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Articles by Merav Socolovsky in JoVE
CD71/TER119 Flow-sitometrik Testi kullanarak Fare eritro-id progenitörlerin Tanımlama ve Analiz
Miroslav Koulnis*, Ramona Pop*, Ermelinda Porpiglia*, Jeffrey R. Shearstone*, Daniel Hidalgo, Merav Socolovsky
Department of Pediatrics and Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School
Doğrudan taze hasat fare kemik iliği, dalak veya fetal karaciğer farklılaşma aşamalı özel fare eritroid atalarıdır ve öncüleri, belirlenmesi ve moleküler analiz için bir akış sitometri yöntemi. Tahlil hücre yüzey belirteçleri CD71, Ter119 ve hücre boyutu dayanır.
Other articles by Merav Socolovsky on PubMed
The Signaling Domain of the Erythropoietin Receptor Rescues Prolactin Receptor-mutant Mammary Epithelium
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12381781
The cytokine hormones prolactin and erythropoietin mediate tissue-specific developmental outcomes by activating their cognate receptors, prolactin receptor (PrlR) and erythropoietin receptor (EpoR), respectively. The EpoR is essential for red blood cell formation, whereas a principal function of PrlR is in the development of the mammary gland during pregnancy and lactation [Ormandy, C., et al. (1997) Genes Dev. 11, 167-178]. The instructive model of differentiation proposes that such distinct, cytokine-dependent developmental outcomes are a result of cytokine receptor-unique signals that bring about induction of lineage-specific genes. This view was challenged by our finding that an exogenously expressed PrlR could rescue EpoR(-/-) erythroid progenitors and mediate their differentiation into red blood cells. Together with similar findings in other hematopoietic lineages, this suggested that cytokine receptors do not play an instructive role in hematopoietic differentiation. Here, we show that these findings are not limited to the hematopoietic system but are of more general relevance to cytokine-dependent differentiation. We demonstrate that the developmental defect of PrlR(-/-) mammary epithelium is rescued by an exogenously expressed chimeric receptor (prl-EpoR) containing the PrlR extracellular domain joined to the EpoR transmembrane and intracellular domains. Like the wild-type PrlR, the prl-EpoR rescued alveologenesis and milk secretion in PrlR(-/-) mammary epithelium. These results suggest that, in cell types as unrelated as erythrocytes and mammary epithelial cells, cytokine receptors employ similar, generic signals that permit the expression of predetermined, tissue-specific differentiation programs.
Molecular and Cellular Biology. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12861012
The product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene (Rb) can control cell proliferation and promote differentiation. Murine embryos nullizygous for Rb die midgestation with defects in cell cycle regulation, control of apoptosis, and terminal differentiation of several tissues, including skeletal muscle, nervous system, and lens. Previous cell culture-based experiments have suggested that the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) and Ras operate in a common pathway to control cellular differentiation. Here we have tested the hypothesis that the proto-oncogene N-ras participates in Rb-dependent regulation of differentiation by generating and characterizing murine embryos deficient in both N-ras and Rb. We show that deletion of N-ras rescues a unique subset of the developmental defects associated with nullizygosity of Rb, resulting in a significant extension of life span. Rb(-/-); N-ras(-/-) skeletal muscle has normal fiber density, myotube length and thickness, in contrast to Rb-deficient embryos. Additionally, Rb(-/-); N-ras(-/-) muscle shows a restoration in the expression of the late muscle-specific gene MCK, and this correlates with a significant potentiation of MyoD transcriptional activity in Rb(-/-); N-ras(-/-), compared to Rb(-/-) myoblasts in culture. The improved differentiation of skeletal muscle in Rb(-/-); N-ras(-/-) embryos occurs despite evidence of deregulated proliferation and apoptosis, as seen in Rb-deficient animals. Our findings suggest that the control of differentiation and proliferation by Rb are genetically separable.
