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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (41)
- Journal of Interventional Cardiology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Nature Genetics
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
- The Journal of Urology
- Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
- Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
- European Journal of Pharmacology
- The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
- Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
- Journal of Anxiety Disorders
- Methods in Molecular Medicine
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- Behavioral and Brain Functions : BBF
- Proteomics. Clinical Applications
- CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
- Current Protocols in Molecular Biology / Edited by Frederick M. Ausubel ... [et Al.]
- Behavior Genetics
- Thrombosis Research
- Drug and Alcohol Dependence
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP
- Accident; Analysis and Prevention
- The American Journal of Gastroenterology
- Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
- Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
- Journal of Proteome Research
- Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.)
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Articles by Melanie White in JoVE
הכנת פרוסות Parasagittal לחקירת ארגון הגבי-הגחוני של הקורטקס המדיאלי מכרסמים entorhinal
Hugh Pastoll1, Melanie White2, Matthew Nolan2
1Neuroinformatics DTC, University of Edinburgh, 2Centre for Integrative Physiology, University of Edinburgh
אנו מתארים הליכי הכנה הקלטה אלקטרו מן פרוסות המוח השומרים על הציר הגבי-הגחוני של הקורטקס המדיאלי entorhinal (MEC). בגלל קידוד עצבי של מיקום כדלקמן הארגון הגב, הגחון בתוך MEC, נהלים אלה להקל על החקירה של מנגנונים תאיים חשובים לניווט וזיכרון.
Other articles by Melanie White on PubMed
Journal of Interventional Cardiology. Feb, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12053684
Glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa antagonists are a unique class of antiplatelet agents introduced for the management of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and those presenting with unstable angina or non-ST segment elevation (NSTE) myocardial infarction (MI), collectively recognized as acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Eptifibatide, abciximab, and tirofiban HCl are three GPIIb/IIIa antagonists approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration. Of the three agents, eptifibatide is approved for use in both PCI and NSTE ACS patient populations, whereas abciximab is indicated for patients undergoing PCI, and tirofiban is approved for patients with NSTE ACS. Dose selection for the initial trials using the three parenteral antagonists was based on in vitro and ex vivo pharmacodynamic assays conducted under different blood collection and platelet function assay conditions. Recent comparative pharmacodynamics studies, which used newly defined and standardized assay conditions, indicate that the platelet aggregation inhibition achieved with these dosing regimens is variable. Therefore, the differences in clinical efficacy as evidenced in the more recent clinical studies (e.g., Enhanced Suppression of the Platelet Receptor GPIIb/IIIa using Integrilin Therapy [ESPRIT], Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries IV Acute Coronary Syndromes [GUSTO-IV ACS], and Do Tirofiban HCl and ReoPro Give Similar Efficacy Outcomes Trial [TARGET]) may be related to the variable antiplatelet effects of the approved dose regimens.
Chinese Hamster Ovary Cell Motility to Fibronectin is Modulated by the Second Extracellular Loop of CD9. Identification of a Putative Fibronectin Binding Site
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12068019
CD9, a member of the tetraspanin family of proteins, is characterized by four transmembrane domains and two extracellular loops. Surface expression of CD9 on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells dramatically enhances spreading and motility on fibronectin. To elucidate the mechanistic basis of CD9-fibronectin interaction, binding to fibronectin was investigated using purified and recombinant forms of CD9. The affinity of fibronectin for CD9 in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was 81 +/- 25 nm. The binding of fibronectin to immobilized CD9 was enhanced by Ca(2+) ions. Protein binding and peptide competition studies demonstrated that peptide 6 derived from CD9 extracellular loop 2 (amino acids 168-192) contained part of the fibronectin-binding domain. Additionally, enhanced adhesion of CD9-CHO-B2 cells to fibronectin was significantly reduced by peptide 6. CD9-CHO cells had a 5-fold increase in motility to fibronectin as compared with mock-transfected controls, an effect that correlated with CD9 cell surface density. Truncation of CD9 extracellular loop 2 and peptide 6 caused inhibition of CD9-CHO cell motility to fibronectin. Deletion of CD9 extracellular loop 1 had no significant effect on CHO cell motility. These findings demonstrate a critical role for CD9 extracellular loop 2 in cell motility to fibronectin and clarify the mechanism by which CD9-fibronectin interaction modulates cell adhesion and motility.
Duration of Ischaemia Determines Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 Activation in the Reperfused Rabbit Heart
Proteomics. Sep, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12362337
It has been hypothesised that activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) contributes to reversible myocardial dysfunction (stunning) following short-term ischaemia and reperfusion. Gelatin zymography was used to measure release of both pro-MMP-2 (72 kDa) and MMP-2 (62 kDa), into the coronary effluent from isolated, perfused rabbit hearts during 90 min aerobic perfusion (control), or low-flow ischaemia (15 or 60 min at 1 mL/min), followed by 60 min reperfusion. In controls, pro-MMP-2 was detected in the coronary effluent throughout the first 30 min of aerobic perfusion, but MMP-2 was not detected. In contrast, MMP-2 was detected in the coronary effluent during reperfusion after both 15 and 60 min ischaemia. However, while left ventricular systolic function was impaired after both 15 min and 60 min ischaemia, a significant increase in the release of MMP-2 was only detected in hearts following 60 min ischaemia. The dissociation between mechanical function and MMP-2 levels suggest that MMP-2 does not contribute to myocardial stunning in this model, but may contribute to myocardial dysfunction following prolonged ischaemia.
Positional Cloning of a Quantitative Trait Locus on Chromosome 13q14 That Influences Immunoglobulin E Levels and Asthma
Nature Genetics. Jun, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12754510
Atopic or immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated diseases include the common disorders of asthma, atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis. Chromosome 13q14 shows consistent linkage to atopy and the total serum IgE concentration. We previously identified association between total serum IgE levels and a novel 13q14 microsatellite (USAT24G1; ref. 7) and have now localized the underlying quantitative-trait locus (QTL) in a comprehensive single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) map. We found replicated association to IgE levels that was attributed to several alleles in a single gene, PHF11. We also found association with these variants to severe clinical asthma. The gene product (PHF11) contains two PHD zinc fingers and probably regulates transcription. Distinctive splice variants were expressed in immune tissues and cells.
