In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (59)

Articles by Matthias Schulz in JoVE

Other articles by Matthias Schulz on PubMed

MEG Study of Long-term Cortical Reorganization of Sensorimotor Areas with Respect to Using Chopsticks

Neuroreport. Nov, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12438945

The movements required to use chopsticks are overlearned and routine in Asians. Most non-Asians, on the other hand, typically have difficulty performing this unfamiliar manual activity, and have to focus their attention on the movements required to use chopsticks adequately. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG) we compared the cortical activation of highly trained Asian chopstick users to the activation of Europeans who only occasionally used chopsticks, while they performed the same tasks with chopsticks or a control task of simple tapping of the same fingers. The data were analyzed using the new method of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM). In Europeans there was a significantly higher ratio of spectral power in the higher gamma frequency band (60-80 Hz) over the sensorimotor area compared to the Asian subjects. From these results we conclude that the high gamma band activity in the sensorimotor area may reflect focused attention and functional reorganization of the cortical network with respect to sensorimotor experience.

Selective Alterations in Mast Cell Subsets and Eosinophil Infiltration in Two Complementary Types of Intestinal Inflammation: Ascariasis and Crohn's Disease

Pathobiology : Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology. 2002-2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12865626

Numbers of mast cells (MCs) of different subpopulations and the extent of eosinophil infiltration were compared in Crohn's disease and ascariasis. These two types of intestinal inflammation are complementary with regard to T cell response (TH1 versus TH2), prevalence and environmental factors.

Evidence for Training-induced Crossmodal Reorganization of Cortical Functions in Trumpet Players

Neuroreport. Jan, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12544849

The aim of this study was to compare multimodal information processing in the somatosensory and auditory cortices and related multimodal areas in musicians (trumpet players) and non-musicians. Magnetoencephalographic activity (MEG) was recorded in response to five stimulus conditions from 10 professional trumpet players and nine musically untrained control subjects. Somatosensory and auditory stimuli were presented alone or in combination. Our data suggest that musicians, in general, process multisensory stimuli differently to the control group. When stimulating the lip in professional trumpet players, a multimodal interaction (expressed as difference between the multimodal response and the sum of unimodal responses) in the corresponding somatosensory cortex showed a positive peak at 33 ms, which was not found in the control group. Conversely, the control group shows a significant interaction of opposite polarity around 60-80 ms. We suggest that training-induced reorganization in musicians leads to a qualitatively different way to process multisensory information. It favors an early stage of cortical processing, which is modified by the connections between multimodal and auditory neurons from thalamus to primary somatosensory area.

Music and Learning-induced Cortical Plasticity

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Nov, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14681168

Auditory stimuli are encoded by frequency-tuned neurons in the auditory cortex. There are a number of tonotopic maps, indicating that there are multiple representations, as in a mosaic. However, the cortical organization is not fixed due to the brain's capacity to adapt to current requirements of the environment. Several experiments on cerebral cortical organization in musicians demonstrate an astonishing plasticity. We used the MEG technique in a number of studies to investigate the changes that occur in the human auditory cortex when a skill is acquired, such as when learning to play a musical instrument. We found enlarged cortical representation of tones of the musical scale as compared to pure tones in skilled musicians. Enlargement was correlated with the age at which musicians began to practice. We also investigated cortical representations for notes of different timbre (violin and trumpet) and found that they are enhanced in violinists and trumpeters, preferentially for the timbre of the instrument on which the musician was trained. In recent studies we extended these findings in three ways. First, we show that we can use MEG to measure the effects of relatively short-term laboratory training involving learning to perceive virtual instead of spectral pitch and that the switch to perceiving virtual pitch is manifested in the gamma band frequency. Second, we show that there is cross-modal plasticity in that when the lips of trumpet players are stimulated (trumpet players assess their auditory performance by monitoring the position and pressure of their lips touching the mouthpiece of their instrument) at the same time as a trumpet tone, activation in the somatosensory cortex is increased more than it is during the sum of the separate lip and trumpet tone stimulation. Third, we show that musicians' automatic encoding and discrimination of pitch contour and interval information in melodies are specifically enhanced compared to those in nonmusicians in that musicians show larger functional mismatch negativity (MMNm) responses to occasional changes in melodic contour or interval, but that the two groups show similar MMNm responses to changes in the frequency of a pure tone.

Enhanced Invasiveness of Breast Cancer Cell Lines Upon Co-cultivation with Macrophages is Due to TNF-alpha Dependent Up-regulation of Matrix Metalloproteases

Carcinogenesis. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15044327

Apart from the neoplastic cells, malignant tumours consist of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and normal cells, in particular tumour-associated macrophages (TAM). To understand the mechanisms by which TAM can influence tumour cell invasion we co-cultured the human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, SK-BR-3 and the benign mammary epithelial cell line hTERT-HME1 with macrophages. Co-incubation enhanced invasiveness of the tumour cells, while hTERT-HME1 remained non-invasive. Addition of the broad-spectrum matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-inhibitor FN 439, neutralizing MMP-9 or tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) antibodies reduced invasiveness to basal levels. As shown by zymography, all cell lines produced low amounts of MMP-2, -3, -7 and -9 under control conditions. Basal MMP production by macrophages was significantly higher. Upon co-incubation, supernatant levels of MMPs -2, -3, -7 and -9 increased significantly, paralleled by an increase of MMP-2 activation. MMP-2 and -9 induction could be blocked by TNF-alpha antibodies. Co-culture of macrophages and hTERT-HME1 did not lead to MMP induction. In the co-cultures, mRNAs for MMPs and TNF-alpha were significantly up-regulated in macrophages, while the mRNA concentrations in the tumour cells remained unchanged. In summary, we have found that co-cultivation of tumour cells with macrophages leads to enhanced invasiveness of the malignant cells due to TNF-alpha dependent MMP induction in the macrophages.

Sensory Mapping of Lip Representation in Brass Musicians with Embouchure Dystonia

Neuroreport. Apr, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15073521

Embouchure dystonia is a focal task-specific disorder involving abnormal non-coordinated movements and involuntary muscle contraction around the mouth. In professional brass players it is often so disabling that patients have to limit or give up their occupation. We examined the somatosensory homuncular representation and measured gap detection sensitivity of the lips in eight former professional musicians affected by embouchure dystonia and eight control subjects. Relative to controls, the patients' digit, and especially the thumb, representations were shifted in a lateral direction towards the lip representational zone. Patients' upper lips showed decreased sensitivity compared to their lower lips (p < 0.01). This asymmetry result was absent in controls. Abnormal somatosensory reorganization may contribute to the disorder.

