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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (4)
Articles by Michael J. Barresi in JoVE
Tissue Targeted Embryonic Chimeras: Zebrafish Gastrula Cell Transplantation
Elizabeth R. Deschene, Michael J. Barresi
Department of Biological Sciences, Smith College
Zebrafish cell transplantation enables the combination of genetics and embryology to generate tissue specific chimeras. This video demonstrates gastrula staged cell transplantations that have allowed our lab to investigate the roles of astroglial populations and specific guidance cues during commissure formation in the forebrain.
Other articles by Michael J. Barresi on PubMed
Functional Morphology and Developmental Biology of Zebrafish: Reciprocal Illumination from an Unlikely Couple
Integrative and Comparative Biology. Apr, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 21708714
Functional morphology has benefited greatly from the input of techniques and thinking from other disciplines. This has been especially productive in situations where each discipline has made significant contributions to a particular research topic. A combination of methodologies from functional morphology and developmental biology has allowed us to characterize feeding mechanics of first-feeding larval zebrafish (Danio rerio). Contrary to kinematic patterns commonly seen in adult teleosts, larval zebrafish showed no lateral abduction during the expansive phase of a suction-feeding event. Instead, dorsoventral expansion of the buccal chamber, more typical of patterns seen in primitive fishes, characterized the expansive phase. Moreover, a pronounced preparatory phase during which the buccal chamber is constricted by the protractor hyoideus was consistently seen in first-feeding larval kinematics. Key kinematic variables associated with first feeding correlated significantly with the hydrodynamic regime as measured by the Reynolds number. Using the tools of both functional morphology and developmental biology we have not only determined which cranial muscles are important for successful feeding but also uncovered important physiological differences in muscle structure. Muscles necessary for the rapid dorsoventral expansion of the head are composed primarily of fast-twitch fibers while those involved in more tonic contractions such as hyoid protraction have more slow-twitch muscle fibers. While most evolutionary developmental studies have examined mechanisms responsible for large evolutionary changes in morphology, we propose that the type of data uncovered in functional studies can lead to the generation of hypotheses concerning the developmental mechanisms responsible for smaller intra- and/or interspecific changes.
Developmental Biology. Feb, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12606279
The endocrine-secreting lobe of the pituitary gland, or adenohypophysis, forms from cells at the anterior margin of the neural plate through inductive interactions involving secreted morphogens of the Hedgehog (Hh), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) families. To better understand when and where Hh signaling influences pituitary development, we have analyzed the effects of blocking Hh signaling both pharmacologically (cyclopamine treatments) and genetically (zebrafish Hh pathway mutants). While current models state that Shh signaling from the oral ectoderm patterns the pituitary after placode induction, our data suggest that Shh plays a direct early role in both pituitary induction and patterning, and that early Hh signals comes from adjacent neural ectoderm. We report that Hh signaling is necessary between 10 and 15 h of development for induction of the zebrafish adenohypophysis, a time when shh is expressed only in neural tissue. We show that the Hh responsive genes ptc1 and nk2.2 are expressed in preplacodal cells at the anterior margin of the neural tube at this time, indicating that these cells are directly receiving Hh signals. Later (15-20 h) cyclopamine treatments disrupt anterior expression of nk2.2 and Prolactin, showing that early functional patterning requires Hh signals. Consistent with a direct role for Hh signaling in pituitary induction and patterning, overexpression of Shh results in expanded adenohypophyseal expression of lim3, expansion of nk2.2 into the posterior adenohypophysis, and an increase in Prolactin- and Somatolactin-secreting cells. We also use the zebrafish Hh pathway mutants to document the range of pituitary defects that occur when different elements of the Hh signaling pathway are mutated. These defects, ranging from a complete loss of the adenohypophysis (smu/smo and yot/gli2 mutants) to more subtle patterning defects (dtr/gli1 mutants), may correlate to human Hh signaling mutant phenotypes seen in Holoprosencephaly and other congenital disorders. Our results reveal multiple and distinct roles for Hh signaling in the formation of the vertebrate pituitary gland, and suggest that Hh signaling from neural ectoderm is necessary for induction and functional patterning of the vertebrate pituitary gland.
Hedgehog Regulated Slit Expression Determines Commissure and Glial Cell Position in the Zebrafish Forebrain
Development (Cambridge, England). Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16033800
Three major axon pathways cross the midline of the vertebrate forebrain early in embryonic development: the postoptic commissure (POC), the anterior commissure (AC) and the optic nerve. We show that a small population of Gfap+ astroglia spans the midline of the zebrafish forebrain in the position of, and prior to, commissural and retinal axon crossing. These glial ;bridges' form in regions devoid of the guidance molecules slit2 and slit3, although a subset of these glial cells express slit1a. We show that Hh signaling is required for commissure formation, glial bridge formation, and the restricted expression of the guidance molecules slit1a, slit2, slit3 and sema3d, but that Hh does not appear to play a direct role in commissural and retinal axon guidance. Reducing Slit2 and/or Slit3 function expanded the glial bridges and caused defasciculation of the POC, consistent with a ;channeling' role for these repellent molecules. By contrast, reducing Slit1a function led to reduced midline axon crossing, suggesting a distinct role for Slit1a in midline axon guidance. Blocking Slit2 and Slit3, but not Slit1a, function in the Hh pathway mutant yot (gli2DR) dramatically rescued POC axon crossing and glial bridge formation at the midline, indicating that expanded Slit2 and Slit3 repellent function is largely responsible for the lack of midline crossing in these mutants. This analysis shows that Hh signaling helps to pattern the expression of Slit guidance molecules that then help to regulate glial cell position and axon guidance across the midline of the forebrain.
Developmental Dynamics : an Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20806318
The formation of the central nervous system depends on the coordinated development of neural and glial cell types that arise from a common precursor. Using an existing group of zebrafish mutants generated by viral insertion, we performed a "shelf-screen" to identify genes necessary for astroglial development and axon scaffold formation. We screened 274 of 315 viral insertion lines using antibodies that label axons (anti-Acetylated Tubulin) and astroglia (anti-Gfap) and identified 25 mutants with defects in gliogenesis, glial patterning, neurogenesis, and axon guidance. We also identified a novel class of mutants affecting radial glial cell numbers. Defects in astroglial patterning were always associated with axon defects, supporting an important role for axon-glial interactions during axon scaffold development. The genes disrupted in these viral lines have all been identified, providing a powerful new resource for the study of axon guidance, glio- and neurogenesis, and neuron-glial interactions during development of the vertebrate CNS.