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Jul, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12818574
The precise molecular basis for myocardial stunning remains unresolved, but protein damage within the myofibril is a likely mechanism. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify protein modifications in stunned myocardium. In isolated, perfused rabbit hearts, low-flow ischemia (1 ml/min) and reperfusion resulted in impaired left-ventricular function (rate-pressure product (RPP) after 15-min ischemia: 65 +/- 5% pre-ischemia). We have characterised the sequence of ventricular myosin-regulatory light chain (MLC-2, 18 kDa) in rabbit myocardium and identified two non-phosphorylated (P(1) and P(2)) and two phosphorylated (P(3) and P(4) at Ser-14) isoelectric point variants. MS revealed that the acidic isoelectric point post-translational modification of P(1) and P(3), resulting in P(2) and P(4) respectively, was due to deamidation of asparagine to aspartate at residue 13, adjacent to Ser-14 phosphorylation site. After 15-min ischemia and reperfusion, a 15-kDa MLC-2 fragment was detected (MLC-2(14-165)), resulting from N-terminal cleavage between Asn/Asp-13 and Ser-14 of non-phosphorylated MLC-2, which accounted for 9.8% of visible non-phosphorylated MLC-2. Subsequent 2-DE of subcellular fractions showed that the fragment was lost from the myofilament. Treatment with an OH radical scavenger, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (MPG, 3 mmol/l), preserved contractile function (RPP: 106 +/- 9% pre-ischemia) and prevented cleavage of MLC-2. Proteolytic damage to MLC-2, related to presence of OH radicals during reperfusion, correlates with myocardial stunning and may contribute to impaired contractility.
Evaluation of Polyethylene Glycol Based Hydrogel for Tissue Sealing After Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy in a Porcine Model
The Journal of Urology. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15538288
Polyethylene glycol (PEG) based hydrogel is available as a tissue sealant and hemostatic aid. We determined the long-term safety and efficacy of its use as a tissue sealant for laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in a porcine model.
The Use of the Point of Care Helena ICHOR/Plateletworks and the Accumetrics Ultegra RPFA for Assessment of Platelet Function with GPIIB-IIIa Antagonists
Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis. Dec, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15815877
To evaluate a newly modified rapid platelet function analysis system (ICHOR/ Plateletworks) and to compare the results obtained with those of traditional light transmission aggregometry (LTA), and the Ultegra/RPFA system.Background: Anti-platelet therapy is standard of care for patients as an adjunct to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or for medical management of non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE ACS). Recent clinical trial results suggest that the three currently approved platelet GPIIb-IIIa receptor antagonists, eptifibatide, tirofiban and abciximab, may vary in extent of inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA) at the approved doses. Thus, pharmacodynamic evaluations of these agents to determine the extent of platelet function inhibition, especially during the periprocedural time of a cardiac intervention, are necessary. A rapid measurement method as a surrogate for LTA, the current gold standard, would be ideal in order to have the option for dose monitoring or adjustment prior to or during an intervention. The Helena ICHOR/ Plateletworks may be useful for point of care testing.
Proteomics of Ischemia/reperfusion Injury in Rabbit Myocardium Reveals Alterations to Proteins of Essential Functional Systems
Proteomics. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15800873
Brief periods of myocardial ischemia prior to timely reperfusion result in prolonged, yet reversible, contractile dysfunction of the myocardium, or "myocardial stunning". It has been hypothesized that the delayed recovery of contractile function in stunned myocardium reflects damage to one or a few key sarcomeric proteins. However, damage to such proteins does not explain observed physiological alterations to myocardial oxygen consumption and ATP requirements observed following myocardial stunning, and therefore the impact of alterations to additional functional groups is unresolved. We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to identify changes to the protein profiles in whole cell, cytosolic- and myofilament-enriched subcellular fractions from isolated, perfused rabbit hearts following 15 min or 60 min low-flow (1 mL/min) ischemia. Comparative gel analysis revealed 53 protein spot differences (> 1.5-fold difference in visible abundance) in reperfused myocardium. The majority of changes were observed to proteins from four functional groups: (i) the sarcomere and cytoskeleton, notably myosin light chain-2 and troponin C; (ii) redox regulation, in particular several components of the NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase complex; (iii) energy metabolism, encompassing creatine kinase; and (iv) the stress response. Protein differences appeared to be the result of isoelectric point shifts most probably resulting from chemical modifications, and molecular mass shifts resulting from proteolytic or physical fragmentation. This is consistent with our hypothesis that the time course for the onset of injury associated with myocardial stunning is too brief to be mediated by large changes to gene/protein expression, but rather that more subtle, rapid and potentially transient changes are occurring to the proteome. The physical manifestation of stunned myocardium is therefore the likely result of the summed functional impairment resulting from these multiple changes, rather than a result of damage to a single key protein.
