cadene in JoVE
MALDI Monstervoorbereiding: de Ultra Thin Layer methode
David Fenyo, Qingjun Wang, Jeffrey A. DeGrasse, Julio C. Padovan, Martine Cadene, Brian T. Chait
Laboratory of Mass Spectrometry and Gaseous Ion Chemistry, Rockefeller University
Deze video toont de voorbereiding van een ultra-dunne matrix / analyt laag voor het analyseren van peptiden en eiwitten door Matrix-assisted laser desorptie ionisatie massaspectrometrie (MALDI-MS).
Other articles by Martine Cadene on PubMed
Nature. Jan, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 11796999
The ClC chloride channels catalyse the selective flow of Cl- ions across cell membranes, thereby regulating electrical excitation in skeletal muscle and the flow of salt and water across epithelial barriers. Genetic defects in ClC Cl- channels underlie several familial muscle and kidney diseases. Here we present the X-ray structures of two prokaryotic ClC Cl- channels from Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Escherichia coli at 3.0 and 3.5 A, respectively. Both structures reveal two identical pores, each pore being formed by a separate subunit contained within a homodimeric membrane protein. Individual subunits are composed of two roughly repeated halves that span the membrane with opposite orientations. This antiparallel architecture defines a selectivity filter in which a Cl- ion is stabilized by electrostatic interactions with alpha-helix dipoles and by chemical coordination with nitrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups. These findings provide a structural basis for further understanding the function of ClC Cl- channels, and establish the physical and chemical basis of their anion selectivity.
Nature. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12037559
Ion channels exhibit two essential biophysical properties; that is, selective ion conduction, and the ability to gate-open in response to an appropriate stimulus. Two general categories of ion channel gating are defined by the initiating stimulus: ligand binding (neurotransmitter- or second-messenger-gated channels) or membrane voltage (voltage-gated channels). Here we present the structural basis of ligand gating in a K(+) channel that opens in response to intracellular Ca(2+). We have cloned, expressed, analysed electrical properties, and determined the crystal structure of a K(+) channel (MthK) from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum in the Ca(2+)-bound, opened state. Eight RCK domains (regulators of K(+) conductance) form a gating ring at the intracellular membrane surface. The gating ring uses the free energy of Ca(2+) binding in a simple manner to perform mechanical work to open the pore.
Nature. May, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12037560
Living cells regulate the activity of their ion channels through a process known as gating. To open the pore, protein conformational changes must occur within a channel's membrane-spanning ion pathway. KcsA and MthK, closed and opened K(+) channels, respectively, reveal how such gating transitions occur. Pore-lining 'inner' helices contain a 'gating hinge' that bends by approximately 30 degrees. In a straight conformation four inner helices form a bundle, closing the pore near its intracellular surface. In a bent configuration the inner helices splay open creating a wide (12 A) entryway. Amino-acid sequence conservation suggests a common structural basis for gating in a wide range of K(+) channels, both ligand- and voltage-gated. The open conformation favours high conduction by compressing the membrane field to the selectivity filter, and also permits large organic cations and inactivation peptides to enter the pore from the intracellular solution.
Tyrosine Sulfation of CCR5 N-terminal Peptide by Tyrosylprotein Sulfotransferases 1 and 2 Follows a Discrete Pattern and Temporal Sequence
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Aug, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12169668
The CC-chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is the major coreceptor for the entry of macrophage-tropic (R5) HIV-1 strains into target cells. Posttranslational sulfation of tyrosine residues in the N-terminal tail of CCR5 is critical for high affinity interaction of the receptor with the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 in complex with CD4. Here, we focused on defining precisely the sulfation pattern of the N terminus of CCR5 by using recombinant human tyrosylprotein sulfotransferases TPST-1 and TPST-2 to modify a synthetic peptide that corresponds to amino acids 2-18 of the receptor (CCR5 2-18). Analysis of the reaction products was made with a combination of reversed-phase HPLC, proteolytic cleavage, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). We found that CCR5 2-18 is sulfated by both TPST isoenzymes leading to a final product with four sulfotyrosine residues. Sulfates were added stepwise to the peptide producing specific intermediates with one, two, or three sulfotyrosines. The pattern of sulfation in these intermediates suggests that Tyr-14 and Tyr-15 are sulfated first, followed by Tyr-10, and finally Tyr-3. These results represent a detailed analysis of the multiple sulfation reaction of a peptide substrate by TPSTs and provide a structural basis for understanding the role of tyrosine sulfation of CCR5 in HIV-1 coreceptor and chemokine receptor function.