An Integrative MEG-fMRI Study of the Primary Somatosensory Cortex Using Cross-modal Correspondence Analysis

NeuroImage. May, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15110002

We develop a novel approach of cross-modal correspondence analysis (CMCA) to address whether brain activities observed in magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) represent a common neuronal subpopulation, and if so, which frequency band obtained by MEG best fits the common brain areas. Fourteen adults were investigated by whole-head MEG using a single equivalent current dipole (ECD) and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) approaches and by fMRI at 1.5 T using linear time-invariant modeling to generate statistical maps. The same somatosensory stimulus sequences consisting of tactile impulses to the right sided: digit 1, digit 4 and lower lip were used in both neuroimaging modalities. To evaluate the reproducibility of MEG and fMRI results, one subject was measured repeatedly. Despite different MEG dipole locations and locations of maximum activation in SAM and fMRI, CMCA revealed a common subpopulation of the primary somatosensory cortex, which displays a clear homuncular organization. MEG activity in the frequency range between 30 and 60 Hz, followed by the ranges of 20-30 and 60-100 Hz, explained best the defined subrepresentation given by both MEG and fMRI. These findings have important implications for improving and understanding of the biophysics underlying both neuroimaging techniques, and for determining the best strategy to combine MEG and fMRI data to study the spatiotemporal nature of brain activity.

Improving Permutation Test Power for Group Analysis of Spatially Filtered MEG Data

NeuroImage. Nov, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15528099

Non-parametric statistical methods, such as permutation, are flexible tools to analyze data when the population distribution is not known. With minimal assumptions and better statistical power compared to the parametric tests, permutation tests have recently been applied to the spatially filtered magnetoencephalography (MEG) data for group analysis. To perform permutation tests on neuroimaging data, an empirical maximal null distribution has to be found, which is free from any activated voxels, to determine the threshold to classify the voxels as active at a given probability level. An iterative procedure is used to determine the distribution by computing the null distribution, which is recomputed when a possible activated voxel is found within the current distributions. Besides the high computational costs associated with this approach, there is no guarantee that all activated voxels are excluded when constructing the maximal null distribution, which may reduce the statistical power. In this study, we propose a novel way to construct the maximal null distribution from the data of the resting period. The approach is tested on the MEG data from a somatosensory experiment, and demonstrated that the approach could improve the power of the permutation test while reducing the computational cost at the same time.

Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Replacement with Pyrolytic Carbon Prostheses

Operative Orthopadie Und Traumatologie. Mar, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17345024

Prosthetic joint replacement to reduce pain and maintain function of the proximal interphalangeal joint.

Increased Bone Formation Around Coated Implants

Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Aug, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19531092

We hypothesized that coating threaded, sandblasted acid-etched titanium implants with collagen and chondroitin sulphate (CS) increases bone formation and implant stability, compared with uncoated controls.

Stromal Endothelin B Receptor-deficiency Inhibits Breast Cancer Growth and Metastasis

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. Aug, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19671740

The endothelin (ET) axis, often deregulated in cancers, is a promising target for anticancer strategies. Whereas previous investigations have focused mostly on ET action in malignant cells, we chose a model allowing separate assessment of the effects of ETs and their receptors ET(A)R and ET(B)R in the tumor cells and the stromal compartment, which is increasingly recognized as a key player in cancer progression. In homozygous spotting lethal rats (sl/sl), a model of constitutive ET(B)R deficiency, we showed significant reduction of growth and metastasis of MAT B III rat mammary adenocarcinoma cells overexpressing ET(A)R and ET-1 but negative for ET(B)R. Lack of stromal ET(B)R expression did not influence angiogenesis. However, it was correlated with diminished infiltration by tumor-associated macrophages and with reduced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, both known as powerful promoters of tumor progression. These effects were almost completely abolished in transgenic sl/sl rats, wherein ET(B)R function is restored by expression of an intact ET(B)R transgene. This shows that tumor growth and metastasis are critically dependent on ET(B)R function in cells of the microenvironment and suggests that successful ETR antagonist therapy should also target the stromal component of ET signaling

Metastasis of Breast Cancer to a Lumbar Spinal Nerve Root Ganglion

Spine. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19752693

A case report of a surgically treated metastasis of breast cancer to the L2 nerve root ganglion.

Modulation of Auditory Evoked Responses to Spectral and Temporal Changes by Behavioral Discrimination Training

BMC Neuroscience. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19951416

Due to auditory experience, musicians have better auditory expertise than non-musicians. An increased neocortical activity during auditory oddball stimulation was observed in different studies for musicians and for non-musicians after discrimination training. This suggests a modification of synaptic strength among simultaneously active neurons due to the training. We used amplitude-modulated tones (AM) presented in an oddball sequence and manipulated their carrier or modulation frequencies. We investigated non-musicians in order to see if behavioral discrimination training could modify the neocortical activity generated by change detection of AM tone attributes (carrier or modulation frequency). Cortical evoked responses like N1 and mismatch negativity (MMN) triggered by sound changes were recorded by a whole head magnetoencephalographic system (MEG). We investigated (i) how the auditory cortex reacts to pitch difference (in carrier frequency) and changes in temporal features (modulation frequency) of AM tones and (ii) how discrimination training modulates the neuronal activity reflecting the transient auditory responses generated in the auditory cortex.

Perforation Holes in Ventricular Catheters--is Less More?

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Jun, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20024658

Obstruction is a common cause of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt failure. Risk factors for proximal obstructive malfunction are suboptimal ventricular catheter positioning and slit-like ventricles. A new ventricular catheter design to decrease risk of obstruction was evaluated.

Red Meat Production in Australia: Life Cycle Assessment and Comparison with Overseas Studies

Environmental Science & Technology. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20067280

Greenhouse gas emissions from beef production are a significant part of Australia's total contribution to climate change. For the first time an environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) hybridizing detailed on-site process modeling and input-output analysis is used to describe Australian red meat production. In this paper we report the carbon footprint and total energy consumption of three supply chains in three different regions in Australia over two years. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy use data are compared to those from international studies on red meat production, and the Australian results are either average or below average. The increasing proportion of lot-fed beef in Australia is favorable, since this production system generates lower total GHG emissions than grass-fed production; the additional effort in producing and transporting feeds is effectively offset by the increased efficiency of meat production in feedlots. In addition to these two common LCA indicators, in this paper we also quantify solid waste generation and a soil erosion indicator on a common basis.

