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Articles by Mayuresh M Abhyankar in JoVE
Negatif Seçilebilir Marker Geliştirme Entamoeba histolytica
Mayuresh M Abhyankar, Sarah M Haviland, Carol A Gilchrist, William A Petri, Jr.
Division of Infectious Disease and International Health, University of Virginia Health System
Biz olumsuz bir seçim sisteminin gelişme raporu
Other articles by Mayuresh M Abhyankar on PubMed
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Nov, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12970346
We have reconstituted a multiprotein system consisting of 22 purified proteins that catalyzed the initiation of replication specifically at ori gamma of R6K, elongation of the forks, and their termination at specific replication terminators. The initiation was strictly dependent on the plasmid-encoded initiator protein pi and on the host-encoded initiator DnaA. The wild type pi was almost inert, whereas a mutant form containing 3 amino acid substitutions that tended to monomerize the protein was effective in initiating replication. The replication in vitro was primed by DnaG primase, whereas in a crude extract system that had not been fractionated, it was dependent on RNA polymerase. The DNA-bending protein IHF was needed for optimal replication and its substitution by HU, unlike in the oriC system, was less effective in promoting optimal replication. In contrast, wild type pi-mediated replication in vivo requires IHF. Using a template that contained ori gamma flanked by two asymmetrically placed Ter sites in the blocking orientation, replication proceeded in the Cairns type mode and generated the expected types of termination products. A majority of the molecules progressed counterclockwise from the ori, in the same direction that has been observed in vivo. Many features of replication in the reconstituted system appeared to mimic those of in vivo replication. The system developed here is an important milestone in continuing biochemical analysis of this interesting replicon.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Feb, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14665626
The mechanistic basis of control of replication initiation of plasmid R6K was investigated by addressing the following questions. What are the biochemical attributes of mutations in the pi initiator protein that caused loss of negative control of initiation? Did the primary control involve only initiator protein-ori DNA interaction or did it also involve protein-protein interactions between pi and several host-encoded proteins? Mutations at two different regions of the pi-encoding sequence individually caused some loss of negative control as indicated by a relatively modest increase in copy number. However, combinations of the mutation P42L, which caused loss of DNA looping, with those located in the region between the residues 106 and 113 induced a robust enhancement of copy number. These mutant forms promoted higher levels of replication in vitro in a reconstituted system consisting of 22 purified proteins. The mutant forms of pi were susceptible to pronounced iteron-induced monomerization in comparison with the WT protein. As contrasted with the changes in DNA-protein interaction, we found no detectable differences in protein-protein interaction between wild type pi with DnaA, DnaB helicase, and DnaG primase on one hand and between the high copy mutant forms and the same host proteins on the other. The DnaG-pi interaction reported here is novel. Taken together, the results suggest that both loss of negative control due to iteron-induced monomerization of the initiator and enhanced iteron-initiator interaction appear to be the principal causes of enhanced copy number.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Apr, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 14973139
Jacob, Brenner, and Cuzin pioneered the development of the F plasmid as a model system to study replication control, and these investigations led to the development of the "replicon model" (Jacob, F., Brenner, S., and Cuzin, F. (1964) Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. 28, 329-348). To elucidate further the mechanism of initiation of replication of this plasmid and its control, we have reconstituted its replication in vitro with 21 purified host-encoded proteins and the plasmid-encoded initiator RepE. The replication in vitro was specifically initiated at the F ori (oriV) and required both the bacterial initiator protein DnaA and the plasmid-encoded initiator RepE. The wild type dimeric RepE was inactive in catalyzing replication, whereas a monomeric mutant form called RepE(*) (R118P) was capable of catalyzing vigorous replication. The replication topology was mostly of the Cairns form, and the fork movement was unidirectional and mostly from right to left. The replication was dependent on the HU protein, and the structurally and functionally related DNA bending protein IHF could not efficiently substitute for HU. The priming was dependent on DnaG primase. Many of the characteristics of the in vitro replication closely mimicked those of in vivo replication. We believe that the in vitro system should be very useful in unraveling the mechanism of replication initiation and its control.
