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In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz in JoVE
Kültüre ve Duvar Gemi Biyoreaktör Döner Uygulamaları 3D Epitel Hücre Modelleri Türetilmiş
Andrea L. Radtke, Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz
Basic Medical Sciences, University of Arizona College of Medicine - Phoenix
Epitel hücreleri 3-D hücre toplam oluşumu ile sonuçlanarak, fizyolojik koşullar altında büyüyebilir olanak sağlayan bir döner hücre kültürü sistemi tarif edilmektedir. Agregalar ekran üretilen
Other articles by Melissa M. Herbst-Kralovetz on PubMed
Quantification of Poly(I:C)-mediated Protection Against Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection
Journal of Virology. Oct, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17005677
Alternative strategies for controlling the growing herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) epidemic are needed. A novel class of immunomodulatory microbicides has shown promise as antiherpetics, including intravaginally applied CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotides that stimulate toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). In the current study, we quantified protection against experimental genital HSV-2 infection provided by an alternative nucleic acid-based TLR agonist, polyinosine-poly(C) (PIC) (TLR3 agonist). Using a protection quantification paradigm, groups of mice were PIC treated and then subdivided into groups challenged with escalating doses of HSV-2. Using this paradigm, a temporal window of PIC efficacy for single applications was defined as 1 day prior to (prophylactic) through 4 h after (therapeutic) viral challenge. PIC treatment within this window protected against 10-fold-higher HSV-2 challenges, as indicated by increased 50% infectious dose values relative to those for vehicle-treated controls. Disease resolution and survival were significantly enhanced by repetitive PIC doses. Using optimal PIC regimens, cytokine induction was evaluated in murine vaginal lavages and in human vaginal epithelial cells. Similar induction patterns were observed, with kinetics that explained the limited durability of PIC-afforded protection. Daily PIC delivery courses did not generate sustained cytokine levels in murine vaginal fluids that would be indicative of local immunotoxicity. No evidence of immunotoxicity was observed in selected organs that were analyzed following repetitive vaginal PIC doses. Animal and in vitro data indicate that PIC may prove to be a valuable preventative microbicide and/or therapeutic agent against genital herpes by increasing resistance to HSV-2 and enhancing disease resolution following a failure of prevention.
Quantification and Comparison of Toll-like Receptor Expression and Responsiveness in Primary and Immortalized Human Female Lower Genital Tract Epithelia
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology (New York, N.Y. : 1989). Mar, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18201283
To better understand innate immune responses to sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and the appropriateness of epithelial cell (EC) models of the vaginal and cervical mucosa, quantified toll-like receptor (TLR) expression from a population of women is needed.
Development and Characterization of a Three-dimensional Organotypic Human Vaginal Epithelial Cell Model
Biology of Reproduction. Mar, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20007410
We have developed an in vitro human vaginal epithelial cell (EC) model using the innovative rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor technology that recapitulates in vivo structural and functional properties, including a stratified squamous epithelium with microvilli, tight junctions, microfolds, and mucus. This three-dimensional (3-D) vaginal model provides a platform for high-throughput toxicity testing of candidate microbicides targeted to combat sexually transmitted infections, effectively complementing and extending existing testing systems such as surgical explants or animal models. Vaginal ECs were grown on porous, collagen-coated microcarrier beads in a rotating, low fluid-shear environment; use of RWV bioreactor technology generated 3-D vaginal EC aggregates. Immunofluorescence and scanning and transmission electron microscopy confirmed differentiation and polarization of the 3-D EC aggregates among multiple cell layers and identified ultrastructural features important for nutrient absorption, cell-cell interactions, and pathogen defense. After treatment with a variety of toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, cytokine production was quantified by cytometric bead array, confirming that TLRs 2, 3, 5, and 6 were expressed and functional. The 3-D vaginal aggregates were more resistant to nonoxynol-9 (N-9), a contraceptive and previous microbicide candidate, when compared to two-dimensional monolayers of the same cell line. A dose-dependent production of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, biomarkers of cervicovaginal inflammation, correlated to microbicide toxicity in the 3-D model following N-9 treatment. These results indicate that this 3-D vaginal model could be used as a complementary tool for screening microbicide compounds for safety and efficacy, thus improving success in clinical trials.
Organotypic 3D Cell Culture Models: Using the Rotating Wall Vessel to Study Host-pathogen Interactions
Nature Reviews. Microbiology. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20948552
Appropriately simulating the three-dimensional (3D) environment in which tissues normally develop and function is crucial for engineering in vitro models that can be used for the meaningful dissection of host-pathogen interactions. This Review highlights how the rotating wall vessel bioreactor has been used to establish 3D hierarchical models that range in complexity from a single cell type to multicellular co-culture models that recapitulate the 3D architecture of tissues observed in vivo. The application of these models to the study of infectious diseases is discussed.