Navigated Endoscopic Surgery for Multiloculated Hydrocephalus in Children

Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics. May, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20433253

Multiloculated hydrocephalus remains a challenging condition to treat in the pediatric hydrocephalic population. In a retrospective study, the authors reviewed their experience with navigated endoscopy to treat multiloculated hydrocephalus in children.

Microglia Promote Colonization of Brain Tissue by Breast Cancer Cells in a Wnt-dependent Way

Glia. Sep, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20549749

Although there is increasing evidence that blood-derived macrophages support tumor progression, it is still unclear whether specialized resident macrophages, such as brain microglia, also play a prominent role in metastasis formation. Here, we show that microglia enhance invasion and colonization of brain tissue by breast cancer cells, serving both as active transporters and guiding rails. This is antagonized by inactivation of microglia as well as by the Wnt inhibitor Dickkopf-2. Proinvasive microglia demonstrate altered morphology, but neither upregulation of M2-like cytokines nor differential gene expression. Bacterial lipopolysacharide shifts tumor-educated microglia into a classical M1 phenotype, reduces their proinvasive function, and unmasks inflammatory and Wnt signaling as the most strongly regulated pathways. Histological findings in human brain metastases underline the significance of these results. In conclusion, microglia are critical for the successful colonization of the brain by epithelial cancer cells, suggesting inhibition of proinvasive microglia as a promising antimetastatic strategy.

[Countries, Civilized Society and Humanitarian Internationalism: Their Cooperation in Developing the Geneva Convention for the Protection of War Wounded (1864)]

Neuere Medizin- Und Wissenschaftsgeschichte. 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21999005

Biological Functionalization of Dental Implants with Collagen and Glycosaminoglycans-A Comparative Study

Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials. Nov, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 22102613

Biological implant surface coatings are an emerging technology to increase bone formation. Such an approach is of special interest in anatomical regions like the maxilla. In the present study, we hypothesized that the coating of titanium implants with components of the organic extracellular matrix increases bone formation and implant stability compared to an uncoated reference. The implants were coated using collagen-I with either two different concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS) or two differentially sulfated hyaluronans. Implant coatings were characterized biochemically and with atomic force microscopy. Histomorphometry was used to assess bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone-volume density (BVD) after 4 and 8 weeks of submerged healing in the maxilla of 20 minipigs. Further, implant stability was measured by resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Implants containing the lower CS concentration had significantly more BIC, compared to the uncoated reference at both times of interest. No significant increase was measured from week 4 to 8. Differences in BVD and RFA were statistically not significant. A higher concentration of CS and the application of sulfated hyaluronans showed no comparable increase in BIC. This study demonstrates a positive effect of a specific collagen-glycosaminoglycan combination on early bone formation in vivo. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2011.

A Streamlined Sustainability Assessment Tool for Improved Decision Making in the Urban Water Industry

Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21751340

Water supply is a key consideration in sustainable urban planning. Ideally, detailed quantitative sustainability assessments are undertaken during the planning stage to inform the decision-making process. In reality, however, the significant time and cost associated with undertaking such detailed environmental and economic assessments is often cited as a barrier to wider implementation of these key decision support tools, particularly for decisions made at the local or regional government level. In an attempt to overcome this barrier of complexity, 4 water service providers in Melbourne, Australia, funded the development of a publicly available streamlined Environmental Sustainability Assessment Tool, which is aimed at a wide range of decision makers to assist them in broadening the type and number of water servicing options that can be considered for greenfield or backlog developments. The Environmental Sustainability Assessment Tool consists of a simple user interface and draws on life cycle inventory data to allow for rapid estimation of the environmental and economic performance of different water servicing scenarios. Scenario options can then be further prioritized by means of an interactive multicriteria analysis. The intent of this article is to identify the key issues to be considered in a streamlined sustainability assessment tool for the urban water industry, and to demonstrate the feasibility of generating accurate life cycle assessments and life cycle costings, using such a tool. We use a real-life case study example consisting of 3 separate scenarios for a planned urban development to show that this kind of tool can emulate life cycle assessments and life cycle costings outcomes obtained through more detailed studies. This simplified approach is aimed at supporting "sustainability thinking" early in the decision-making process, thereby encouraging more sustainable water and sewerage infrastructure solutions.

Endoscopic Treatment of Isolated Fourth Ventricle: Clinical and Radiological Outcome

Neurosurgery. Apr, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21937936

Treatment of an isolated fourth ventricle should be considered when clinical symptoms or a significant mass effect occur.

Comparison of Bone-implant Contact and Bone-implant Volume Between 2D-histological Sections and 3D-SRµCT Slices

European Cells & Materials. Apr, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22492016

Histological imaging is still considered the gold standard for analysing bone formation around metallic implants. Generally, a limited number of histological sections per sample are used for the approximation of mean values of peri-implant bone formation. In this study we compared statistically the results of bone-implant contact (BIC) and bone-implant volume (BIV) obtained by histological sections, with those obtained by X-ray absorption images from synchrotron radiation micro-computed tomography (SRµCT) using osseointegrated screw-shaped implants from a mini-pig study. Comparing the BIC results of 3-4 histological sections per implant sample with the appropriate 3-4 SRµCT slices showed a non-significant difference of 1.9 % (p = 0.703). The contact area assessed by the whole 3D information from the SRµCT measurement in comparison to the histomorphometric results showed a non-significant difference in BIC of 4.9 % (p = 0.171). The amount of the bone-implant volume in the histological sections and the appropriate SRµCT slices showed a non-significant difference by only 1.4 % (p = 0.736) and also remains non-significant with 2.6 % (p = 0.323) using the volumetric SRµCT information. We conclude that for a clinical evaluation of implant osseointegration with histological imaging at least 3-4 sections per sample are sufficient to represent the BIC or BIV for a sample. Due to the fact that in this study we have found a significant intra-sample variation in BIC of up to ± 35 % the selection of only one or two histological sections per sample may strongly influence the determined BIC.

Systematic Review of Animal Models for the Study of Implant Integration, Assessing the Influence of Material, Surface and Design

Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22533945

The aim of this systematic review was to assess the scientific literature in terms of pre-clinical studies evaluating the influence of material, surface and design on the integration of an implant by hard and soft tissues. The included publications were analysed with regard to the frequency of reporting of criteria being derived from the ARRIVE guidelines. This served to trace elements within animal studies, where the quality of reporting needs to improve.