Role of Ras Signaling in Erythroid Differentiation of Mouse Fetal Liver Cells: Functional Analysis by a Flow Cytometry-based Novel Culture System
Blood. Dec, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12907435
Ras signaling plays an important role in erythropoiesis. Its function has been extensively studied in erythroid and nonerythroid cell lines as well as in primary erythroblasts, but inconclusive results using conventional erythroid colony-forming unit (CFU-E) assays have been obtained concerning the role of Ras signaling in erythroid differentiation. Here we describe a novel culture system that supports terminal fetal liver erythroblast proliferation and differentiation and that closely recapitulates erythroid development in vivo. Erythroid differentiation is monitored step by step and quantitatively by a flow cytometry analysis; this analysis distinguishes CD71 and TER119 double-stained erythroblasts into different stages of differentiation. To study the role of Ras signaling in erythroid differentiation, different H-ras proteins were expressed in CFU-E progenitors and early erythroblasts with the use of a bicistronic retroviral system, and their effects on CFU-E colony formation and erythroid differentiation were analyzed. Only oncogenic H-ras, not dominant-negative H-ras, reduced CFU-E colony formation. Analysis of infected erythroblasts in our newly developed system showed that oncogenic H-ras blocks terminal erythroid differentiation, but not through promoting apoptosis of terminally differentiated erythroid cells. Rather, oncogenic H-ras promotes abnormal proliferation of CFU-E progenitors and early erythroblasts and supports their erythropoietin (Epo)-independent growth.
Transgenic Analysis of the Stem Cell Leukemia +19 Stem Cell Enhancer in Adult and Embryonic Hematopoietic and Endothelial Cells
Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16051983
Appropriate transcriptional regulation is critical for the biological functions of many key regulatory genes, including the stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene. As part of a systematic dissection of SCL transcriptional regulation, we have previously identified a 5,245-bp SCL +18/19 enhancer that targeted embryonic endothelium together with embryonic and adult hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells (HSCs). This enhancer is proving to be a powerful tool for manipulating hematopoietic progenitors and stem cells, but the design and interpretation of such transgenic studies require a detailed understanding of enhancer activity in vivo. In this study, we demonstrate that the +18/19 enhancer is active in mast cells, megakaryocytes, and adult endothelium. A 644-bp +19 core enhancer exhibited similar temporal and spatial activity to the 5,245-bp +18/19 fragment both during development and in adult mice. Unlike the +18/19 enhancer, the +19 core enhancer was only active in adult mice when linked to the eukaryotic reporter gene human placental alkaline phosphatase. Activity of a single core enhancer in HSCs, endothelium, mast cells, and megakaryocytes suggests possible overlaps in their respective transcriptional programs. Moreover, activity in a proportion of thymocytes and other SCL-negative cell types suggests the existence of a silencer elsewhere in the SCL locus.
Suppression of Fas-FasL Coexpression by Erythropoietin Mediates Erythroblast Expansion During the Erythropoietic Stress Response in Vivo
Blood. Jul, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16527892
Erythropoietin (Epo) is the principal regulator of the erythropoietic response to hypoxic stress, through its receptor, EpoR. The EpoR signals mediating the stress response are largely unknown, and the spectrum of progenitors that are stress responsive is not fully defined. Here, we used flow cytometry to identify stress-responsive Ter119+CD71highFSChigh early erythroblast subsets in vivo. In the mouse spleen, an erythropoietic reserve organ, early erythroblasts were present at lower frequencies and were undergoing higher rates of apoptosis than equivalent cells in bone marrow. A high proportion of splenic early erythroblasts coexpressed the death receptor Fas, and its ligand, FasL. Fas-positive early erythroblasts were significantly more likely to coexpress annexin V than equivalent, Fas-negative cells, suggesting that Fas mediates early erythroblast apoptosis in vivo. We examined several mouse models of erythropoietic stress, including erythrocytosis and beta-thalassemia. We found a dramatic increase in the frequency of splenic early erythroblasts that correlated with down-regulation of Fas and FasL from their cell surface. Further, a single injection of Epo specifically suppressed early erythroblast Fas and FasL mRNA and cell-surface expression. Therefore, Fas and FasL are negative regulators of erythropoiesis. Epo-mediated suppression of erythroblast Fas and FasL is a novel stress response pathway that facilitates erythroblast expansion in vivo.
