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In JoVE (1)
- הדמיה חיה של תנועתיות התא ואת cytoskeleton אקטין של נוירונים בודדים לבין תאים קרסט עצבית בעוברים דג הזברה
Other Publications (11)
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Articles by Matthew Clay in JoVE
הדמיה חיה של תנועתיות התא ואת cytoskeleton אקטין של נוירונים בודדים לבין תאים קרסט עצבית בעוברים דג הזברה
Erica Andersen1,2,3, Namrata Asuri1,2,3, Matthew Clay2,3,4, Mary Halloran1,2,3,4
1Genetics Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Department of Anatomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Zoology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Cell and Molecular Biology Training Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison
פרוטוקול זה מתאר הדמיה של נוירונים בודדים או תאים הרכס העצבי החיים עוברים דג הזברה. שיטה זו משמשת כדי לבחון התנהגויות הסלולר לוקליזציה אקטין פלואורסצנטי באמצעות מיקרוסקופיה confocal זמן לשגות.
Other articles by Matthew Clay on PubMed
Organic Letters. Mar, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15727436
A new strategy for the aryl annulation of cyclic ketones is described. Palladium(0) coupling of a propargyl alcohol with the enol triflate of a ketone and addition of vinylmagnesium chloride generates a triene as a magnesium chelate that may be quenched with an electrophile. In some cases, the triene cyclizes under the reaction conditions. Aromatization is accomplished by exposure to manganese dioxide or dichlorodicyanoquinone (DDQ). [reaction: see text]
Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15906404
Crystal Structure of LL-diaminopimelate Aminotransferase from Arabidopsis Thaliana: a Recently Discovered Enzyme in the Biosynthesis of L-lysine by Plants and Chlamydia
Journal of Molecular Biology. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17583737
The essential biosynthetic pathway to l-Lysine in bacteria and plants is an attractive target for the development of new antibiotics or herbicides because it is absent in humans, who must acquire this amino acid in their diet. Plants use a shortcut of a bacterial pathway to l-Lysine in which the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme ll-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (LL-DAP-AT) transforms l-tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (L-THDP) directly to LL-DAP. In addition, LL-DAP-AT was recently found in Chlamydia sp., suggesting that inhibitors of this enzyme may also be effective against such organisms. In order to understand the mechanism of this enzyme and to assist in the design of inhibitors, the three-dimensional crystal structure of LL-DAP-AT was determined at 1.95 A resolution. The cDNA sequence of LL-DAP-AT from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDAP-AT) was optimized for expression in bacteria and cloned in Escherichia coli without its leader sequence but with a C-terminal hexahistidine affinity tag to aid protein purification. The structure of AtDAP-AT was determined using the multiple-wavelength anomalous dispersion (MAD) method with a seleno-methionine derivative. AtDAP-AT is active as a homodimer with each subunit having PLP in the active site. It belongs to the family of type I fold PLP-dependent enzymes. Comparison of the active site residues of AtDAP-AT and aspartate aminotransferases revealed that the PLP binding residues in AtDAP-AT are well conserved in both enzymes. However, Glu97* and Asn309* in the active site of AtDAP-AT are not found at similar positions in aspartate aminotransferases, suggesting that specific substrate recognition may require these residues from the other monomer. A malate-bound structure of AtDAP-AT allowed LL-DAP and L-glutamate to be modelled into the active site. These initial three-dimensional structures of LL-DAP-AT provide insight into its substrate specificity and catalytic mechanism.
Rho-kinase and Myosin II Affect Dynamic Neural Crest Cell Behaviors During Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in Vivo
Developmental Biology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18926812
The induction and migration of neural crest cells (NCCs) are essential to the development of craniofacial structures and the peripheral nervous system. A critical step in the development of NCCs is the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that they undergo in order to initiate migration. Several transcription factors are important for the NCC EMT. However, less is known about the effectors regulating changes in cell adhesion, the cytoskeleton, and cell motility associated with the EMT or about specific changes in the behavior of cells undergoing EMT in vivo. We used time-lapse imaging of NCCs in the zebrafish hindbrain to show that NCCs undergo a stereotypical series of behaviors during EMT. We find that loss of cell adhesion and membrane blebbing precede filopodial extension and the onset of migration. Live imaging of actin dynamics shows that actin localizes differently in blebs and filopodia. Moreover, we find that disruption of myosin II or Rho-kinase (ROCK) activity inhibits NCC blebbing and causes reduced NCC EMT. These data reveal roles for myosin II and ROCK in NCC EMT in vivo, and provide a detailed characterization of NCC behavior during EMT that will form a basis for further mechanistic studies.