Controlling the Localization of Polymer-functionalized Nanoparticles in Mixed Lipid/polymer Membranes

ACS Nano. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22950802

Surface hydrophobicity plays a significant role in controlling the interactions between nanoparticles and lipid membranes. In principle, a nanoparticle can be encapsulated into a liposome, either being incorporated into the hydrophobic bilayer interior or trapped within the aqueous vesicle core. In this paper, we demonstrate the preparation and characterization of polymer-functionalized CdSe NPs, tuning their interaction with mixed lipid/polymer membranes from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phophocholine and PIB(87)-b-PEO(17) block copolymer by varying their surface hydrophobicity. It is observed that hydrophobic PIB-modified CdSe NPs can be selectively located within polymer domains in a mixed lipid/polymer monolayer at the air/water interface, changing their typical domain morphologies, while amphiphilic PIB-PEO-modified CdSe NPs showed no specific localization in phase-separated lipid/polymer films. In addition, hydrophilic water-soluble CdSe NPs can readily adsorb onto spread monolayers, showing a larger effect on the molecule packing at the air/water interface in the case of pure lipid films compared to mixed monolayers. Furthermore, the incorporation of PIB-modified CdSe NPs into hybrid lipid/polymer GUVs is demonstrated with respect to the prevailing phase state of the hybrid membrane. Monitoring fluorescent-labeled PIB-CdSe NPs embedded into phase-separated vesicles, it is demonstrated that they are enriched in one specific phase, thus probing their selective incorporation into the hydrophobic portion of PIB(87)-b-PEO(17) BCP-rich domains. Thus, the formation of biocompatible hybrid GUVs with selectively incorporated nanoparticles opens a new perspective for subtle engineering of membranes together with their (nano-) phase structure serving as a model system in designing functional nanomaterials for effective nanomedicine or drug delivery.

Characterization of the Osseointegration of Algipore and Algipore Modified with Mineralized Collagen Type I

Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23063393

Algipore is a clinically established bone substitute. The present study evaluated the osseoconductive and resorptive characteristics of Algipore modified with collagen type I (ACI).

Shunt Survival Rates by Using the Adjustable Differential Pressure Valve Combined with a Gravitational Unit (proGAV) in Pediatric Neurosurgery

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23135777

Overdrainage is a chronic complication in shunted pediatric patients with hydrocephalus. The use of adjustability of differential pressure (DP) valves in combination with antisiphoning devices may help to overcome this sequela and may diminish the rate of possible shunt failures. The purpose of this retrospective study is to report our experience on shunt survival and infection rate with an adjustable DP valve with integrated gravitational unit in pediatric hydrocephalus.

Endoscopic Neurosurgery in Preterm and Term Newborn Infants--a Feasibility Report

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23274638

Neuroendoscopic procedures became essential in neurosurgical treatment of disturbed cerebrospinal fluid dynamics. While a vast number of papers report on the neuroendoscopic experience for adults and children, no series so far reported on techniques and indications for neonate infants. We present our experience for the feasibility of neuroendoscopic procedures in preterm and term newborn infants.

Controlling Molecular Recognition with Lipid/polymer Domains in Vesicle Membranes

Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23280770

PLGG1, a Plastidic Glycolate Glycerate Transporter, is Required for Photorespiration and Defines a Unique Class of Metabolite Transporters

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23382251

Photorespiratory carbon flux reaches up to a third of photosynthetic flux, thus contributes massively to the global carbon cycle. The pathway recycles glycolate-2-phosphate, the most abundant byproduct of RubisCO reactions. This oxygenation reaction of RubisCO and subsequent photorespiration significantly limit the biomass gains of many crop plants. Although photorespiration is a compartmentalized process with enzymatic reactions in the chloroplast, the peroxisomes, the mitochondria, and the cytosol, no transporter required for the core photorespiratory cycle has been identified at the molecular level to date. Using transcript coexpression analyses, we identified Plastidal glycolate glycerate translocator 1 (PLGG1) as a candidate core photorespiratory transporter. Related genes are encoded in the genomes of archaea, bacteria, fungi, and all Archaeplastida and have previously been associated with a function in programmed cell-death. A mutant deficient in PLGG1 shows WT-like growth only in an elevated carbon dioxide atmosphere. The mutant accumulates glycolate and glycerate, leading to the hypothesis that PLGG1 is a glycolate/glycerate transporter. This hypothesis was tested and supported by in vivo and in vitro transport assays and (18)O(2)-metabolic flux profiling. Our results indicate that PLGG1 is the chloroplastidic glycolate/glycerate transporter, which is required for the function of the photorespiratory cycle. Identification of the PLGG1 transport function will facilitate unraveling the role of similar proteins in bacteria, archaea, and fungi in the future.

Adjustments in Gravitational Valves for the Treatment of Childhood Hydrocephalus-a Retrospective Survey

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Nov, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23715809

Debatable disadvantages of preset differential pressure valves in treating pediatric hydrocephalus are the inability to treat over- and underdrainage after implantation without further surgery. This survey aims to retrospectively determine whether adjustments were performed and effectively used for the individual adaptation of CSF drainage from the shunted patients' and families' perspective.

Carcinoma Cells Misuse the Host Tissue Damage Response to Invade the Brain

Glia. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23832647

The metastatic colonization of the brain by carcinoma cells is still barely understood, in particular when considering interactions with the host tissue. The colonization comes with a substantial destruction of the surrounding host tissue. This leads to activation of damage responses by resident innate immune cells to protect, repair, and organize the wound healing, but may distract from tumoricidal actions. We recently demonstrated that microglia, innate immune cells of the CNS, assist carcinoma cell invasion. Here we report that this is a fatal side effect of a physiological damage response of the brain tissue. In a brain slice coculture model, contact with both benign and malignant epithelial cells induced a response by microglia and astrocytes comparable to that seen at the interface of human cerebral metastases. While the glial damage response intended to protect the brain from intrusion of benign epithelial cells by inducing apoptosis, it proved ineffective against various malignant cell types. They did not undergo apoptosis and actually exploited the local tissue reaction to invade instead. Gene expression and functional analyses revealed that the C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and WNT signaling were involved in this process. Furthermore, CXCR4-regulated microglia were recruited to sites of brain injury in a zebrafish model and CXCR4 was expressed in human stroke patients, suggesting a conserved role in damage responses to various types of brain injuries. Together, our findings point to a detrimental misuse of the glial damage response program by carcinoma cells resistant to glia-induced apoptosis.