Current Opinion in Hematology. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17414210
In addition to its essential role in baseline erythropoiesis, the hormone erythropoietin drives the erythropoietic response to hypoxic stress. A mechanistic understanding of stress erythropoiesis would benefit multiple clinical settings, and may aid in understanding leukemogenesis.
PLoS Biology. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17896863
Tissue development is regulated by signaling networks that control developmental rate and determine ultimate tissue mass. Here we present a novel computational algorithm used to identify regulatory feedback and feedforward interactions between progenitors in developing erythroid tissue. The algorithm makes use of dynamic measurements of red cell progenitors between embryonic days 12 and 15 in the mouse. It selects for intercellular interactions that reproduce the erythroid developmental process and endow it with robustness to external perturbations. This analysis predicts that negative autoregulatory interactions arise between early erythroblasts of similar maturation stage. By studying embryos mutant for the death receptor FAS, or for its ligand, FASL, and by measuring the rate of FAS-mediated apoptosis in vivo, we show that FAS and FASL are pivotal negative regulators of fetal erythropoiesis, in the manner predicted by the computational model. We suggest that apoptosis in erythroid development mediates robust homeostasis regulating the number of red blood cells reaching maturity.
A Key Commitment Step in Erythropoiesis is Synchronized with the Cell Cycle Clock Through Mutual Inhibition Between PU.1 and S-phase Progression
PLoS Biology. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20877475
Hematopoietic progenitors undergo differentiation while navigating several cell division cycles, but it is unknown whether these two processes are coupled. We addressed this question by studying erythropoiesis in mouse fetal liver in vivo. We found that the initial upregulation of cell surface CD71 identifies developmentally matched erythroblasts that are tightly synchronized in S-phase. We show that DNA replication within this but not subsequent cycles is required for a differentiation switch comprising rapid and simultaneous committal transitions whose precise timing was previously unknown. These include the onset of erythropoietin dependence, activation of the erythroid master transcriptional regulator GATA-1, and a switch to an active chromatin conformation at the β-globin locus. Specifically, S-phase progression is required for the formation of DNase I hypersensitive sites and for DNA demethylation at this locus. Mechanistically, we show that S-phase progression during this key committal step is dependent on downregulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase p57(KIP2) and in turn causes the downregulation of PU.1, an antagonist of GATA-1 function. These findings therefore highlight a novel role for a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in differentiation, distinct to their known function in cell cycle exit. Furthermore, we show that a novel, mutual inhibition between PU.1 expression and S-phase progression provides a "synchromesh" mechanism that "locks" the erythroid differentiation program to the cell cycle clock, ensuring precise coordination of critical differentiation events.
Developmental Control of Apoptosis by the Immunophilin Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-interacting Protein (AIP) Involves Mitochondrial Import of the Survivin Protein
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. May, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21454573
Survivin is a multifunctional protein with essential roles in cell division and inhibition of apoptosis, but the molecular underpinnings of its cytoprotective properties are poorly understood. Here we show that homozygous deletion of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP), a survivin-associated immunophilin, causes embryonic lethality in mice by embryonic day 13.5-14, increased apoptosis of Ter119(-)/CD71(-) early erythropoietic progenitors, and loss of survivin expression in its cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments in vivo. In import assays using recombinant proteins, AIP directly mediated the import of survivin to mitochondria, thus enabling its anti-apoptotic function, whereas a survivin 1-141 mutant that does not bind AIP was not imported to mitochondria and failed to inhibit apoptosis. AIP-directed mitochondrial import of survivin did not affect cell division, was independent of the organelle transmembrane potential, did not require the chaperone Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90), and was inhibited by cytosolic factor(s) present in normal cells. shRNA knockdown of the mitochondrial import receptor Tom20 abolished mitochondrial import of survivin and sensitized tumor cells to apoptosis, whereas silencing of Tom70 had no effect. Therefore, an AIP-Tom20 recognition contributes to cell survival in development and cancer by mediating the mitochondrial import of survivin.
PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21760888
Erythropoiesis maintains a stable hematocrit and tissue oxygenation in the basal state, while mounting a stress response that accelerates red cell production in anemia, blood loss or high altitude. Thus, tissue hypoxia increases secretion of the hormone erythropoietin (Epo), stimulating an increase in erythroid progenitors and erythropoietic rate. Several cell divisions must elapse, however, before Epo-responsive progenitors mature into red cells. This inherent delay is expected to reduce the stability of erythropoiesis and to slow its response to stress. Here we identify a mechanism that helps to offset these effects. We recently showed that splenic early erythroblasts, 'EryA', negatively regulate their own survival by co-expressing the death receptor Fas, and its ligand, FasL. Here we studied mice mutant for either Fas or FasL, bred onto an immune-deficient background, in order to avoid an autoimmune syndrome associated with Fas deficiency. Mutant mice had a higher hematocrit, lower serum Epo, and an increased number of splenic erythroid progenitors, suggesting that Fas negatively regulates erythropoiesis at the level of the whole animal. In addition, Fas-mediated autoregulation stabilizes the size of the splenic early erythroblast pool, since mutant mice had a significantly more variable EryA pool than matched control mice. Unexpectedly, in spite of the loss of a negative regulator, the expansion of EryA and ProE progenitors in response to high Epo in vivo, as well as the increase in erythropoietic rate in mice injected with Epo or placed in a hypoxic environment, lagged significantly in the mutant mice. This suggests that Fas-mediated autoregulation accelerates the erythropoietic response to stress. Therefore, Fas-mediated negative autoregulation within splenic erythropoietic tissue optimizes key dynamic features in the operation of the erythropoietic network as a whole, helping to maintain erythroid homeostasis in the basal state, while accelerating the stress response.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22076376
In the mammalian genome, 5'-CpG-3' dinucleotides are frequently methylated, correlating with transcriptional silencing. Genome-wide demethylation is thought to occur only twice during development, in primordial germ cells and in the pre-implantation embryo. These demethylation events are followed by de novo methylation, setting up a pattern inherited throughout development and modified only at tissue-specific loci. We studied DNA methylation in differentiating mouse erythroblasts in vivo by using genomic-scale reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS). Demethylation at the erythroid-specific β-globin locus was coincident with global DNA demethylation at most genomic elements. Global demethylation was continuous throughout differentiation and required rapid DNA replication. Hence, DNA demethylation can occur globally during somatic cell differentiation, providing an experimental model for its study in development and disease.
Blood. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22086418
Survival signaling by the erythropoietin (Epo) receptor (EpoR) is essential for erythropoiesis and for its acceleration in hypoxic stress. Several apparently redundant EpoR survival pathways were identified in vitro, raising the possibility of their functional specialization in vivo. Here we used mouse models of acute and chronic stress, including a hypoxic environment and β-thalassemia, to identify two markedly different response dynamics for two erythroblast survival pathways in vivo. Induction of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-x(L) is rapid but transient, while suppression of the proapoptotic protein Bim is slower but persistent. Similar to sensory adaptation, however, the Bcl-x(L) pathway "resets," allowing it to respond afresh to acute stress superimposed on a chronic stress stimulus. Using "knock-in" mouse models expressing mutant EpoRs, we found that adaptation in the Bcl-x(L) response occurs because of adaptation of its upstream regulator Stat5, both requiring the EpoR distal cytoplasmic domain. We conclude that survival pathways show previously unsuspected functional specialization for the acute and chronic phases of the stress response. Bcl-x(L) induction provides a "stop-gap" in acute stress, until slower but permanent pathways are activated. Furthermore, pathologic elevation of Bcl-x(L) may be the result of impaired adaptation, with implications for myeloproliferative disease mechanisms.