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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (3)
Articles by Michael L. Cardenas in JoVE
Use of an Optical Trap for Study of Host-Pathogen Interactions for Dynamic Live Cell Imaging
Jenny M. Tam1, Carlos E. Castro2, Robert J. W. Heath3, Michael K. Mansour1, Michael L. Cardenas1, Ramnik J. Xavier3, Matthew J. Lang4, Jatin M. Vyas1
1Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 3Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University
A method is described to individually select, manipulate, and image live pathogens using an optical trap coupled to a spinning disk microscope. The optical trap provides spatial and temporal control of organisms and places them adjacent to host cells. Fluorescence microscopy captures dynamic intercellular interactions with minimal perturbation to cells.
Other articles by Michael L. Cardenas on PubMed
TLR9 is Actively Recruited to Aspergillus Fumigatus Phagosomes and Requires the N-terminal Proteolytic Cleavage Domain for Proper Intracellular Trafficking
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21059889
TLR9 recognizes unmethylated CpG DNA and induces innate immune responses. TLR9 activation is a multistep process requiring proteolytic cleavage and trafficking to endolysosomal compartments for ligand-induced signaling. However, the rules that govern the dynamic subcellular trafficking for TLR9 after pathogen uptake have not been established. In this study, we demonstrate that uptake of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia induced drastic spatial redistribution of TLR9 to the phagosomal membrane of A. fumigatus-containing phagosomes but not to bead-containing phagosomes in murine macrophages. Specific TLR9 recruitment to the fungal phagosome was consistent using A. fumigatus spores at different germination stages and selected mutants affecting the display of Ags on the fungal cell surface. Spatiotemporal regulation of TLR9 compartmentalization to the A. fumigatus phagosome was independent of TLR2, TLR4, and downstream TLR signaling. Our data demonstrate that the TLR9 N-terminal proteolytic cleavage domain was critical for successful intracellular trafficking and accumulation of TLR9 in CpG-containing compartments and A. fumigatus phagosomal membranes. Our study provides evidence for a model in which A. fumigatus spore phagocytosis by macrophages specifically induces TLR9 recruitment to A. fumigatus phagosomes and may thereby mediate TLR9-induced antifungal innate immune responses.
Control and Manipulation of Pathogens with an Optical Trap for Live Cell Imaging of Intercellular Interactions
PloS One. 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21217821
The application of live cell imaging allows direct visualization of the dynamic interactions between cells of the immune system. Some preliminary observations challenge long-held beliefs about immune responses to microorganisms; however, the lack of spatial and temporal control between the phagocytic cell and microbe has rendered focused observations into the initial interactions of host response to pathogens difficult. This paper outlines a method that advances live cell imaging by integrating a spinning disk confocal microscope with an optical trap, also known as an optical tweezer, in order to provide exquisite spatial and temporal control of pathogenic organisms and place them in proximity to host cells, as determined by the operator. Polymeric beads and live, pathogenic organisms (Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus) were optically trapped using non-destructive forces and moved adjacent to living cells, which subsequently phagocytosed the trapped particle. High resolution, transmitted light and fluorescence-based movies established the ability to observe early events of phagocytosis in living cells. To demonstrate the broad applicability of this method to immunological studies, anti-CD3 polymeric beads were also trapped and manipulated to form synapses with T cells in vivo, and time-lapse imaging of synapse formation was also obtained. By providing a method to exert fine control of live pathogens with respect to immune cells, cellular interactions can be captured by fluorescence microscopy with minimal perturbation to cells and can yield powerful insight into early responses of innate and adaptive immunity.
The Tetraspanin CD82 is Specifically Recruited to Fungal and Bacterial Phagosomes Prior to Acidification
Infection and Immunity. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21149584
CD82 is a member of the tetraspanin superfamily, whose physiological role is best described in the context of cancer metastasis. However, CD82 also associates with components of the class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigen presentation pathway, including class II MHC molecules and the peptide-loading machinery, as well as CD63, another tetraspanin, suggesting a role for CD82 in antigen presentation. Here, we observe the dynamic rearrangement of CD82 after pathogen uptake by imaging CD82-mRFP1 expressed in primary living dendritic cells. CD82 showed rapid and specific recruitment to Cryptococcus neoformans-containing phagosomes compared to polystyrene-containing phagosomes, similar to CD63. CD82 was also actively recruited to phagosomes containing other pathogenic fungi, including Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Recruitment of CD82 to fungal phagosomes occurred independently of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. Recruitment was not limited to fungi, as bacterial organisms, including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, also induced CD82 recruitment to the phagosome. CD82 intersected the endocytic pathway used by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), implicating CD82 in trafficking of small, pathogen-associated molecules. Despite its partial overlap with lysosomal compartments, CD82 recruitment to C. neoformans-containing phagosomes occurred independently of phagosome acidification. Kinetic analysis of fluorescence imaging revealed that CD82 and class II MHC simultaneously appear in the phagosome, indicating that the two proteins may be associated. Together, these data show that the CD82 tetraspanin is specifically recruited to pathogen-containing phagosomes prior to fusion with lysosomes.