Relaxins Enhance Growth of Spontaneous Murine Breast Cancers As Well As Metastatic Colonization of the Brain

Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23963762

Relaxins are known for their tissue remodeling capacity which is also a hallmark of cancer progression. However, their role in the latter context is still unclear, particularly in breast cancer. In a mouse model with spontaneously arising breast cancer due to erbB2-overexpression we show that exposure to porcine relaxin results in significantly enhanced tumour growth as compared to control animals. This is accompanied by increased serum concentrations of progesterone and estradiol as well as elevated expression of the respective receptors and the relaxin receptor RXFP1 in the tumour tissue. It is also associated with enhanced infiltration by tumour-associated macrophages which are known to promote tumour progression. Additionally, we show in an ex vivo model of metastatic brain colonization that porcine relaxin as well as human brain-specific relaxin-3 promotes invasion into the brain tissue and enhance interaction of breast cancer cells with the resident brain macrophages, the microglia. Relaxin signaling is mediated via RXFP1, since R 3/I5, a specific agonist of the relaxin-3 receptor RXFP3 in the brain, does not significantly enhance invasion. Taken together, these findings strongly support a role of relaxins in the progression of breast cancer where they foster primary tumour growth as well as metastatic colonization by direct and indirect means.

Zoledronic Acid Inhibits Macrophage/microglia-assisted Breast Cancer Cell Invasion

Oncotarget. Aug, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24036536

The bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) significantly reduces complications of bone metastasis by inhibiting resident macrophages, the osteoclasts. Recent clinical trials indicate additional anti-metastatic effects of ZA outside the bone. However, which step of metastasis is influenced and whether thisis due to directtoxicity on cancer cells or inhibition of the tumor promoting microenvironment, is unknown. In particular, tumor-associated and resident macrophages support each step of organ metastasis and could be a crucial target of ZA. Thus, we comparatively investigate the ZA effects on: i) different types of macrophages, ii) on breast cancer cells but also iii) on macrophage-induced invasion. We demonstrate that ZA concentrations reflecting the plasma level affected viability of human macrophages, murine bone marrow-derived macrophages as well as their resident brain equivalents, the microglia, while it did not influence the tested cancer cells. However, the effects on the macrophages subsequently reduced the macrophage/microglia-induced invasiveness of the cancer cells. In line with this, manipulation of microglia by ZA in organotypic brain slice cocultures reduced the tissue invasion by carcinoma cells. The characterization of human macrophages after ZA treatment revealed a phenotype/response shift, in particular after external stimulation. In conclusion, we show that therapeutic concentrations of ZA affect all types of macrophages but not the cancer cells. Thus, anti-metastatic effects of ZA are predominantly caused by modulating the microenvironment. Most importantly, our findings demonstrate that ZA reduced microglia-assisted invasion of cancer cells to the brain tissue, indicating a potential therapeutic role in the prevention of cerebral metastasis.

Evaluation of Selected Speech Parameters After Prosthesis Supply in Patients with Maxillary or Mandibular Defects

Onkologie. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24107907

Ablative surgery of oropharyngeal tumors frequently leads to defects in the speech organs, resulting in impairment of speech up to the point of unintelligibility. The aim of the present study was the assessment of selected parameters of speech with and without resection prostheses.

Understanding the Impacts of Allocation Approaches During Process-based Life Cycle Assessment of Water Treatment Chemicals

Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 23939660

Chemicals are an important component of advanced water treatment operations not only in terms of economics but also from an environmental standpoint. Tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are useful for estimating the environmental impacts of water treatment operations. At the same time, LCA analysts must manage several fundamental and as yet unresolved methodological challenges, one of which is the question of how best to "allocate" environmental burdens in multifunctional processes. Using water treatment chemicals as a case study example, this article aims to quantify the variability in greenhouse gas emissions estimates stemming from methodological choices made in respect of allocation during LCA. The chemicals investigated and reported here are those most important to coagulation and disinfection processes, and the outcomes are illustrated on the basis of treating 1000 ML of noncoagulated and nondisinfected water. Recent process and economic data for the production of these chemicals is used and methodological alternatives for solving the multifunctionality problem, including system expansion and mass, exergy, and economic allocation, are applied to data from chlor-alkali plants. In addition, Monte Carlo simulation is included to provide a comprehensive picture of the robustness of economic allocation results to changes in the market price of these industrial commodities. For disinfection, results demonstrate that chlorine gas has a lower global warming potential (GWP) than sodium hypochlorite regardless of the technique used to solve allocation issues. For coagulation, when mass or economic allocation is used to solve the multifunctionality problem in the chlor-alkali facility, ferric chloride was found to have a higher GWP than aluminum sulfate and a slightly lower burden where system expansion or exergy allocation are applied instead. Monte Carlo results demonstrate that when economic allocation is used, GWP results were relatively robust and resilient to the changes in commodity prices encountered during the study period, with standard deviations less than 6% for all chlor-alkali-produced chemicals reported here. Overall outcomes from the study demonstrate the potential variability in LCA results according to the allocation approach taken and emphasize the need for a consensus approach to water sector LCAs.

Coating with Artificial Matrices from Collagen and Sulfated Hyaluronan Influences the Osseointegration of Dental Implants

Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24113890

Dental implants are an established therapy for oral rehabilitation. High success rates are achieved in healthy bone, however, these rates decrease in compromised host bone. Coating of dental implants with components of the extracellular matrix is a promising approach to enhance osseointegration in compromised peri-implant bone. Dental titanium implants were coated with an artificial extracellular matrix (aECM) consisting of collagen type I and either one of two regioselectively low sulfated hyaluronan (sHA) derivatives (coll/sHA1Δ6s and coll/sHA1) and compared to commercial pure titanium implants (control). After extraction of the premolar teeth, 36 implants were inserted into the maxilla of 6 miniature pigs (6 implants per maxilla). The healing periods were 4 and 8 weeks, respectively. After animal sacrifice, the samples were evaluated histomorphologically and histomorphometrically. All surface states led to a sufficient implant osseointegration after 4 and 8 weeks. Inflammatory or foreign body reactions could not be observed. After 4 weeks of healing, implants coated with coll/sHA1Δ6s showed the highest bone implant contact (BIC; coll/sHA1Δ6s: 45.4%; coll/sHA1: 42.2%; control: 42.3%). After 8 weeks, a decrease of BIC could be observed for coll/sHA1Δ6s and controls (coll/sHA1Δ6s: 37.3%; control: 31.7 %). For implants coated with coll/sHA1, the bone implant contact increased (coll/sHA1: 50.8%). Statistically significant differences could not be observed. Within the limits of the current study, aECM coatings containing low sHA increase peri-implant bone formation around dental implants in maxillary bone compared to controls in the early healing period.