An Intranasally Delivered Toll-like Receptor 7 Agonist Elicits Robust Systemic and Mucosal Responses to Norwalk Virus-like Particles
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology : CVI. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20962211
Norwalk virus (NV) is an enteric pathogen from the genus Norovirus and a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis in humans. NV virus-like particles (VLPs) are known to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered nasally; however, the correlates of immune protection are unknown, and codelivery with a safe and immunogenic mucosal adjuvant may enhance protective anti-NV immune responses. Resiquimod (R848), an imidazoquinoline-based Toll-like receptor 7 and/or 8 (TLR7/8) agonist, is being evaluated as an adjuvant in FDA-approved clinical vaccine trials. As such, we evaluated the adjuvant activity of two imidazoquinoline-based TLR7 and TLR7/8 agonists when codelivered intranasally with plant-derived NV VLPs. We also compared the activity of these agonists to the gold standard mucosal adjuvant, cholera toxin (CT). Our results indicate that codelivery with the TLR7 agonist, gardiquimod (GARD), induces NV VLP-specific serum IgG and IgG isotype responses and mucosal IgA responses in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts that are superior to those induced by R848 and comparable to those induced by the mucosal adjuvant CT. This study supports the continued investigation of GARD as a mucosal adjuvant for NV VLPs and possible use for other VLP-based vaccines for which immune responses at distal mucosal sites (e.g., respiratory and reproductive tracts) are desired.
Intranasal Delivery of Norwalk Virus-like Particles Formulated in an in Situ Gelling, Dry Powder Vaccine
Vaccine. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21640778
The development of a vaccine to prevent norovirus infections has been focused on immunization at a mucosal surface, but has been limited by the low immunogenicity of self-assembling Norwalk virus-like particles (NV VLPs) delivered enterically or at nasal surfaces. Nasal immunization, which offers the advantage of ease of immunization, faces obstacles imposed by the normal process of mucociliary clearance, which limits residence time of applied antigens. Herein, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac) of an inert in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of NV VLP antigen. Powder formulations, with or without NV VLP antigen, were similar in structure in dry form or when rehydrated in simulated nasal fluids. Immunogenicity of the dry powder VLP formulation was compared to equivalent antigen/adjuvant liquid formulations in animals. For the GelVac powder, we observed superior NV-specific serum and mucosal (aerodigestive and reproductive tracts) antibody responses relative to liquid formulations. Incorporation of the TLR7 agonist gardiquimod in dry powder formulations did not enhance antibody responses, although its inclusion in liquid formulations did enhance VLP immunogenicity irrespective of the presence or absence of GelSite. We interpret these data as showing that GelSite-based dry powder formulations (1) stabilize the immunogenic structural properties of VLPs and (2) induce systemic and mucosal antibody titers which are equal or greater than those achieved by VLPs plus adjuvant in a liquid formulation. We conclude that in situ gelation of the GelVac dry powder formulation at nasal mucosal surfaces delays mucociliary clearance and thereby prolongs VLP antigen exposure to immune effector sites.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22143779
Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an acute and often deadly disease caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). The possible intentional use of this virus against human populations has led to design of vaccines that could be incorporated into a national stockpile for biological threat reduction. We have evaluated the immunogenicity and efficacy of an EBOV vaccine candidate in which the viral surface glycoprotein is biomanufactured as a fusion to a monoclonal antibody that recognizes an epitope in glycoprotein, resulting in the production of Ebola immune complexes (EICs). Although antigen-antibody immune complexes are known to be efficiently processed and presented to immune effector cells, we found that codelivery of the EIC with Toll-like receptor agonists elicited a more robust antibody response in mice than did EIC alone. Among the compounds tested, polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (PIC, a Toll-like receptor 3 agonist) was highly effective as an adjuvant agent. After vaccinating mice with EIC plus PIC, 80% of the animals were protected against a lethal challenge with live EBOV (30,000 LD(50) of mouse adapted virus). Surviving animals showed a mixed Th1/Th2 response to the antigen, suggesting this may be important for protection. Survival after vaccination with EIC plus PIC was statistically equivalent to that achieved with an alternative viral vector vaccine candidate reported in the literature. Because nonreplicating subunit vaccines offer the possibility of formulation for cost-effective, long-term storage in biothreat reduction repositories, EIC is an attractive option for public health defense measures.