Mechanism of Substrate Recognition and PLP-induced Conformational Changes in LL-diaminopimelate Aminotransferase from Arabidopsis Thaliana
Journal of Molecular Biology. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18952095
LL-Diaminopimelate aminotransferase (LL-DAP-AT), a pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme in the lysine biosynthetic pathways of plants and Chlamydia, is a potential target for the development of herbicides or antibiotics. This homodimeric enzyme converts L-tetrahydrodipicolinic acid (THDP) directly to LL-DAP using L-glutamate as the source of the amino group. Earlier, we described the 3D structures of native and malate-bound LL-DAP-AT from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDAP-AT). Seven additional crystal structures of AtDAP-AT and its variants are reported here as part of an investigation into the mechanism of substrate recognition and catalysis. Two structures are of AtDAP-AT with reduced external aldimine analogues: N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)-L-glutamate (PLP-Glu) and N-(5'-phosphopyridoxyl)- LL-Diaminopimelate (PLP-DAP) bound in the active site. Surprisingly, they reveal that both L-glutamate and LL-DAP are recognized in a very similar fashion by the same sets of amino acid residues; both molecules adopt twisted V-shaped conformations. With both substrates, the alpha-carboxylates are bound in a salt bridge with Arg404, whereas the distal carboxylates are recognized via hydrogen bonds to the well-conserved side chains of Tyr37, Tyr125 and Lys129. The distal C(epsilon) amino group of LL-DAP is specifically recognized by several non-covalent interactions with residues from the other subunit (Asn309*, Tyr94*, Gly95*, and Glu97* (Amino acid designators followed by an asterisk (*) indicate that the residues originate in the other subunit of the dimer)) and by three bound water molecules. Two catalytically inactive variants of AtDAP-AT were created via site-directed mutagenesis of the active site lysine (K270N and K270Q). The structures of these variants permitted the observation of the unreduced external aldimines of PLP with L-glutamate and with LL-DAP in the active site, and revealed differences in the torsion angle about the PLP-substrate bond. Lastly, an apo-AtDAP-AT structure missing PLP revealed details of conformational changes induced by PLP binding and substrate entry into the active site.
Single-marker Identification of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer Stem Cells with Aldehyde Dehydrogenase
Head & Neck. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20073073
In accord with the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory, only a small subset of cancer cells are capable of forming tumors. We previously reported that CD44 isolates tumorigenic cells from head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC). Recent studies indicate that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity may represent a more specific marker of CSCs.
Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20185317
Bacteria and higher plants make l-lysine from diaminopimelic acid (DAP). In mammals l-lysine is an essential amino acid that must be acquired from the diet as the biosynthetic pathway is absent for this key constituent of proteins. Recently, ll-diaminopimelate aminotransferase (ll-DAP-AT), a pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, was reported to catalyze a key step in the route to l-lysine in plants and Chlamydia. Specific inhibitors of this enzyme could thus potentially serve as herbicides or antibiotics that are non-toxic to mammals. In this work, 29,201 inhibitors were screened against ll-DAP-AT and the IC(50) values were determined for the top 46 compounds. An aryl hydrazide and rhodanine derivatives were further modified to generate 20 analogues that were also tested against ll-DAP-AT. These analogues provide additional structure-activity relationships (SAR) that are useful in guiding further design of inhibitors.
Cell Adhesion & Migration. Oct-Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20671421
Neural crest cells (NCCs) are a remarkable, dynamic group of cells that travel long distances in the embryo to reach their target sites. They are responsible for the formation of craniofacial bones and cartilage, neurons and glia in the peripheral nervous system, and pigment cells. Live imaging of NCCs as they traverse the embryo has been critical to increasing our knowledge of their biology. NCCs exhibit multiple behaviors and communicate with each other and their environment along each step of their journey. Imaging combined with molecular manipulations has led to insights into the mechanisms controlling these behaviors. In this review, we highlight studies that have used live imaging to provide novel insight into NCC migration and discuss how continued use of such techniques can advance our understanding of NCC biology.
Current Opinion in Neurobiology. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20970990
Accurate neural crest cell (NCC) migration requires tight control of cell adhesions, cytoskeletal dynamics and cell motility. Cadherins and RhoGTPases are critical molecular players that regulate adhesions and motility during initial delamination of NCCs from the neuroepithelium. Recent studies have revealed multiple functions for these molecules and suggest that a precise balance of their activity is crucial. RhoGTPase appears to regulate both cell adhesions and protrusive forces during NCC delamination. Increasing evidence shows that cadherins are multi-functional proteins with novel, adhesion-independent signaling functions that control NCC motility during both delamination and migration. These functions are often regulated by specific proteolytic cleavage of cadherins. After NCC delamination, planar cell polarity signaling acts via RhoGTPases to control NCC protrusions and migration direction.
The Laryngoscope. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21344428
The cancer stem cell (CSC) theory concludes that a subpopulation of cancer cells, the cancer stem cells, can self-renew and are responsible for tumor growth. Previous studies have identified cells able to efflux Hoechst 33342 dye as the side population (SP). SP cells and CSCs share many characteristics, suggesting the SP isolated from malignant tumors contains CSCs.
The Structure of LL-diaminopimelate Aminotransferase from Chlamydia Trachomatis: Implications for Its Broad Substrate Specificity
Journal of Molecular Biology. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21722650
We have previously reported the structures of the native holo and substrate-bound forms of LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDAP-AT). Here, we report the crystal and molecular structures of the LL-diaminopimelate aminotransferase from Chlamydia trachomatis (CtDAP-AT) in the apo-form and the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-bound form. The molecular structure of CtDAP-AT shows that its overall fold is essentially identical with that of AtDAP-AT except that CtDAP-AT adopts an "open" conformation as opposed to the "closed" conformation of AtDAP-AT. Although AtDAP-AT and CtDAP-AT are approximately 40% identical in their primary sequence, they have major differences in their substrate specificities; AtDAP-AT is highly specific for LL-DAP, whereas CtDAP-AT accepts a wider range of substrates. Since all of the residues involved in substrate recognition are highly conserved between AtDAP-AT and CtDAP-AT, we propose that differences in flexibility of the loops lining the active-site region between the two enzymes likely account for the differences in substrate specificity.