Feasibility of Telemetric ICP-guided Valve Adjustments for Complex Shunt Therapy

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24264382

The advances in shunt valve technology towards modern adjustable differential pressure (DP) valves and adjustable gravitational assisted valves result in an increasing complexity of therapeutical options. Modern telemetric intracranial pressure (ICP) sensors may be helpful in their application for diagnostic purposes in shunt therapy. We present our first experiences on telemetric ICP-guided valve adjustments in cases with the combination of an adjustable DP valve and adjustable gravitational unit.

One Vs. Two Piece Customized Implants to Reconstruct Mandibular Continuity Defects: a Preliminary Study in Pig Cadavers

Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery : Official Publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24342731

The reconstruction of mandibular continuity defects by bridging plates often leads to complications. Customized mandibular implants might be an alternative option. In the present study, the stability at the bone-implant-interface of customized two-piece implants was compared to one-piece implants.

Phase Changes in Mixed Lipid/polymer Membranes by Multivalent Nanoparticle Recognition

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24359326

Selective addressing of membrane components in complex membrane mixtures is important for many biological processes. The present paper investigates the recognition between multivalent surface functionalized nanoparticles (NPs) and amphiphilic block copolymers (BCPs), which are successfully incorporated into lipid membranes. The concept involves the supramolecular recognition between hybrid membranes (composed of a mixture of a lipid (DPPC or DOPC), an amphiphilic triazine-functionalized block copolymer TRI-PEO13-b-PIB83 (BCP 2), and nonfunctionalized BCPs (PEO17-b-PIB87 BCP 1)) with multivalent (water-soluble) nanoparticles able to recognize the triazine end group of the BCP 2 at the membrane surface via supramolecular hydrogen bonds. CdSe-NPs bearing long PEO47-thymine (THY) polymer chains on their surface specifically interacted with the 2,4-diaminotriazine (TRI) moiety of BCP 2 embedded within hybrid lipid/BCP mono- or bilayers. Experiments with GUVs from a mixture of DPPC/BCP 2 confirm selective supramolecular recognition between the THY-functionalized NPs and the TRI-functionalized polymers, finally resulting in the selective removal of BCP 2 from the hybrid vesicle membrane as proven via facetation of the originally round and smooth vesicles. GUVs (composed of DOPC/BCP 2) show that a selective removal of the polymer component from the fluid hybrid membrane results in destruction of hybrid vesicles via membrane rupture. Adsorption experiments with mixed monolayers from lipids with either BCP 2 or BCP 1 (nonfunctionalized) reveal that the THY-functionalized NPs specifically recognize BCP 2 at the air/water interface by inducing significantly higher changes in the surface pressure when compared to monolayers from nonspecifically interacting lipid/BCP 1 mixtures. Thus, recognition of multivalent NPs with specific membrane components of hybrid lipid/BCP mono- and bilayers proves the selective removal of BCPs from mixed membranes, in turn inducing membrane rupture. Such recognition events display high potential in controlling permeability and fluidity of membranes (e.g., in pharmaceutics).

Frame-based Cranial Reconstruction

Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics. Mar, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24437987

The authors report on the first experiences with the prototype of a surgical tool for cranial remodeling. The device enables the surgeon to transfer statistical information, represented in a model, into the disfigured bone. The model is derived from a currently evolving databank of normal head shapes. Ultimately, the databank will provide a set of standard models covering the statistical range of normal head shapes, thus providing the required template for any standard remodeling procedure as well as customized models for intended overcorrection. To date, this technique has been used in the surgical treatment of 14 infants (age range 6-12 months) with craniosynostosis. In all 14 cases, the designated esthetic result, embodied by the selected model, has been achieved, without morbidity or mortality. Frame-based reconstruction provides the required tools to precisely realize the surgical reproduction of the model shape. It enables the establishment of a self-referring system, feeding back postoperative growth patterns, recorded by 3D follow-up, into the model design.

Neuroendoscopic Lavage for the Treatment of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Hydrocephalus in Neonates

Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24702621

Object Neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) may evolve into posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and cause neurodevelopmental impairment. In this study, an endoscopic surgical approach directed toward the removal of intraventricular hematoma was evaluated for its safety and efficacy. Methods Between August 2010 and December 2012 (29 months), 19 neonates with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus underwent neuro endoscopic lavage for removal of intraventricular blood remnants. During a similar length of time (29 months) from March 2008 to July 2010, 10 neonates were treated conventionally, initially using temporary CSF diversion via lumbar punctures, a ventricular access device, or an external ventricular drain. Complications and shunt dependency rates were evaluated retrospectively. Results The patient groups did not differ regarding gestational age and birth weight. In the endoscopy group, no relevant procedure-related complications were observed. After the endoscopic lavage, 11 (58%) of 19 patients required a later shunt insertion, as compared with 100% of infants treated conventionally (p < 0.05). Endoscopic lavage was associated with fewer numbers of overall necessary procedures (median 2 vs 3.5 per patient, respectively; p = 0.08), significantly fewer infections (2 vs 5 patients, respectively; p < 0.05), and supratentorial multiloculated hydrocephalus (0 vs 4 patients, respectively; p < 0.01) [corrected].Conclusions Within the presented setup the authors could demonstrate the feasibility and safety of neuro endoscopic lavage for the treatment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus in neonates with IVH. The nominally improved results warrant further verification in a multicenter, prospective study.

Lateral Surface Engineering of Hybrid Lipid-BCP Vesicles and Selective Nanoparticle Embedding

Soft Matter. Feb, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24837370

Bio-inspired recognition between macromolecules and antibodies can be used to reveal the location of amphiphilic block copolymers (BCPs) in model biomembranes and their subsequent scaffolding with nanoparticles (NPs). Potential applications of this novel class of lipid-BCP membranes require an understanding of their compositional heterogeneities with a variety of different molecules including natural proteins or synthetic NPs, whose selective incorporation into a specific part of phase separated membranes can serve as a model system for the targeted delivery of therapeutics. We demonstrate the selective incorporation of polymer-functionalized CdSe NPs into the polymer-rich domains in vesicular hybrid membranes using 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, Tm = 41 °C) or 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC, Tm = -20 °C) as the lipid component. Furthermore, we demonstrate a method to detect PIB-PEO based amphiphilic BCPs on liposomal surfaces by a PEO binding antibody (anti-PEO). As a result, hybrid membrane morphologies, which depend on the lipid/BCP composition, are selectively monitored and engineered.