Ischemia-specific Phosphorylation and Myofilament Translocation of Heat Shock Protein 27 Precedes Alpha B-crystallin and Occurs Independently of Reactive Oxygen Species in Rabbit Myocardium
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology. Jun, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16678850
Heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) and alpha B-crystallin (alphaBC) are small heat shock proteins that stabilize the myofilament during stress. We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), phospho-fluorescence staining, titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) phosphopeptide purification and mass spectrometry (MS) to fully characterize isoelectric point (pI) variants of Hsp27 and alphaBC in rabbit myocardium subjected to brief ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Four variants of Hsp27 were detected, two of which were phosphorylated: HSP1 (at three sites, Ser15, Ser78 and Ser82) and HSP2 (at Ser15 and Ser82, but not Ser78). Three variants of alphaBC were detected: alphaBC1 was phosphorylated (at Ser59 alone) and alphaBC2 was deamidated (at Asn146). No modifications were found in the remaining variants. Both phospho-Hsp27 variants increased in abundance in tissue subjected to brief I/R injury (15 min I/60 min R) and ischemia without subsequent reflow (15I/0R), and these increases were not affected by addition of the potent antioxidant, N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (MPG; 15I/60R + MPG and 15I/0R + MPG). Abundance of native and phosphorylated (but not deamidated) alphaBC was elevated following 15I/60R; however, these increases were ameliorated by the presence of MPG, and did not occur in tissue subjected to 15I/0R. Both phospho-Hsp27 variants and phospho-alphaBC translocated to the myofilament following 15I/60R. Increased myofilament association of phospho-Hsp27 was not influenced by MPG, and there was a greater proportion of HSP2 than HSP1 in this fraction. MPG inhibited phospho-alphaBC translocation and increased alphaBC association with the myofilament did not occur during 15I/0R. Increased phosphorylation of Hsp27 is ischemia-specific and not influenced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), while increased expression and phosphorylation of alphaBC are ROS-dependant.
European Journal of Pharmacology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16950243
Neointimal proliferation is a key element in atherosclerotic plaque formation and in arterial restenosis following angioplasty. Estrogen-like compounds, including naturally occurring plant phytoestrogens, are known to alter the extent of neointimal proliferation. This study investigates the anti-atherogenic/restenotic effect of several synthetic metabolites of isoflavone phytoestrogens (dihydrodaidzein, tetrahydrodaidzein and dehydroequol) (Novogen, Sydney, Australia). Acute neointimal proliferation was induced in the iliac artery of cholesterol-fed mice, by mechanically damaging the endothelium. Phytoestrogens were administered orally for 4 weeks and the damaged arteries harvested. Intimal area, as a percentage of the iliac artery wall area, was measured. Dihydrodaidzein significantly halved the intimal response (intima approximately 25% of wall area; p < 0.01) compared with placebo diet-fed mice (intima approximately 50% of wall area), while tetrahydrodaidzein and dehydroequol showed no inhibitory effects. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that alpha-actin-positive vascular smooth muscle cells were the major cell type in the proliferating neointima. A single layer of endothelium covered the thickened intima by 4 weeks. Thus, a specific phytoestrogen isoflavone compound (dihydrodaidzein) can selectively inhibit neointimal proliferation, either by inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and/or by enhancing endothelial proliferation and function, and inhibition of endothelial apoptosis.
Proteomics of Ischemia and Reperfusion Injuries in Rabbit Myocardium with and Without Intervention by an Oxygen-free Radical Scavenger
Proteomics. Dec, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17133370
A brief period of ischemia followed by timely reperfusion may lead to prolonged, yet reversible, contractile dysfunction (myocardial stunning). Damage to the myocardium occurs not only during ischemia, but also during reperfusion, where a massive release of oxygen-free radicals (OFR) occurs. We have previously utilized 2-DE and MS to define 57 protein spot changes during brief ischemia/reperfusion (15 min ischemia, 60 min reperfusion; 15I/60R) injury in a rabbit model (White, M. Y., Cordwell, S. J., McCarron, H. C. K., Prasan, A. M. et al., Proteomics 2005, 5, 1395-1410) and shown that the majority of these occur because of physical and/or chemical PTMs. In this study, we subjected rabbit myocardium to 15I/60R in the presence of the OFR scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl) glycine (MPG). Thirty-seven of 57 protein spots altered during 15I/60R remained at control levels in the presence of MPG (15I/60R + MPG). Changes to contractile proteins, including myosin light chain 2 (MLC-2) and troponin C (TnC), were prevented by the addition of MPG. To further investigate the individual effects of ischemia and reperfusion, we generated 2-DE gels from rabbit myocardium subjected to brief ischemia alone (15I/0R), and observed alterations of 33 protein spots, including 18/20 seen in both 15I/60R-treated and 15I/60R + MPG-treated tissue. The tissue was also subjected to ischemia in the presence of MPG (15I/0R + MPG), and 21 spot changes, representing 14 protein variants, remained altered despite the presence of the OFR scavenger. These ischemia-specific proteins comprised those involved in energy metabolism (lactate dehydrogenase and ATP synthase alpha), redox regulation (NADH ubiquinone oxidoreductase 51 kDa and GST Mu), and stress response (Hsp27 and 70, and deamidated alpha B-crystallin). We conclude that contractile dysfunction associated with myocardial stunning is predominantly caused by OFR damage at the onset of reperfusion, but that OFR-independent damage also occurs during ischemia. These ischemia-specific protein modifications may be indicative of early myocardial injury.
The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. Jan, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17198814
Proteomics describes, analogous to the term genomics, the study of the complete set of proteins present in a cell, organ, or organism at a given time. The genome tells us what could theoretically happen, whereas the proteome tells us what does happen. Therefore, a genomic-centered view of biologic processes is incomplete and does not describe what happens at the protein level. Proteomics is a relatively new methodology and is rapidly changing because of extensive advances in the underlying techniques. The core technologies of proteomics are 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry. Proteomic approaches might help to close the gap between traditional pathophysiologic and more recent genomic studies, assisting our basic understanding of cardiovascular disease. The application of proteomics in cardiovascular medicine holds great promise. The analysis of tissue and plasma/serum specimens has the potential to provide unique information on the patient. Proteomics might therefore influence daily clinical practice, providing tools for diagnosis, defining the disease state, assessing of individual risk profiles, examining and/or screening of healthy relatives of patients, monitoring the course of the disease, determining the outcome, and setting up individual therapeutic strategies. Currently available clinical applications of proteomics are limited and focus mainly on cardiovascular biomarkers of chronic heart failure and myocardial ischemia. Larger clinical studies are required to test whether proteomics may have promising applications for clinical medicine. Cardiovascular surgeons should be aware of this increasingly pertinent and challenging field of science.