Nature. May, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12721618
Voltage-dependent K+ channels are members of the family of voltage-dependent cation (K+, Na+ and Ca2+) channels that open and allow ion conduction in response to changes in cell membrane voltage. This form of gating underlies the generation of nerve and muscle action potentials, among other processes. Here we present the structure of KvAP, a voltage-dependent K+ channel from Aeropyrum pernix. We have determined a crystal structure of the full-length channel at a resolution of 3.2 A, and of the isolated voltage-sensor domain at 1.9 A, both in complex with monoclonal Fab fragments. The channel contains a central ion-conduction pore surrounded by voltage sensors, which form what we call 'voltage-sensor paddles'-hydrophobic, cationic, helix-turn-helix structures on the channel's outer perimeter. Flexible hinges suggest that the voltage-sensor paddles move in response to membrane voltage changes, carrying their positive charge across the membrane.
Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17111441
The Biochemical Journal. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17263689
Understanding the cellular effects of radiation-induced oxidation requires the unravelling of key molecular events, particularly damage to proteins with important cellular functions. The Escherichia coli lactose operon is a classical model of gene regulation systems. Its functional mechanism involves the specific binding of a protein, the repressor, to a specific DNA sequence, the operator. We have shown previously that upon irradiation with gamma-rays in solution, the repressor loses its ability to bind the operator. Water radiolysis generates hydroxyl radicals (OH* radicals) which attack the protein. Damage of the repressor DNA-binding domain, called the headpiece, is most likely to be responsible of this loss of function. Using CD, fluorescence spectroscopy and a combination of proteolytic cleavage with MS, we have examined the state of the irradiated headpiece. CD measurements revealed a dose-dependent conformational change involving metastable intermediate states. Fluorescence measurements showed a gradual degradation of tyrosine residues. MS was used to count the number of oxidations in different regions of the headpiece and to narrow down the parts of the sequence bearing oxidized residues. By calculating the relative probabilities of reaction of each amino acid with OH. radicals, we can predict the most probable oxidation targets. By comparing the experimental results with the predictions we conclude that Tyr7, Tyr12, Tyr17, Met42 and Tyr47 are the most likely hotspots of oxidation. The loss of repressor function is thus correlated with chemical modifications and conformational changes of the headpiece.
The EMBO Journal. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17703190
The Kir3.1 K(+) channel participates in heart rate control and neuronal excitability through G-protein and lipid signaling pathways. Expression in Escherichia coli has been achieved by replacing three fourths of the transmembrane pore with the pore of a prokaryotic Kir channel, leaving the cytoplasmic pore and membrane interfacial regions of Kir3.1 origin. Two structures were determined at 2.2 A. The selectivity filter is identical to the Streptomyces lividans K(+) channel within error of measurement (r.m.s.d.<0.2 A), suggesting that K(+) selectivity requires extreme conservation of three-dimensional structure. Multiple K(+) ions reside within the pore and help to explain voltage-dependent Mg(2+) and polyamine blockade and strong rectification. Two constrictions, at the inner helix bundle and at the apex of the cytoplasmic pore, may function as gates: in one structure the apex is open and in the other, it is closed. Gating of the apex is mediated by rigid-body movements of the cytoplasmic pore subunits. Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate-interacting residues suggest a possible mechanism by which the signaling lipid regulates the cytoplasmic pore.
Journal of Molecular Biology. Feb, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18155237
The Methanosarcina thermophila MC1 protein is a small basic protein that is able to bend DNA sharply. When this protein is submitted to oxidative stress through gamma irradiation, it loses its original DNA interaction properties. The protein can still bind DNA but its ability to bend DNA is decreased dramatically. Here, we used different approaches to determine the oxidations that are responsible for this inactivation. Through a combination of proteolysis and mass spectrometry we have identified the three residues that are oxidized preferentially. We show by site directed mutagenesis that two of these residues, Trp74 and Met75, are involved in the DNA binding. Their substitution by alanine leads to a strong reduction in the protein capacity to bend DNA, and a total loss of its ability to recognize bent DNA. Taken together, these results show that oxidation of both these residues is responsible for the protein inactivation. Furthermore, the results confirm the strong relationship between DNA bending and recognition of DNA sequences by the MC1 protein.