Results of Posterior Cranial Vault Remodeling for Plagiocephaly and Brachycephaly by the Meander Technique

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24917492

Several techniques to remodel the posterior calvarium in order to increase intracranial volume (ICV) and to improve cosmetic appearance are reported. This study presents the results of meander technique in patients with brachycephaly and posterior plagiocephaly.

In Vitro Performance and Principles of Anti-siphoning Devices

Acta Neurochirurgica. Nov, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25123252

Anti-siphon devices (ASDs) of various working principles were developed to overcome overdrainage-related complications associated with ventriculoperitoneal shunting.

Proteomics and Metabolomics for in Situ Monitoring of Wound Healing

BioMed Research International. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25162036

Wound healing of soft tissue and bone defects is a complex process in which cellular differentiation and adaption are regulated by internal and external factors, among them are many different proteins. In contrast to insights into the significance of various single proteins based on model systems, the knowledge about the processes at the actual site of wound healing is still limited. This is caused by a general lack of methods that allow sampling of extracellular factors, metabolites, and proteins in situ. Sampling of wound fluids in combination with proteomics and metabolomics is one of the promising approaches to gain comprehensive and time resolved data on effector molecules. Here, we describe an approach to sample metabolites by microdialysis and to extract proteins simultaneously by adsorption. With this approach it is possible (i) to collect, enrich, and purify proteins for a comprehensive proteome analysis; (ii) to detect more than 600 proteins in different defects including more than 100 secreted proteins, of which many proteins have previously been demonstrated to have diagnostic or predictive power for the wound healing state; and (iii) to combine continuous sampling of cytokines and metabolites and discontinuous sampling of larger proteins to gain complementary information of the same defect.

Molecular Arrangement of Symmetric and Non-symmetric Triblock Copolymers of Poly(ethylene Oxide) and Poly(isobutylene) at the Air/water Interface

Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. Jan, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25313470

The behavior of a series of amphiphilic triblock copolymers of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(isobutylene) (PIB); including both symmetric (same degree of polymerization (DP) of the terminal PEO blocks) PEOm-b-PIBn-b-PEOm and non-symmetric (different DP of the terminal PEO blocks) PEOm-b-PIBn-b-PEOz, is investigated at the air/water interface by measuring surface pressure vs mean molecular area isotherms (π vs mmA), Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique, and infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS). The block copolymer (PEO32-b-PIB160-b-PEO32) with longer PEO segments forms a stable monolayer and the isotherm reveals a pseudo-plateau starting at π∼5.7 mN/m, also observed in the IRRAS, which is assigned to the pancake-to-brush transition related to the PEO dissolution into the subphase and subsequent PEO brush dehydration. Another plateau is observed at π∼40 mN/m, which is attributed to the film collapse due to multilayer formation. The pancake-to-brush transition could not be observed for samples with smaller PEO chains. The isotherms for block copolymers, with short PEO chains, both symmetric (PEO3-b-PIBn-b-PEO3) and non-symmetric (PEO12-b-PIBn-b-PEO3), reveal another transition at π∼20-25 mN/m. This is interpreted to be due to the conformational transition from a folded state where the middle PIB block is anchored to the water surface at both ends by the terminal hydrophilic segments to an unfolded state with PIB anchored to the water surface at one end. It is assumed that this transition involves the removal of PEO3 chains from the water surface in case of non-symmetric PEO12-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 and in case of symmetric, probably one PEO3 of each PEO3-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 chain. Because of the weaker interaction of the short PEO3 chains with the water surface as compared with the relatively longer PEO12 chains, the film of PEO3-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 collapses at much lower surface pressure after the transition as compared with the PEO12-b-PIB85-b-PEO3. The AFM images reveal the formation of microdomains of almost uniform height (6-7 nm) in LB films of PEO3-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 and PEO12-b-PIB85-b-PEO3 after transferring onto silicon surfaces. These domains are assumed to be the mesomorphic domains of ordered and folded PIB chains.

Development and First Data of a Customized Short Tracheal Cannula Based on Digital Data

Supportive Care in Cancer : Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25763755

At the moment, there is an inadequate margin fit of commercially available stoma buttons. The aim of the present study was to develop a customized short tracheal cannula based on digital data. Furthermore, the applied material has to be evaluated considering germ colonization and appropriate cleaning procedures.

Endoscopic and Microsurgical Treatment of Sylvian Fissure Arachnoid Cysts-Clinical and Radiological Outcome

World Neurosurgery. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25818148

A Sylvian fissure arachnoid cyst (SAC) is a well-recognized location for an intracranial arachnoid cyst in the pediatric population. For those cysts, which can rupture and be accompanied by a subdural hygroma or hematoma, several treatment modalities have been reported. We report clinical and radiological outcome of fenestration of these cysts by either endoscopy or microsurgery.

Autogenous Bone and a Bovine Bone Substitute for Ridge Preservation - Preliminary Clinical and Histologic Findings

Australian Dental Journal. Mar, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25819677

Tooth extractions lead to morphological changes of the alveolar ridge. For oral rehabilitation sufficient bone volume of the alveolar ridge is needed. The present clinical study compared the ability of Bio-Oss(®) collagen to autogenous bone to preserve bone volume after tooth extraction.

Hamartoma of the Optic Nerve in a Young Child—case Report and Review of the Literature

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Aug, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25925579

Hamartomas are well described but yet incompletely understood sporadic benign lesions that can arise in various locations. Hypothalamic hamartomas of infancy are often associated with severe developmental disturbances. We present a case of an infant boy with a hamartoma that arises from the optic nerve and lead to progressive unspecific seizure activity, behavioral problems and precautious puberty.

Stented Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy—indications and Results

Child's Nervous System : ChNS : Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26081175

In patients with risk of reclosure of a performed opening in the floor of the third ventricle, a stented endoscopic third ventriculostomy (sETV) was performed to maintain continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion in patients with occlusive hydrocephalus. A retrospective analysis of a patient series is presented.