Targeting Cellular Prion Protein Reverses Early Cognitive Deficits and Neurophysiological Dysfunction in Prion-infected Mice
Neuron. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17270731
Currently, no treatment can prevent the cognitive and motor decline associated with widespread neurodegeneration in prion disease. However, we previously showed that targeting endogenous neuronal prion protein (PrP(C)) (the precursor of its disease-associated isoform, PrP(Sc)) in mice with early prion infection reversed spongiform change and prevented clinical symptoms and neuronal loss. We now show that cognitive and behavioral deficits and impaired neurophysiological function accompany early hippocampal spongiform pathology. Remarkably, these behavioral and synaptic impairments recover when neuronal PrP(C) is depleted, in parallel with reversal of spongiosis. Thus, early functional impairments precede neuronal loss in prion disease and can be rescued. Further, they occur before extensive PrP(Sc) deposits accumulate and recover rapidly after PrP(C) depletion, supporting the concept that they are caused by a transient neurotoxic species, distinct from aggregated PrP(Sc). These data suggest that early intervention in human prion disease may lead to recovery of cognitive and behavioral symptoms.
Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy. 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17397244
With cardiovascular (CV)-related disorders accounting for the highest mortality rates in the world, affecting the quantity and quality of life of patients and creating an economic burden of prolonged therapeutic intervention, there is great significance in understanding the cellular and molecular alterations that influence the progression of these pathologies. The cellular genotype is regulated by the DNA component, whilst the cellular phenotype is influenced by the protein complement. By improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that influence the protein profile, the pathologies that influence the intrinsic functions of the CV system may be detected earlier or managed more efficiently. This is achievable with technologies encompassed by 'proteomics.' Proteomic investigations of CV diseases, including dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), atherosclerosis, and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, have identified candidate proteins altered with the pathologic states, complementing past biochemical and physiologic observations. Whilst proteomics is still a relatively new discipline to be applied to the basic scientific investigation of CV diseases, it is emerging as a technique to screen for potential biomarkers in both tissues/cells and biologic fluids (biofluids), as well as to identify the targets of existing therapeutics. By enabling the separation of complex mixtures over numerous dimensions, exploiting the intrinsic properties of proteins, including charge state, molecular mass, and hydrophobicity, in addition to cellular location, the discrete alterations within the cell may be resolved. Proteomics has shown alterations to myofilament proteins including troponin I and myosin light chain, correlating with the reduction in contractility in the myocardium from DCM and I/R. The diverse cell types that coalesce to induce atherosclerotic plaque formation have been investigated both collectively and individually to elucidate the influence of the modifications to single cell types on the developing plaque as a whole. Proteomics has also been used to observe changes to biofluids occurring with these pathologies, a new potential link between basic science and clinical applications. The development of CV proteomics has helped to identify a number of possible protein candidates, and offers the potential to treat and diagnose CV disease more effectively in the future.
Plant-derived MINA-05 Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Proliferation in Vitro and Lymph Node Spread in Vivo
Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17460776
Few treatment options exist for metastatic prostate cancer (PC) that becomes hormone refractory (HRPC). In vitro, plant-derived MINA-05 caused dose-dependent decreases in cell numbers in HRPC cell lines LNCaP-C4-2B and PC-3, and in androgen-sensitive LNCaP-FGC, DuCaP, and LAPC-4, by WST-1 assay. MINA-05 pretreatment significantly decreased clonogenic survival in agar and on plastic at 1 x and 2 x IC50 for PC-3 (P < .05 and P < .001, respectively), and at 1/2 x, 1 x, and 2 x IC50 for LNCaP-FGC cells (P < .001). MINA-05 also induced G2M arrest of LNCaP-FGC and PC-3 cells (by flow cytometry) and caused some apoptosis in LNCaP-FGC (sub-G1 peak on flow, expression of activated caspase-3) but not in PC-3 cells. Western blotting indicated that these cell cycle changes were associated with decreased levels of regulatory proteins cyclin B1 and cdc25C. MINA-05 given daily by gavage for 39 days did not diminish primary orthotopic PC-3 growth in nude mice, but decreased the extent of lymph node invasion at higher doses. We conclude that MINA-05 induces G2M arrest, inhibits cell growth, reduces PC cell regrowth in vitro, and reduces lymph node invasion after orthotopic PC-3 cell implantation in vivo. It has potential as an adjuvant treatment for patients with PC.
Cardiovascular Initiative of the Human Proteome Organisation, 5th Workshop October 2007, Seoul, Korea
Proteomics. Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18240139
The Cardiovascular Initiative (CVI) of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) held its fifth workshop prior to the Sixth Annual HUPO World Congress in Seoul, Korea in October 2007. The objectives of this report are as follows: to trace the (relatively brief) history of the CVI for those who may not be acquainted with it; to highlight lectures given by members of the CVI during this Workshop; and to make the community aware of the aims of this Initiative, including collaborative projects currently under consideration.
An Investigation of Whether Patients with Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Overestimate the Probability and Cost of Future Negative Events
Journal of Anxiety Disorders. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18316175
This study compared estimations of the probability and cost of negative events occurring made by patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (n=43), patients with other anxiety disorders (n=29) and non-patients' (n=35). Prior to treatment PTSD patients overestimated the probability and cost of all types of traumatic events occurring relative to non-patients, and overestimated the probability and cost of the specific type of traumatic event that they had been traumatized by relative to the anxious controls as well as non-patients. These judgment biases were specific to traumatic events and did not generalise to all negative events. PTSD patients' estimations of the probability and cost of traumatic events were significantly reduced following treatment, and were no longer significantly different from those of non-patients. Results suggest that patients with PTSD show specific judgment biases in the estimation of probability and cost, which can be successfully modified by cognitive therapy.