Mass Spectrometry of Full-length Integral Membrane Proteins to Define Functionally Relevant Structural Features
Methods (San Diego, Calif.). Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18976710
The crystallization and structure determination of integral membrane proteins remains a difficult task relying on a good understanding of the behavior of the protein for success. To date, membrane protein structures are still far outnumbered by soluble protein structures. Mass spectrometry is a powerful and versatile tool offering deep insights into the state of the integral membrane protein the structuralist intends to crystallize. With appropriate sample preparation methods, it provides information that can sometimes prove critical at various stages of the structure determination process, from protein expression to model building. Moreover, valuable knowledge is gained when the identified structural features underlie important functional aspects. Electrospray and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) methods, however, face a particular challenge when dealing with integral membrane proteins. A MALDI method specifically optimized for membrane protein analysis is presented here, with detailed information on the sample preparation and deposition, as well as guidelines for domain determination by limited proteolysis. MALDI-time of flight mass spectrometry can be used to do a proper inventory of initiation sites, to tailor a protein to a stable, well-folded form, and to evaluate selenomethionine replacement. These approaches are illustrated with a few examples drawn from the structural biology of ion channels.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22205704
Numerous β-defensins have been identified in birds and the potential use of these peptides as alternatives to antibiotics has been proposed, in particular to fight antibiotic-resistant and zoonotic bacterial species. Little is known about the mechanism of antibacterial activity of avian β-defensins (AvBDs), and the present work was carried out to obtain initial insights into the involvement of structural features or specific residues in the antimicrobial activity of chicken AvBD2. Chicken AvBD2 and its enantiomeric counterpart were chemically synthesized. Peptide elongation and oxidative folding were both optimized. The similar antimicrobial activity measured for both L- and D- proteins clearly indicates that there is no chiral partner. Therefore the bacterial membrane is in all likelihood the primary target. Moreover, this work evidences that the three-dimensional fold is required for an optimal antimicrobial activity, in particular for Gram-positive bacterial strains. The three-dimensional NMR structure of chicken AvBD2 defensin displays the structural 3-stranded antiparallel β-sheet characteristic of β-defensins. The surface of the molecule does not display any amphipathic character. In light of this new structure and of the king penguin AvBD103b defensin structure, the consensus sequence of avian β-defensin's family was analyzed. Well conserved residues were highlighted and the potential strategic role of the lysine 31 residue of AvBD2 emphasized. The synthetic AvBD2-K31A variant displayed substantial N-terminal structural modifications and a dramatic decrease in activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate the structural as well as the functional role of the critical lysine 31 residue in antimicrobial activity.
A Selective Reversible Azapeptide Inhibitor of Human Neutrophil Proteinase 3 Derived from a High Affinity FRET Substrate
Biochemical Pharmacology. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22209715
The biological functions of human neutrophil proteinase 3 (PR3) remain unclear because of its close structural resemblance to neutrophil elastase and its apparent functional redundancy with the latter. Thus, all natural inhibitors of PR3 preferentially target neutrophil elastase. We have designed a selective PR3 inhibitor based on the sequence of one of its specific, sensitive FRET substrates. This azapeptide, azapro-3, inhibits free PR3 in solution, PR3 bound to neutrophil membranes, and the PR3 found in crude lung secretions from patients with chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases. But it does not inhibit significantly neutrophil elastase or cathepsin G. Unlike most of azapeptides, this inhibitor does not form a stable acyl-enzyme complex; it is a reversible competitive inhibitor with a K(i) comparable to the K(m) of the parent substrate. Low concentrations (60μM) of azapro-3 totally inhibited the PR3 secreted by triggered human neutrophils (200,000cells/100μL) and the PR3 in neutrophil homogenates and in lung secretions of patients with lung inflammation for hours. Azapro-3 also resisted proteolysis by all proteases contained in these samples for at least 2h.