A Novel CpG-free Vertebrate Insulator Silences the Testis-specific SP-10 Gene in Somatic Tissues: Role for TDP-43 in Insulator Function
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17932037
Regulation of cell type-specific gene transcription is central to cellular differentiation and development. During spermatogenesis, a number of testis-specific genes are expressed in a precise spatiotemporal order. How these genes remain silent in the somatic tissues is not well understood. Our previous studies using the round spermatid-specific mouse SP-10 gene, which codes for an acrosomal protein, revealed that its proximal promoter acts as an insulator and prevents expression in the somatic tissues. Here we report that the insulator tethers the SP-10 gene to the nuclear matrix in somatic tissues, sequestering the core promoter in the process, thus preventing transcription. In round spermatids where the SP-10 gene is expressed, this tethering is released. TAR DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), previously shown to interact with the SP-10 insulator, was found to be in the 2 m NaCl-insoluble nuclear matrix fraction. TDP-43 prevented enhancer-promoter interactions when artificially recruited between the two by Gal4 strategy. Knockdown of TDP-43 using small interfering RNA released the enhancer-blocking effect of the SP-10 insulator in a stable cell culture model. Mutation of TDP-43 binding sites abolished this effect. Finally, a 50-bp subfragment of the SP-10 insulator, which includes TDP-43 binding sites, functioned as a minimal insulator in transgenic mice and silenced an otherwise ectopically expressed transgene in somatic tissues. The SP-10 insulator lacks CpG dinucleotides or CTCF binding sites. Thus, the present study characterized a novel vertebrate insulator in a physiological context and showed for the first time how a testis-specific gene is silenced in the somatic tissues by an insulator.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Dec, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 18184912
Testis-specific promoters are unique in that relatively short proximal promoters of several genes have been shown to be capable of directing tissue- and cell-type-specific expression in transgenic mice. How such small promoter fragments perform the dual functions of maintaining a silenced state in somatic tissues and activating gene expression in the correct germ-cell type in testis remains poorly understood. Studies from our laboratory using the round spermatid-specific SP-10 gene as an experimental model have provided some insights into the mechanisms involved. It was found that the proximal promoter of the SP-10 gene acts as a chromatin insulator or boundary element in somatic tissues and prevents transcription of the SP-10 gene. In round spermatids, the insulator function is relieved, thus facilitating the SP-10 gene transcription. Insulators act as enhancer blockers and/or barriers to heterochromatin to protect the programmed expression of a gene. Typically, insulators are separable from promoters. In the case of the SP-10 gene, however, the insulator overlaps the promoter and operates in a facultative manner. We hypothesize that the proximal promoters of some testis-specific genes have adapted the insulator function to maintain transcriptional silence in the somatic tissues.
Characterization of an Entamoeba Histolytica High-mobility-group Box Protein Induced During Intestinal Infection
Eukaryotic Cell. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18658254
The unicellular eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that causes amebic dysentery and liver abscess. A genome-wide analysis of gene expression modulated by intestinal colonization and invasion identified an upregulated transcript that encoded a putative high-mobility-group box (HMGB) protein, EhHMGB1. We tested if EhHMGB1 encoded a functional HMGB protein and determined its role in control of parasite gene expression. Recombinant EhHMGB1 was able to bend DNA in vitro, a characteristic of HMGB proteins. Core conserved residues required for DNA bending activity in other HMGB proteins were demonstrated by mutational analysis to be essential for EhHMGB1 activity. EhHMGB1 was also able to enhance the binding of human p53 to its cognate DNA sequence in vitro, which is expected for an HMGB1 protein. Confocal microscopy, using antibodies against the recombinant protein, confirmed its nuclear localization. Overexpression of EhHMGB1 in HM1:IMSS trophozoites led to modulation of 33 transcripts involved in a variety of cellular functions. Of these, 20 were also modulated at either day 1 or day 29 in the mouse model of intestinal amebiasis. Notably, four transcripts with known roles in virulence, including two encoding Gal/GalNAc lectin light chains, were modulated in response to EhHMGB1 overexpression. We concluded that EhHMGB1 was a bona fide HMGB protein with the capacity to recapitulate part of the modulation of parasite gene expression seen during adaptation to the host intestine.
Parasitology International. Mar, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 18822389
The early branching eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica is a human parasite that is the etiologic agent of amebic dysentery and liver abscess. The sequencing of the E. histolytica genome combined with the development of an E. histolytica microarray has resulted in the identification of several distinct gene expression profiles associated with virulence. The function of many modulated transcripts is unknown and their role in pathogenicity is unclear. They however represent a pool of potential virulence factors that could be targets for the development of novel therapeutics. Efficient tools and methods to characterize these novel virulence-associated genes and proteins would be beneficial. Here we report the use of the Gateway((R)) cloning system to generate the E. histolytica expression vector pAH-DEST. To test the usefulness of this system, the vector was used to construct a plasmid containing a recombinant version of the locus EHI_144490, which encoded a protein of unknown function. The recombinant gene was expressed and the recombinant protein, which was strep-myc-tagged, showed a cytoplasmic localization in transfected trophozoites. This expression vector with the Gateway((R)) system should facilitate investigation into the functions of novel proteins in E. histolytica.