Statistical Analysis of Image Data Provided by Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis for Discovery Proteomics
Methods in Molecular Medicine. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18453095
Standardized methods for the solubilization of proteins prior to proteomics analyses incorporating two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) are essential for providing reproducible data that can be subjected to rigorous statistical interrogation for comparative studies investigating disease-genesis. In this chapter, we discuss the imaging and image analysis of proteins separated by 2-DE, in the context of determining protein abundance alterations related to a change in biochemical or biophysical conditions. We then describe the principles behind 2-DE gel statistical analysis, including subtraction of background noise, spot detection, gel matching, spot quantitation for data comparison, and statistical requirements to create meaningful gel data sets. We also emphasize the need to develop reproducible and robust protocols for protein sample preparation and 2-DE itself.
Single Treatment with RNAi Against Prion Protein Rescues Early Neuronal Dysfunction and Prolongs Survival in Mice with Prion Disease
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Jul, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18632556
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative conditions for which there is no effective treatment. Prion propagation involves the conversion of cellular prion protein, PrP(C), to its conformational isomer, PrP(Sc), which accumulates in disease. Here, we show effective therapeutic knockdown of PrP(C) expression using RNAi in mice with established prion disease. A single administration of lentivirus expressing a shRNA targeting PrP into each hippocampus of mice with established prion disease significantly prolonged survival time. Treated animals lived 19% and 24% longer than mice given an "empty" lentivirus, or not treated, respectively. Lentivirally mediated RNAi of PrP also prevented the onset of behavioral deficits associated with early prion disease, reduced spongiform degeneration, and protected against neuronal loss. In contrast, mice receiving empty virus or no treatment developed early cognitive impairment and showed severe spongiosis and neuronal loss. The focal use of RNAi therapeutically in prion disease further supports strategies depleting PrP(C), which we previously established to be a valid target for prion-based treatments. This approach can now be used to define the temporal, quantitative, and regional requirements for PrP knockdown for effective treatment of prion disease and to explore mechanisms involved in predegenerative neuronal dysfunction and its rescue.
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18667414
Cardiovascular disease remains the most common cause of death in the developed world and is predicted by the World Health Organization to kill approximately 20 million people worldwide each year until at least 2015. In light of these figures, work on producing superior tools for clinical use in the cardiovascular field is intensive. As proteins are the primary effectors of cellular function, a significant majority of this work focuses on the role of proteins in the cardiovascular system in physiological and pathological states in order to outline both mechanisms and markers of disease. One of the most effective ways to investigate these on a global basis is through proteomic analysis, which allows for broad spectrum screening of cellular protein or peptide complements during cardiovascular pathogenesis. Furthermore, specific technologies are now available to screen animal model or human blood samples for novel, improved markers of chronic disease states, such as atherosclerosis or for earlier indicators of acute myocardial stress, including ischemia/reperfusion injury and heart failure. This review summarizes current literature on the key aspects of proteomics and peptidomics related to clinical cardiovascular science.
Behavioral and Brain Functions : BBF. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19025655
Tuning of Synaptic Integration in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex to the Organization of Grid Cell Firing Fields
Neuron. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 19081381
Neurons important for cognitive function are often classified by their morphology and integrative properties. However, it is unclear if within a single class of neuron these properties tune synaptic responses to the salient features of the information that each neuron represents. We demonstrate that for stellate neurons in layer II of the medial entorhinal cortex, the waveform of postsynaptic potentials, the time window for detection of coincident inputs, and responsiveness to gamma frequency inputs follow a dorsal-ventral gradient similar to the topographical organization of grid-like spatial firing fields of neurons in this area. We provide evidence that these differences are due to a membrane conductance gradient mediated by HCN and leak potassium channels. These findings suggest key roles for synaptic integration in computations carried out within the medial entorhinal cortex and imply that tuning of neural information processing by membrane ion channels is important for normal cognitive function.
Proteomics. Clinical Applications. Jun, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 21136884
Cardiovascular (CV) disease is the single most significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The emerging global impact of CV disease means that the goals of early diagnosis and a wider range of treatment options are now increasingly pertinent. As such, there is a greater need to understand the molecular mechanisms involved and potential targets for intervention. Mitochondrial function is important for physiological maintenance of the cell, and when this function is altered, the cell can begin to suffer. Given the broad range and significant impacts of the cellular processes regulated by the mitochondria, it becomes important to understand the roles of the proteins associated with this organelle. Proteomic investigations of the mitochondria are hampered by the intrinsic properties of the organelle, including hydrophobic mitochondrial membranes; high proportion of basic proteins (pI greater than 8.0); and the relative dynamic range issues of the mitochondria. For these reasons, many proteomic studies investigate the mitochondria as a discrete subproteome. Once this has been achieved, the alterations that result in functional changes with CV disease can be observed. Those alterations that lead to changes in mitochondrial function, signaling and morphology, which have significant implications for the cardiomyocyte in the development of CV disease, are discussed.
Prion. Jul-Sep, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19597349
Insights into the molecular basis and the temporal evolution of neurotoxicity in prion disease are increasing, and recent work in mice leads to new avenues for targeting treatment of these disorders. Using lentivirally mediated RNA interference (RNAi) against native prion protein (PrP), White et al. report the first therapeutic intervention that results in neuronal rescue, prevents symptoms and increases survival in mice with established prion disease.(1) Both the target and the timing of treatment here are crucial to the effectiveness of this strategy: the formation of the neurotoxic prion agent is prevented at a point when diseased neurons can still be saved from death. But the data also give new insights into the timing of treatment in the context of the pattern of spread of prion infection throughout the brain, with implications for developing the most effective treatments.
CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19702576
Effective treatment of neurodegenerative disease is one of the major challenges facing biomedical research. These disorders, which include Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Parkinson's diseases - as well as the rarer prion diseases - constitute an ever-increasing burden in the developed world, socially, medically and economically. The key barrier to effective therapy is that they present clinically when neuronal loss is advanced, and irreversible. Current treatments are almost all directed at modifying symptoms; few address underlying pathogenic mechanisms and are inevitably delivered too late to rescue dying neurons. In the field of prion diseases, however, insights into the molecular basis and the temporal evolution of prion neurotoxicity are increasing. Recent work in mice leads to new hope for the treatment of these disorders, and potentially for rescuing neurodegeneration more broadly. Using lentivirally mediated RNA interference (RNAi) against native prion protein (PrP), White et al report the first intervention resulting in neuronal rescue, prevention of symptoms and increased survival in mice with established prion disease. Central to the effectiveness of this strategy are both the target and the timing of the intervention: the treatment prevents the formation of the neurotoxic prion agent at a point when diseased neurons can still be saved from death. This review introduces the basic concepts of prion pathogenesis, emerging insights into mechanisms of prion neurotoxicity and the rationale for targeting endogenous prion protein (PrP) in prion therapeutics. It describes the discovery of a window of reversibility of early neuronal damage in prion disease and how together these advances led to the subsequent development of the strategy using RNAi based therapy for these disorders. It discusses the use and relevance of this approach more broadly in neurodegeneration.
Preparation of Proteins and Peptides for Mass Spectrometry Analysis in a Bottom-up Proteomics Workflow
Current Protocols in Molecular Biology / Edited by Frederick M. Ausubel ... [et Al.]. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19816929
This unit outlines the steps required to prepare a sample for MS analysis following protein separation or enrichment by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and affinity capture within the context of a bottom-up proteomics workflow in which the protein is first broken up into peptides, either by chemical or enzymatic digestion, prior to MS analysis. Also included are protocols for enrichment at the peptide level, including phosphopeptide enrichment and reversed-phase chromatography for sample purification immediately prior to MS analysis. Finally, there is a discussion regarding the types of MS technologies commonly used to analyze proteomics samples, as well as important parameters that should be considered when analyzing the MS data to ensure stringent and robust protein identifications and characterization.
Interaction Between DRD2 C957T Polymorphism and an Acute Psychosocial Stressor on Reward-related Behavioral Impulsivity
Behavior Genetics. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19148742
The dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) C957T polymorphism CC genotype is associated with decreased striatal binding of DRD2 and executive function and working memory impairments in healthy adults. We investigated the relationships between C957T and acute stress with behavioral phenotypes of impulsivity in 72 young adults randomly allocated to either an acute psychosocial stress or relaxation induction condition. Homozygotes for 957C showed increased reward responsiveness after stress induction. They were also quicker when making immediate choices on the delay discounting task when stressed, compared with homozygotes who were not stressed. No effects were found for response inhibition, a dimension of impulsivity not related to extrinsic rewards. These data suggest that C957T is associated with a reward-related impulsivity endophenotype in response to acute psychosocial stress. Future studies should examine whether the greater sensitivity of 957C homozygotes to the effects of stress is mediated through dopamine release.
Alterations to the Protein Profile of Bladder Carcinoma Cell Lines Induced by Plant Extract MINA-05 in Vitro
Proteomics. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19294694
Bladder cancer (BLCa) is a severe urological cancer of both men and women that commonly recurs and once invasive, is difficult to treat. MINA-05 (CK Life Sciences Int'l, Hong Kong) is a derivative of complex botanical extracts, shown to reduce cellular proliferation of bladder and prostate carcinomas. We tested the effects of MINA-05 against human BLCa cell sublines, B8, B8-RSP-GCK, B8-RSP-LN and C3, from a transitional cell carcinoma, grade IV, to determine the molecular targets of treatment by observing the cellular protein profile. Cells were acclimatised for 48 h then treated for 72 h with concentrations of MINA-05 reflecting 1/2 IC(50), IC(50) and 2 x IC(50) (n = 3) or with vehicle, (0.5% DMSO). Dose-dependant changes in protein abundance were detected and characterised using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and MS. We identified 10 proteins that underwent changes in abundance, pI and/or molecular mass in response to treatment. MINA-05 was shown to influence proteins across numerous functional classes including cytoskeletal proteins, energy metabolism proteins, protein degradation proteins and tumour suppressors, suggesting a global impact on these cell lines. This study implies that the ability of MINA-05 to retard cellular proliferation is attributed to its ability to alter cell cycling, metabolism, protein degradation and the cancer cell environment.
Assessment of Albumin Removal from an Immunoaffinity Spin Column: Critical Implications for Proteomic Examination of the Albuminome and Albumin-depleted Samples
Proteomics. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19294703
High abundance proteins in serum and plasma (e.g., albumin) are routinely removed during proteomic sample processing as they can mask lower abundance proteins and peptides of biological/clinical interest. A common method of albumin depletion is based on immunoaffinity capture, and many immunoaffinity devices are designed for multiple uses. In this case, it is critical that the albumin captured on the affinity matrix is stripped from the column prior to regeneration of the matrix and processing of subsequent samples, to ensure no carryover and that maximal binding sites are available for subsequent samples. The current study examines the ability of a manufacturer's protocol to remove the proteins and peptides captured by an immunoaffinity spin column. The data presented in the current work illustrate the difficulty in completely removing albumin from the immunoaffinity device, and consequently, may explain the variability and decreased efficiency shown for this device in previous studies. In summary, the current data present important considerations for the implementation of multiple-use immunoaffinity devices for processing subsequent clinical samples in a proteomic workflow.
Regulation of CD40L (CD154) and CD62P (p-selectin) Surface Expression Upon GPIIb-IIIa Blockade of Platelets from Stable Coronary Artery Disease Patients
Thrombosis Research. Jan, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19487018
The aim of this study was to further characterize the effect of the antiplatelet agents, aspirin and eptifibatide, on the surface expression of CD40L and CD62P on platelets from patients with stable coronary artery disease.
Gastroenterology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20178797
In patients with cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy (HE) has acute but reversible as well as chronic components. We investigated the extent of residual cognitive impairment following clinical resolution of overt HE (OHE).
Cigarette Smoking in Young Adults: the Influence of the HTR2A T102C Polymorphism and Punishment Sensitivity
Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21035274
The C allele of a common polymorphism of the serotonin 2A receptor (HTR2A) gene, T102C, results in reduced synthesis of 5-HT2A receptors and has been associated with current smoking status in adults. The -1438A/G polymorphism, located in the regulatory region of this gene, is in linkage disequilibrium with T102C, and the A allele is associated with increased promoter activity and with smoking in adult males. We investigated the contributions of the HTR2A gene, chronic psychological stress, and impulsivity to the prediction of cigarette smoking status and dependence in young adults.