Mixed Hybrid Lipid/Polymer Vesicles As a Novel Membrane Platform

Macromolecular Rapid Communications. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26457675

Vesicles can be individually fabricated from naturally occurring lipid or synthetic block copolymer molecules via self-assembly in aqueous solutions; the blending of both vesicle-forming amphiphiles leads to the formation of hybrid membranes. Their final stabilities and lateral morphologies are strongly determined by the molar composition, size, and charge properties of the interacting components as well as by the lipid chain melting temperature. Upon merging the best properties of lipo- and polymersomal membranes, hybrid lipid/polymer vesicles represent a new scaffold for medical applications combining, e.g., combining the biocompatibility of liposomes with the high thermal and mechanical stability and functional variability of polymersomes within a single vesicle type. Up to now, several hybrid membrane systems and their corresponding vesicular morphologies have been studied, highlighting the attractive properties and features useful in selective delivery receptor scaffolding.

Long-term Survival Rates of Gravity-assisted, Adjustable Differential Pressure Valves in Infants with Hydrocephalus

Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics. May, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26799410

OBJECTIVE The use of adjustable differential pressure valves with gravity-assisted units in shunt therapy of children with hydrocephalus was reported to be feasible and promising as a way to avoid chronic overdrainage. In this single-center study, the authors' experiences in infants, who have higher rates of shunt complications, are presented. METHODS All data were collected from a cohort of infants (93 patients [37 girls and 56 boys], less than 1 year of age [mean age 4.1 ± 3.1 months]) who received their first adjustable pressure hydrocephalus shunt as either a primary or secondary implant between May 2007 and April 2012. Rates of valve and shunt failure were recorded for a total of 85 months until the end of the observation period in May 2014. RESULTS During a follow-up of 54.2 ± 15.9 months (range 26-85 months), the Kaplan-Meier rate of shunt survival was 69.2% at 1 year and 34.1% at 85 months; the Kaplan-Meier rate of valve survival was 77.8% at 1 year and 56% at 85 months. Survival rates of the shunt were significantly inferior if the patients had previous shunt surgery. During follow-up, 44 valves were exchanged in cases of infection (n = 19), occlusion (n = 14), dysfunction of the adjustment unit (n = 10), or to change the gravitational unit (n = 1). CONCLUSIONS Although a higher shunt complication rate is observed in infant populations compared with older children, reasonable survival rates demonstrate the feasibility of using this sophisticated valve technology. The gravitational unit of this valve is well tolerated and its adjustability offers the flexible application of opening pressure in an unpredictable cohort of patients. This may adequately address overdrainage-related complications from early in treatment.

Assessment of Hemodynamics with Esophageal Doppler in a 3-year-old Child Undergoing Major Craniofacial Surgery

Paediatric Anaesthesia. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26956519

Contour Identical Implants to Bridge Mandibular Continuity Defects--individually Generated by LaserCUSING®--A Feasibility Study in Animal Cadavers

Head & Face Medicine. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27066830

Ablative tumor surgery often results in continuity defects of the mandible. When an immediate reconstruction using autologous bone grafts is not possible the bridging of the defects with a variety of bridging plates might be achieved. However, those bridging plates have the risk of plate fractures or exposure. Customized titanium implants manufactured using CAD/CAM and the LaserCUSING® technique might be an alternative.

Photoelectrical Stimulation of Neuronal Cells by an Organic Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Aug, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27480642

As a step toward the realization of neuroprosthetics for vision restoration, we follow an electrophysiological patch-clamp approach to study the fundamental photoelectrical stimulation mechanism of neuronal model cells by an organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. Our photoactive layer consisting of an anilino-squaraine donor blended with a fullerene acceptor is supporting the growth of the neuronal model cell line (N2A cells) without an adhesion layer on it and is not impairing cell viability. The transient photocurrent signal upon illumination from the semiconductor-electrolyte layer is able to trigger a passive response of the neuronal cells under physiological conditions via a capacitive coupling mechanism. We study the dynamics of the capacitive transmembrane currents by patch-clamp recordings and compare them to the dynamics of the photocurrent signal and its spectral responsivity. Furthermore, we characterize the morphology of the semiconductor-electrolyte interface by atomic force microscopy and study the stability of the interface in dark and under illuminated conditions.

In Vitro Performance of the Fixed and Adjustable Gravity-assisted Unit with and Without Motion-evidence of Motion-induced Flow

Acta Neurochirurgica. Oct, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27553048

Anti-siphon devices and gravitational-assisted valves have been introduced to counteract the effects of overdrainage after implantation of a shunt system. The study examined the flow performance of two gravitational-assisted valves (shunt assistant - SA and programmable shunt assistant - proSA, Miethke & Co. KG, Potsdam, Germany) in an in vitro shunt laboratory with and without motion.

Assembly of Diverse Molecular Aggregates with a Single, Substrate-directed Molecule Orientation

Soft Matter. Nov, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27819374

Oriented, fluorescing organic nanoaggregates derived from 1,4'''-dicyano-functionalized para-quaterphenylene (CNP4) are obtained upon vacuum deposition on muscovite mica. Two types of aggregates are observed with fiber- and wing-like shape, respectively, both growing along distinct substrate directions. The polarization of the emitted fluorescence, their morphology, and their electric surface potential differ, reflecting different polymorphs. The wings are chiral twins. The molecules orient within ±5° along the same direction, templated by the substrate.

LEF1 Reduces Tumor Progression and Induces Myodifferentiation in a Subset of Rhabdomyosarcoma

Oncotarget. Dec, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27965462

Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children and show characteristics of skeletal muscle differentiation. The two major RMS subtypes in children are alveolar (ARMS) and embryonal RMS (ERMS). We demonstrate that approximately 50% of ARMS and ERMS overexpress the LEF1/TCF transcription factor LEF1 when compared to normal skeletal muscle and that LEF1 can restrain aggressiveness especially of ARMS cells. LEF1 knockdown experiments in cell lines reveal that depending on the cellular context, LEF1 can induce pro-apoptotic signals. LEF1 can also suppress proliferation, migration and invasiveness of RMS cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, LEF1 can induce myodifferentiation of the tumor cells. This may involve regulation of other LEF1/TCF factors i.e. TCF1, whereas β-catenin activity plays a subordinate role. Together these data suggest that LEF1 rather has tumor suppressive functions and attenuates aggressiveness in a subset of RMS.

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