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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (8)
Articles by Matthew Valley in JoVE
Using Affordable LED Arrays for Photo-Stimulation of Neurons
Matthew Valley, Sebastian Wagner, Benjamin W. Gallarda, Pierre-Marie Lledo
Laboratory for Perception and Memory, Institut Pasteur and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS)
Adult-born neurons expressing ChR2 can be manipulated in slice electrophysiological preparations in order to examine their contribution towards the function of olfactory neural circuits.
Other articles by Matthew Valley on PubMed
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17290509
Olfactory CNG Channel Desensitization by Ca2+/CaM Via the B1b Subunit Affects Response Termination but Not Sensitivity to Recurring Stimulation
Neuron. May, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18466748
Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated negative feedback is a prototypical regulatory mechanism for Ca2+-permeable ion channels. In olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), such regulation on the cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel is considered a major mechanism of OSN adaptation. To determine the role of Ca2+/calmodulin desensitization of the olfactory CNG channel, we introduced a mutation in the channel subunit CNGB1b in mice that rendered the channel resistant to fast desensitization by Ca2+/calmodulin. Contrary to expectations, mutant OSNs showed normal receptor current adaptation to repeated stimulation. Rather, they displayed slower response termination and, consequently, reduced ability to transmit olfactory information to the olfactory bulb. They also displayed reduced response decline during sustained odorant exposure. These results suggest that Ca2+/calmodulin-mediated CNG channel fast desensitization is less important in regulating the sensitivity to recurring stimulation than previously thought and instead functions primarily to terminate OSN responses.
Neuron. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18786352
Contrast enhancement in sensory systems often relies on spatial filters implemented by lateral inhibition. However, in this issue of Neuron, Fantana et al. provide evidence that lateral inhibition in the olfactory bulb selectively acts between sparse populations of principal neurons without regard to spatial relations.
Probing S4 and S5 Segment Proximity in Mammalian Hyperpolarization-activated HCN Channels by Disulfide Bridging and Cd2+ Coordination
Pflügers Archiv : European Journal of Physiology. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19034494
We explored the structural basis of voltage sensing in the HCN1 hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation channel by examining the relative orientation of the voltage sensor and pore domains. The opening of channels engineered to contain single cysteine residues at the extracellular ends of the voltage-sensing S4 (V246C) and pore-forming S5 (C303) domains is inhibited by formation of disulfide or cysteine:Cd(2+) bonds. As Cd(2+) coordination is promoted by depolarization, the S4-S5 interaction occurs preferentially in the closed state. The failure of oxidation to catalyze dimer formation, as assayed by Western blotting, indicates the V246C:C303 interaction occurs within a subunit. Intriguingly, a similar interaction has been observed in depolarization-activated Shaker voltage-dependent potassium (Kv) channels at depolarized potentials but such an intrasubunit interaction is inconsistent with the X-ray crystal structure of Kv1.2, wherein S4 approaches S5 of an adjacent subunit. These findings suggest channels of opposite voltage-sensing polarity adopt a conserved S4-S5 orientation in the depolarized state that is distinct from that trapped upon crystallization.
Nature Neuroscience. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19098904
The prion protein PrP(C) is infamous for its role in disease, but its normal physiological function remains unknown. Here we found a previously unknown behavioral phenotype of Prnp(-/-) mice in an odor-guided task. This phenotype was manifest in three Prnp knockout lines on different genetic backgrounds, which provides strong evidence that the phenotype is caused by a lack of PrP(C) rather than by other genetic factors. Prnp(-/-) mice also showed altered behavior in a second olfactory task, suggesting that the phenotype is olfactory specific. Furthermore, PrP(C) deficiency affected oscillatory activity in the deep layers of the main olfactory bulb, as well as dendrodendritic synaptic transmission between olfactory bulb granule and mitral cells. Notably, both the behavioral and electrophysiological alterations found in Prnp(-/-) mice were rescued by transgenic neuronal-specific expression of PrP(C). These data suggest that PrP(C) is important in the normal processing of sensory information by the olfactory system.
Developmental Cell. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19386262
SRp38 is an atypical SR protein splicing regulator. To define the functions of SRp38 in vivo, we generated SRp38 null mice. The majority of homozygous mutants survived only until E15.5 and displayed multiple cardiac defects. Evaluation of gene expression profiles in the SRp38(-/-) embryonic heart revealed a defect in processing of the pre-mRNA encoding cardiac triadin, a protein that functions in regulation of Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during excitation-contraction coupling. This defect resulted in significantly reduced levels of triadin, as well as those of the interacting protein calsequestrin 2. Purified SRp38 was shown to bind specifically to the regulated exon and to modulate triadin splicing in vitro. Extending these results, isolated SRp38(-/-) embryonic cardiomyocytes displayed defects in Ca(2+) handling compared with wild-type controls. Taken together, our results demonstrate that SRp38 regulates cardiac-specific alternative splicing of triadin pre-mRNA and, reflecting this, is essential for proper Ca(2+) handling during embryonic heart development.
Annals of Neurology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19399874
Conventional anticonvulsants reduce neuronal excitability through effects on ion channels and synaptic function. Anticonvulsant mechanisms of the ketogenic diet remain incompletely understood. Because carbohydrates are restricted in patients on the ketogenic diet, we evaluated the effects of limiting carbohydrate availability by reducing glycolysis using the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG) in experimental models of seizures and epilepsy.
Ablation of Mouse Adult Neurogenesis Alters Olfactory Bulb Structure and Olfactory Fear Conditioning
Frontiers in Neuroscience. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 20582278
Adult neurogenesis replenishes olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons throughout the life of most mammals, yet during this constant flux it remains unclear how the OB maintains a constant structure and function. In the mouse OB, we investigated the dynamics of turnover and its impact on olfactory function by ablating adult neurogenesis with an x-ray lesion to the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). Regardless of the magnitude of the lesion to the SVZ, we found no change in the survival of young adult born granule cells (GCs) born after the lesion, and a gradual decrease in the population of GCs born before the lesion. After a lesion producing a 96% reduction of incoming adult born GCs to the OB, we found a diminished behavioral fear response to conditioned odor cues but not to audio cues. Interestingly, despite this behavioral deficit and gradual anatomical changes, we found no electrophysiological changes in the GC population assayed in vivo through dendro-dendritic synaptic plasticity and odor-evoked local field potential oscillations. These data indicate that turnover in the granule cell layer is generally decoupled from the rate of adult neurogenesis, and that OB adult neurogenesis plays a role in a wide behavioral system extending beyond the OB.