Parallel Proteomics to Improve Coverage and Confidence in the Partially Annotated Oryctolagus Cuniculus Mitochondrial Proteome
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21036924
The ability to decipher the dynamic protein component of any system is determined by the inherent limitations of the technologies used, the complexity of the sample, and the existence of an annotated genome. In the absence of an annotated genome, large-scale proteomic investigations can be technically difficult. Yet the functional and biological species differences across animal models can lead to selection of partially or nonannotated organisms over those with an annotated genome. The outweighing of biology over technology leads us to investigate the degree to which a parallel approach can facilitate proteome coverage in the absence of complete genome annotation. When studying species without complete genome annotation, a particular challenge is how to ensure high proteome coverage while meeting the bioinformatic stringencies of high-throughput proteomics. A protein inventory of Oryctolagus cuniculus mitochondria was created by overlapping "protein-centric" and "peptide-centric" one-dimensional and two-dimensional liquid chromatography strategies; with additional partitioning into membrane-enriched and soluble fractions. With the use of these five parallel approaches, 2934 unique peptides were identified, corresponding to 558 nonredundant protein groups. 230 of these proteins (41%) were identified by only a single technical approach, confirming the need for parallel techniques to improve annotation. To determine the extent of coverage, a side-by-side comparison with human and mouse cardiomyocyte mitochondrial studies was performed. A nonredundant list of 995 discrete proteins was compiled, of which 244 (25%) were common across species. The current investigation identified 142 unique protein groups, the majority of which were detected here by only one technical approach, in particular peptide- and protein-centric two-dimensional liquid chromatography. Although no single approach achieved more than 40% coverage, the combination of three approaches (protein- and peptide-centric two-dimensional liquid chromatography and subfractionation) contributed 96% of all identifications. Parallel techniques ensured minimal false discovery, and reduced single peptide-based identifications while maximizing sequence coverage in the absence of the annotated rabbit proteome.
Quantitative N-linked Glycoproteomics of Myocardial Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury Reveals Early Remodeling in the Extracellular Environment
Molecular & Cellular Proteomics : MCP. Aug, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21441315
Extracellular and cell surface proteins are generally modified with N-linked glycans and glycopeptide enrichment is an attractive tool to analyze these proteins. The role of N-linked glycoproteins in cardiovascular disease, particularly ischemia and reperfusion injury, is poorly understood. Observation of glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is challenging due to the presence of abundant, nonglycosylated analytes, and robust methods for purification are essential. We employed digestion with multiple proteases to increase glycoproteome coverage coupled with parallel glycopeptide enrichments using hydrazide capture, titanium dioxide, and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with and without an ion-pairing agent. Glycosylated peptides were treated with PNGase F and analyzed by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. This allowed the identification of 1556 nonredundant N-linked glycosylation sites, representing 972 protein groups from ex vivo rat left ventricular myocardium. False positive "glycosylations" were observed on 44 peptides containing a deamidated Asn-Asp in the N-linked sequon by analysis of samples without PNGase F treatment. We used quantitation via isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) and validation with dimethyl labeling to analyze changes in glycoproteins from tissue following prolonged ischemia and reperfusion (40 mins ischemia and 20 mins reperfusion) indicative of myocardial infarction. The iTRAQ approach revealed 80 of 437 glycopeptides with altered abundance, while dimethyl labeling confirmed 46 of these and revealed an additional 62 significant changes. These were mainly from predicted extracellular matrix and basement membrane proteins that are implicated in cardiac remodeling. Analysis of N-glycans released from myocardial proteins suggest that the observed changes were not due to significant alterations in N-glycan structures. Altered proteins included the collagen-laminin-integrin complexes and collagen assembly enzymes, cadherins, mast cell proteases, proliferation-associated secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, and microfibril-associated proteins. The data suggest that cardiac remodeling is initiated earlier during reperfusion than previously hypothesized.
Young Drivers' Optimism Bias for Accident Risk and Driving Skill: Accountability and Insight Experience Manipulations
Accident; Analysis and Prevention. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21545859
This study aimed to determine whether two brief, low cost interventions would reduce young drivers' optimism bias for their driving skills and accident risk perceptions. This tendency for such drivers to perceive themselves as more skillful and less prone to driving accidents than their peers may lead to less engagement in precautionary driving behaviours and a greater engagement in more dangerous driving behaviour. 243 young drivers (aged 17-25 years) were randomly allocated to one of three groups: accountability, insight or control. All participants provided both overall and specific situation ratings of their driving skills and accident risk relative to a typical young driver. Prior to completing the questionnaire, those in the accountability condition were first advised that their driving skills and accident risk would be later assessed via a driving simulator. Those in the insight condition first underwent a difficult computer-based hazard perception task designed to provide participants with insight into their potential limitations when responding to hazards in difficult and unpredictable driving situations. Participants in the control condition completed only the questionnaire. Results showed that the accountability manipulation was effective in reducing optimism bias in terms of participants' comparative ratings of their accident risk in specific situations, though only for less experienced drivers. In contrast, among more experienced males, participants in the insight condition showed greater optimism bias for overall accident risk than their counterparts in the accountability or control groups. There were no effects of the manipulations on drivers' skills ratings. The differential effects of the two types of manipulations on optimism bias relating to one's accident risk in different subgroups of the young driver sample highlight the importance of targeting interventions for different levels of experience. Accountability interventions may be beneficial for less experienced young drivers but the results suggest exercising caution with the use of insight type interventions, particularly hazard perception style tasks, for more experienced young drivers typically still in the provisional stage of graduated licensing systems.
The American Journal of Gastroenterology. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21556040
Cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can adversely affect survival, but their effect on socioeconomic and emotional burden on the family is not clear. The aim was to study the emotional and socioeconomic burden of cirrhosis and HE on patients and informal caregivers.
A Molecular Toolbox for Rapid Generation of Viral Vectors to Up- or Down-Regulate Neuronal Gene Expression in Vivo
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21772812
We introduce a molecular toolbox for manipulation of neuronal gene expression in vivo. The toolbox includes promoters, ion channels, optogenetic tools, fluorescent proteins, and intronic artificial microRNAs. The components are easily assembled into adeno-associated virus (AAV) or lentivirus vectors using recombination cloning. We demonstrate assembly of toolbox components into lentivirus and AAV vectors and use these vectors for in vivo expression of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir3.1, and Kir3.2) and an artificial microRNA targeted against the ion channel HCN1 (HCN1 miRNA). We show that AAV assembled to express HCN1 miRNA produces efficacious and specific in vivo knockdown of HCN1 channels. Comparison of in vivo viral transduction using HCN1 miRNA with mice containing a germ line deletion of HCN1 reveals similar physiological phenotypes in cerebellar Purkinje cells. The easy assembly and re-usability of the toolbox components, together with the ability to up- or down-regulate neuronal gene expression in vivo, may be useful for applications in many areas of neuroscience.
Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22010164
Protein phosphorylation underpins major cellular processes including energy metabolism, signal transduction, excitation-contraction coupling, apoptosis, and cell survival mechanisms and is thus critical to the myocyte. Targeted approaches, whereby a handful of phosphoproteins are investigated, can suffer from a relatively narrow view of cellular phosphorylation. In contrast, recent technical advances have allowed for the comprehensive documentation of phosphorylation events in complex biological environments, providing a deeper view of the "phosphoproteome." A global, high-throughput characterization of the myocardial phosphoproteome, however, has not yet been achieved. Efficient analysis of phosphorylated proteins and their roles in a dynamic cellular environment requires high-resolution strategies that can identify, localize, and quantify many thousands of phosphorylation sites in a single experiment. Such an approach requires specific enrichment and purification techniques, developed to align with high-end instrumentation for analysis. Cutting-edge phosphoproteomics is no longer restricted to gel-based technology, instead focusing on affinity enrichment prior to liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. We will describe the best current methods and how they can be applied, as well as the challenges associated with them. We also present current phosphoproteomic investigations in the myocyte and its subcompartments. Although the techniques and instrumentation required to achieve the goal of a myocardial phosphoprotein catalog in physiological and diseased states are highly specialized, the potential biological insight provided by such an approach makes phosphoproteomics an important new avenue of investigation for the cardiovascular researcher.
Release of Tissue-specific Proteins into Coronary Perfusate As a Model for Biomarker Discovery in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
Journal of Proteome Research. Mar, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22250753
Diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes is based on protein biomarkers, such as the cardiac troponins (cTnI/cTnT) and creatine kinase (CK-MB) that are released into the circulation. Biomarker discovery is focused on identifying very low abundance tissue-derived analytes from within albumin-rich plasma, in which the wide dynamic range of the native protein complement hinders classical proteomic investigations. We employed an ex vivo rabbit model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury using Langendorff buffer perfusion. Nonrecirculating perfusate was collected over a temporal profile of 60 min reperfusion following brief, reversible ischemia (15 min; 15I/60R) for comparison with irreversible I/R (60I/60R). Perfusate proteins were separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS), revealing 26 tissue-specific proteins released during reperfusion post-15I. Proteins released during irreversible I/R (60I/60R) were profiled using gel-based (2-DE and one-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry; geLC-MS) and gel-free (LC-MS/MS) methods. A total of 192 tissue-specific proteins were identified during reperfusion post-60I. Identified proteins included those previously associated with I/R (myoglobin, CK-MB, cTnI, and cTnT), in addition to examples currently under investigation in large cohort studies (heart-type fatty acid binding protein; FABPH). The postischemic release profile of a novel cardiac-specific protein, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3 (Csrp3; cardiac LIM domain protein) was validated by Western blot analysis. We also identified Csrp3 in serum from 6 of 8 patients postreperfusion following acute myocardial infarction. These studies indicate that animal modeling of biomarker release using ex vivo buffer perfused tissue to limit the presence of obfuscating plasma proteins may identify candidates for further study in humans.
Role of Stem Cell Factor and Granulocyte Colony-stimulating Factor in Remodeling During Liver Regeneration
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21932404
Functional pluripotent characteristics have been observed in specific subpopulations of hepatic cells that express some of the known cholangiocyte markers. Although evidence indicates that specific cytokines, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factors (GM-CSFs), and stem cell factors (SCFs) may be candidate treatments for liver injury, the role of these cytokines in intrahepatic biliary epithelium remodeling is unknown. Thus, our aim was to characterize the specific cytokines that regulate the remodeling potentials of cholangiocytes after 70% partial hepatectomy (PH). The expression of the cytokines and their downstream signaling molecules was studied in rats after 70% PH by immunoblotting and in small and large murine cholangiocyte cultures (SMCCs and LMCCs) by immunocytochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). There was a significant, stable increase in SCF and GM-CSF levels until 7 days after PH. Real-time PCR analysis revealed significant increases of key remodeling molecules, such as S100 calcium-binding protein A4 (S100A4) and miR-181b, after SCF plus GM-CSF administration in SMCCs. SMCCs produced significant amounts of soluble and bound SCFs and GM-CSFs in response to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). When SMCCs were incubated with TGF-β plus anti-SCF+GM-CSF antibodies, there was a significant decrease in S100A4 expression. Furthermore, treatment of SMCCs with SCF+GM-CSF significantly increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) messenger RNA as well as miR-181b expression, along with a reduction of metalloproteinase inhibitor 3. Levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, and miR-181b were also up-regulated in rat liver and isolated cholangiocytes after PH. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that altered expression of SCF+GM-CSF after PH can contribute to biliary remodeling (e.g., post-transplantation) by functional deregulation of the activity of key signaling intermediates involved in cell expansion and multipotent differentiation.